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Encyclopedia > Roanoke Colony
A map of the Roanoke area, by John White
A map of the Roanoke area, by John White

The Roanoke Colony on Roanoke Island in Dare County in present-day North Carolina was an enterprise financed and organized by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 16th century to establish a permanent English settlement in the Virginia Colony. Between 1585 and 1587, groups of colonists were left to make the attempt. After Walter had left to get supplies from England he found out that there was a battle going on over there. The final group disappeared after a period of three years elapsed without supplies from England, leading to the continuing mystery known as "The Lost Colony." It was known that professionals had brought machines and had investigated the whole island and they had taken machines and they tried to x-ray the ground but they still hadn't found anything. The principal hypothesis is that the colonists disappeared and were absorbed by one of the local indigenous populations, although the colonists may possibly have been massacred by the Spanish. Lost Colony may refer to: Roanoke Colony, the first English colony in the New World. ... Image File history File links Roanoke_map_1584. ... Image File history File links Roanoke_map_1584. ... , Roanoke Island is an island in Dare County near the coast of North Carolina, United States. ... Dare County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the sixteenth-century explorer. ... The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony from sea to sea The Virginia Colony refers to the English colony in North America that existed during the 17th and 18th centuries before the American Revolution. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Raleigh receives rights to colonize

Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh
Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh
See also: Anglo-Spanish War

Sir Walter Raleigh had received a charter for the colonization of the area of North America known as Virginia from Queen Elizabeth I of England. The charter specified that Raleigh had ten years in which to establish a settlement in North America or lose his right to colonization. Download high resolution version (1576x1923, 231 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1576x1923, 231 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Five wars between successive British states and Spain are known as Anglo-Spanish Wars: The Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604 was part of the Eighty Years War and included the Spanish Armada, 1588. ... This article is about the sixteenth-century explorer. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony from sea to sea The Virginia Colony refers to the English colony in North America that existed during the 17th and 18th centuries before the American Revolution. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


Raleigh and Elizabeth intended that the venture should provide riches from the New World, and a base from which to send privateers on raids against the treasure fleets of Spain. Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ...


Exploration

In 1584, Raleigh dispatched an expedition to explore the eastern coast of North America for an appropriate location. The expedition was led by Phillip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, who chose the Outer Banks of modern North Carolina as an ideal location from which to raid the Spanish, who had settlements to the South, and proceeded to make contact with local American Indians, the Croatan tribe of the Carolina Algonquians. 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... North Carolinas Outer Banks separating the Atlantic Ocean (east) from Albemarle Sound (north) and Pamlico Sound (south). ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Croatoan Island is an island near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. ... Pamlico The Pamlico (or Pomouik) were a Native American people of North Carolina, U.S.A.. They spoke an Algonquian language also known as Pamlico or Carolina Algonquian. ...


First group of settlers

The following spring, a colonizing expedition composed solely of men, many of them veteran soldiers who had fought to establish English rule in Ireland, was sent to establish the colony. The leader of the settlement effort, Sir Richard Grenville, was assigned to further explore the area, establish the colony, and return to England with news of the venture's success. The establishment of the colony was initially postponed, perhaps because most of the colony's food stores were ruined when the lead ship struck a shoal upon arrival at the Outer Banks. After the initial exploration of the mainland coast and the native settlements located there, the natives in the village of Aquascogoc were blamed for stealing a silver cup. In response the last village visited was sacked and burned, and its weroance (tribal chief) executed by burning.[citation needed] Sir Richard Grenville (June 6, 1542 – September 10, 1591) (sp. ... Look up Shoal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A weroance is a tribal chief, leader, commander, or king, notably among the Powhatan confederacy of the Virginia coast and Chesapeake Bay region. ... Jan Hus burned at the stake Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason, heresy and witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common than hanging, pressing, or drowning as a punishment for witchcraft). ...


Despite this incident and a lack of food, Grenville decided to leave Ralph Lane and approximately 75 men to establish the English colony at the north end of Roanoke Island, promising to return in April 1586 with more men and fresh supplies. Sir Ralph Lane (~1530 - 1603) was an English explorer of the Elizabethan era. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ...


By April 1586, relations with a neighboring tribe had degraded to such a degree that they attacked an expedition led by Lane to explore the Roanoke River and the possibility of the Fountain of Youth. In response he attacked the natives in their capital, where he killed their weroance, Wingina. The Roanoke River is a river in southern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina in the United States, 410 mi (660 km) long. ... For other uses, see Fountain of Youth (disambiguation). ...


As April passed there was no sign of Grenville's relief fleet. The colony was still in existence in June when Sir Francis Drake paused on his way home from a successful raid in the Caribbean, and offered to take the colonists back to England, an offer they accepted. The relief fleet arrived shortly after the departure of Drake's fleet with the colonists. Finding the colony abandoned, Grenville decided to return to England with the bulk of his force, leaving behind a small detachment both to maintain an English presence and to protect Raleigh's claim to Virginia. For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Elizabethan naval commander. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Second group

In 1587, Raleigh dispatched another group of colonists. These 121 colonists were led by John White, an artist and friend of Raleigh's who had accompanied the previous expeditions to Roanoke. The new colonists were tasked with picking up the fifteen men left at Roanoke and settling farther north, in the Chesapeake Bay area; however, no trace of them was found, other than the bones of a single man. The one local tribe still friendly towards the English, the Croatans on present-day Hatteras Island, reported that the men had been attacked, but that nine had survived and sailed up the coast in their boat. A sketch by John White of Indians at Roanoke. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... The Croatan were a Native American tribe living in the coastal areas of what is now North Carolina. ... Hatteras Island is an island in the Atlantic Ocean that runs parallel to the coast of North Carolina, forming a bend at Cape Hatteras. ...


The settlers landed on Roanoke Island on July 22 1587. On August 18, White's daughter delivered the first English child born in the Americas: Virginia Dare. Before her birth, White reestablished relations with the neighboring Croatans and tried to reestablish relations with the tribes that Ralph Lane had attacked a year previously. The aggrieved tribes refused to meet with the new colonists. Shortly thereafter, George Howe was killed by natives while searching for crabs alone in Albemarle Sound. Knowing what had happened during Ralph Lane's tenure in the area and fearing for their lives, the colonists convinced Governor White to return to England to explain the colony's situation and ask for help. There were approximately 116 colonists—115 men and women who made the trans-Atlantic passage and a newborn baby, Virginia Dare, when White returned to England. , Roanoke Island is an island in Dare County near the coast of North Carolina, United States. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Virginia Dare (born August 18, 1587) was the first child born in the Americas to English parents, Eleanor (or Ellinor/Elyonor) and Ananias Dare. ...


Crossing the Atlantic as late in the year as White did was a considerable risk, as evidenced by the claim of pilot Simon Fernandez that their vessel barely made it back to England. Plans for a relief fleet were initially delayed by the captains' refusal to sail back during the winter. Then, the coming of the Spanish Armada led to every able ship in England being commandeered to fight, which left White with no seaworthy vessels with which to return to Roanoke. He did manage, however, to hire two smaller vessels deemed unnecessary for the Armada defense and set out for Roanoke in the spring of 1588. This time, White's attempt to return to Roanoke was foiled by human nature and circumstance; the two vessels were small, and their captains greedy. They attempted to capture several vessels on the outward-bound voyage to improve the profitability of their venture, until they were captured themselves and their cargo taken. With nothing left to deliver to the colonists, the ships returned to England. Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ...


Because of the continuing war with Spain, White was not able to raise another resupply attempt for two more years. He finally gained passage on a privateering expedition that agreed to stop off at Roanoke on the way back from the Caribbean. White landed on August 18, 1590, on his granddaughter's third birthday, but found the settlement deserted. He organized a search, but his men could not find any trace of the colonists. Some ninety men, seventeen women, and eleven children had disappeared; there was no sign of a struggle or battle of any kind. The only clue was the word "Croatoan" carved into a post of the fort and "Cro" carved into a nearby tree. In addition, there were two skeletons buried. All the houses and fortifications were dismantled. Before the colony disappeared, White established that if anything happened to them they would carve a maltese cross on a tree near their location indicating that their disappearance could have been forced. White took this to mean that they had moved to Croatoan Island, but he was unable to conduct a search; a massive storm was brewing and his men refused to go any further. The next day, White stood on the deck of his ship and watched, helplessly, as they left Roanoke Island. West Indies redirects here. ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... Maltese cross The insignia of a Serving Brother of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem The Maltese Cross is featured on the badge of the Bermuda Regiment, heir to the BVRC. Typical St. ... Croatoan Island is an island near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, USA. It is speculated that the Roanoke colonists might have fled there. ...


Hypotheses regarding the disappearance of Roanoke

The end of the 1587 colony is unrecorded (leading to its being known as the "Lost Colony"), and there are multiple hypotheses on the fate of the colonists. The principal hypothesis is that they dispersed and were absorbed by either the local Croatan or Hatteras Indians, or still another Algonquian people; it has yet to be established if they did assimilate with one or other of the native populations. 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Lost counties, cities and towns of Virginia are those which formerly existed in the English Colony of Virginia or the Commonwealth of Virginia after it became a state. ... The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American Native groups, with tribes originally numbering in the hundreds, and hundreds of thousands who still identify with various Algonquian peoples. ...


Tuscarora

In F. Roy Johnson's, "The Lost Colony in Fact and Legend", co-author Thomas C. Parramore wrote;...The evidence that some of the Lost Colonists were still living as late as about 1610 in Tuscarora country is impressive. A map of the interior region of what is now North Carolina, drawn in 1608 by the Jamestown settler Francis Nelson, is the most eloquent testimony to this effect. This document, the so-called "Zuniga Map"[1], reports "4 men clothed that came from roonock" still alive at the town of Pakeriukinick, evidently an Iroquois site on the Neuse." It also goes on to say, "...By 1609 there were reports in London of Englishmen from Roanoke living under a chief called "Gepanocan" and apparently at Pakerikinick, It was said that Gepanocan held four men, two boys, "and a young Maid" (Virginia Dare?) from Roanoke as copperworkers..." // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Tuscarora The Tuscarora are a Native American tribe originally in North Carolina, which moved north to New York, and then partially into Canada. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... Francis Nelson (died April 1932) was a man versed in practically all sports. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... A bridge over the Neuse River at New Bern, where it empties into the Pamlico Sound. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Virginia Dare (born August 18, 1587) was the first child born in the Americas to English parents, Eleanor (or Ellinor/Elyonor) and Ananias Dare. ...

Zuniga Map.jpg
Zuniga Map.jpg

On February 10, 1885, state legislator Hamilton McMillan helped to pass the "Croatan bill," which officially designated the Indian population around Robeson County as Croatan. Two days later on February 12, 1885, the Fayetteville Observer published an article quoting Mr. McMillan regarding the Robeson Indians' origins. This article states "...…They say that their traditions say that the people we call the Croatan Indians (though they do not recognize that name as that of a tribe, but only a village, and that they were Tuscaroras), were always friendly to the whites; and finding them destitute and despairing of ever receiving aid from England, persuaded them to leave the island, and go to the mainland.…They gradually drifted away from their original seats, and at length settled in Robeson, about the center of the county..." Image File history File links Size of this preview: 456 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (686 × 902 pixel, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Francis Nelson Map circa 1607 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 456 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (686 × 902 pixel, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Francis Nelson Map circa 1607 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Robeson County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Croatoan Island is an island near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Fayetteville Observer is a daily newspaper published in Fayetteville, North Carolina. ... Robeson County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ... Croatoan Island is an island near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. ... Languages English, Tuscarora Religions Christianity, others Related ethnic groups Cherokees, other Iroquoian peoples The Tuscarora are an American Indian tribe originally in North Carolina, which moved north to New York, and then partially into Canada. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Person County

A similar legend claims that the Native Americans of Person County, North Carolina, are descended from the English colonists of Roanoke Island. Indeed, when these Indians were last encountered by subsequent settlers, they noted that these Native Americans already spoke English and were of the Christian religion. The historical babies of this group also correspond with those of those who lived on Roanoke Island, and many exhibit European physical features along with Native American features. Others discount these coincidences and classify the settlers of Person County as an offshoot of the Saponi tribe. Person County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... , Roanoke Island is an island in Dare County near the coast of North Carolina, United States. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... , Roanoke Island is an island in Dare County near the coast of North Carolina, United States. ... Whites redirects here. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Person County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ...


Chesepian

Others hypothesize that that the colony moved wholesale, and was later destroyed. When Captain John Smith and the Jamestown colonists settled in Virginia in 1607, one of their assigned tasks was to locate the Roanoke colonists. Native people told Captain Smith of people within fifty miles of Jamestown who dressed and lived as the English. Statue at Jamestown VA, photo Aug 2007 Captain/Sir John Smith (1580–June 21, 1631), was an English soldier, sailor, and author. ... At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbour. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Year 1607 (MDCVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ...


The weroance Chief Wahunsunacock (better-known as Chief Powhatan) also told Captain Smith of the Virginia Peninsula-based Powhatan Confederacy, and that he had wiped out the Roanoke colonists just prior to the arrival of the Jamestown settlers because they were living with the Chesepian, a tribe living in the eastern portion of the present-day South Hampton Roads sub-region which had refused to join his Powhatan Confederacy. Archaeological evidence found at Great Neck Point in present-day Virginia Beach at a Chesepian village site suggests that the Chesepian tribe was related to the Carolina Algonquins, rather than the Powhatans. A weroance is a tribal chief, leader, commander, or king, notably among the Powhatan confederacy of the Virginia coast and Chesapeake Bay region. ... The Powhatan (also spelled Powatan and Powhaten) were a very powerful confederacy of Native American tribes, speaking an Algonquian language, who lived in what is now Virginia at the time of the first English-Native encounters. ... Chief Powhatan (detail of map published by John Smith (1612) Chief Powhatan ( 1547— 1618) , whose proper name was Wahunsenacawh or (in seventeenth century English spelling) Wahunsunacock, was the leader of the Powhatan (also spelled Powatan and Powhaten), a powerful tribe of Native Americans, speaking an Algonquian language, who lived in... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. ... The Powhatan (also spelled Powatan and Powhaten) were a very powerful tribe of Native Americans, speaking an Algonquian language, who lived in what is now Virginia at the time of the first European-Native encounters. ... Chesepian were Native American (American Indian) inhabitants of the area now know as South Hampton Roads in Virginia during the Woodland Period and later prior to the arrival of the English settlers in 1607. ... South Hampton Roads is a region located in the extreme southeastern portion of Virginia in the United States. ... Great Neck Point is a point of land and neighborhood in Virginia Beach, Virginia on the Lynnhaven River. ... Part of the Virginia Beach oceanfront resort strip. ... The Pamlico were a Native American people of North Carolina, U.S.A.. They spoke Algonquian. ...


Chief Powhatan reportedly produced several English-made iron implements to back his claim. No bodies were found, although there were reports of an Indian burial mound in the Pine Beach area of Sewell's Point in present day Norfolk, where the principal Chesepian village of Skioak may have been located. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Pine Beach is a Borough in Ocean County, New Jersey, United States. ... Hampton Roads, Virginia 1858 Sewells Point is a peninsula of land in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States, located at the mouth of the salt-water port of Hampton Roads. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ...


This hypothesis is somewhat contradicted because, according to William Strachey's The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britanica (1612), the Chesepians were eliminated because Powhatan's priests had warned him that from the Chesapeake Bay a nation should arise, which should dissolve and give end to his empire. Strachey, who arrived in the Virginia Colony in May 1610 with the Third Supply, was well aware of the mystery of the Roanoke colonists, but made no mention of them in conjunction with his writings about the fate of the Chesepian at the hands of the indians. William Strachey (1572-1621) was an English writer and barrister, whose writings are among the primary sources for the history the English colonization of North America, and as one of the only narratives describing Powhatan society. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony from sea to sea The Virginia Colony refers to the English colony in North America that existed during the 17th and 18th centuries before the American Revolution. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... The Third Supply was the first truly successful wave of colonization, in the first British settlement in the Americas; Jamestown, Virginia. ...


Lost at sea, starvation

Still others speculate that the colonists simply gave up waiting, tried to return to England on their own, and perished in the attempt. When Governor White left in 1587, he left the colonists with a pinnace and several small ships for exploration of the coast or removal of the colony to the mainland. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... A pinnace is a light boat, propelled by sails or oars, formerly used as a tender for guiding merchant and war vessels. ...


Another claim suggests that, with the region in drought, the colony must have suffered a massive food shortage.


Spanish

There are those who hypothesize that the fan had Spanish destroyed the colony. Earlier in the century, the Spanish had destroyed evidence of the French colony of Fort Charles in southern South Carolina and then massacred Fort Caroline, the French colony near present-day Jacksonville, Florida. The theory however is unlikely since the Spanish were still looking for the location of England's failed colony as late as 1600, ten years after White discovered that the colony was missing.[2] [3] [4][5] Fort Charles is an old British fort on the island of St. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Fort Caroline shown in an old etching Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. ... The Jacksonville skyline and the Acosta Bridge. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Archaeological evidence

16th-century signet ring in the Croatoan Archaeological Site Collection, Special Collections Department, J. Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA.
16th-century signet ring in the Croatoan Archaeological Site Collection, Special Collections Department, J. Y. Joyner Library, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA.

In 1998, East Carolina University organized "The Croatoan Project", an archaeological investigation into the events at Roanoke. The excavation team sent to the island uncovered a 10 carat (42%) gold 16th century English signet ring, a flintlock musket, and two 16th century copper farthings at the site of the ancient Croatoan capital, 50 miles (80 km) from the old Roanoke colony. Genealogists were able to trace the lion crest on the signet ring to the Kendall coat of arms, and concluded that the ring most likely belonged to one "Master" Kendall who is recorded as having lived in the Ralph Lane colony on Roanoke Island from 1585 to 1586. If this is the case, the ring represents the first material connection between the Roanoke colonists and the Native Americans on Hatteras Island. [6] [7] [8] Image File history File links Signet_ring. ... Image File history File links Signet_ring. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... East Carolina University is a public, coeducational, intensive research university located in Greenville, North Carolina, United States. ... A signet is a seal used to authenticate a document, typically by leaving an impression in sealing wax. ... Flintlock of an 18th Century hunting rifle, with piece of flint missing. ... Farthing is an old word meaning a fourth or a quarter. ... Sir Ralph Lane (~1530 - 1603) was an English explorer of the Elizabethan era. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ...


Lost Colony DNA Project

A new effort is underway by the Lost Colony Center for Science and Research to use DNA testing to prove or disprove that some Lost Colony survivors assimilated with the local Indian tribes either through adoption or enslavement. A large percentage of the surnames do exist among these tribes. Additionally deeds and wills have been discovered to bear this theory out. The Lost Colony DNA Project will attempt to locate and test as many possible descendants as possible. Testing is also planned for some ancient remains. The subject of this article may not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...


Climate factors

Also in 1998, a team led by climatologist David W. Stahle, of the University of Arkansas, Department of Geography, in Fayetteville, Arkansas, and archaeologist Dennis B. Blanton, of the Center for Archaeological Research at The College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, used tree ring cores from 800-year-old bald cypresses taken from the Roanoke Island area of North Carolina and the Jamestown area of Virginia to reconstruct precipitation and temperature chronologies. Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. ... The University of Arkansas is a public co-educational land-grant university. ... Fayetteville is a college town in Washington County, Arkansas, USA and home to the University of Arkansas. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... , Roanoke Island is an island in Dare County near the coast of North Carolina, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbour. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The researchers concluded that the settlers of the Lost Colony landed at Roanoke Island in the summer of the worst growing-season drought in 800 years. "This drought persisted for 3 years, from 1587 to 1589, and is the driest 3-year episode in the entire 800-year reconstruction," the team reported in the journal Science. A map shows that "the Lost Colony drought affected the entire southeastern United States but was particularly severe in the Tidewater region near Roanoke [Island]." The authors suggested that the Croatan who were shot and killed by the colonists may have been scavenging the abandoned village for food as a result of the drought. [9] [10] , Roanoke Island is an island in Dare County near the coast of North Carolina, United States. ... 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Croatoan Island is an island near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. ...


Symphonic drama

Written by Pulitzer Prize winning playwright Paul Green in 1937 to commemorate the 350th anniversary of the birth of Virginia Dare, the first English child born in the New World, The Lost Colony is an epic outdoor drama combining music, dance, and acting to tell a fictional recounting of the ill-fated Roanoke Colony. It has played at Waterside Theater at Fort Raleigh National Historic Site on Roanoke Island during the summer months near-continuously since that time with the only interruption being World War II. Alumni of the cast who have gone on to fame include Andy Griffith, who played Sir Walter Raleigh; William Ivey Long, Chris Elliott; Terrence Mann; and Daily Show correspondent Dan Bakkedahl. The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... Paul Green, 1941 For the musician depicted in the documentary Rock School, see Paul Green (musician) and for the Australian rugby league player, see Paul Green (rugby league). ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Virginia Dare (born August 18, 1587) was the first child born in the Americas to English parents, Eleanor (or Ellinor/Elyonor) and Ananias Dare. ... Image:LostColonyPlay. ... Fort Raleigh National Historic Site preserves the location of the first English settlement in North America. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Not to be confused with Andy Griffiths. ... Alternatively, Professor Walter Raleigh was a scholar and author circa 1900. ... William Ivey Long is an American 5-time Tony Award-winning costume designer for mainly Broadway plays and musicals including his most notable work on The Producers, Hairspray, Nine, Crazy for You and his newest Tony-winning work on Grey Gardens. ... Chris Elliott (born May 31, 1960 in New York City) is an American comedian and the son of comedian Bob Elliott. ... Terrence Mann (born Terrance Vaughan Mann on July 1, 1951 in Kentucky) is a prominent singer and actor who has dominated the Broadway stage for the past two decades. ... Stephen Colbert and Jon Stewart on the set of The Daily Show The Daily Show (currently The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, also known as TDS to fans and staffers) is a half-hour satirical fake news program produced by and run on the Comedy Central cable television network in... Dan Bakkedahl Dan Bakkedahl (born 1970) is an American improvisor, actor and teacher from Chicago. ...


References in popular culture

Television

On an episode of the CW program Supernatural entitled "Croatoan," an alternate reason is given for the disappearance of the colony. In this show it is attributed to a demonic virus which renders the host unable to make decisions for themselves and causes them to become bent on spreading the virus and harming those who would try to resist. After the day ended, all infectees, like in Roanoke Island, disappeared.
CW may stand for: The CW Television Network (colloquially The CW), a television network which launched in September 2006 as a merger of both the UPN and The WB networks. ... This article is about the US TV series. ... Croatoan is episode nine of the second season of the television series Supernatural. ...


In episode 310 of Babylon 5, one of the EarthForce destroyers is named the Roanoke. Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... EarthForce is the military branch of the Earth Alliance, Earths governing body in the fictional Babylon 5 universe. ...


The NBC series Earth 2 featured several references to the Lost Colony: main character Devon Adair's last name is a sound-alike with A. Dare; the operations crew jackets bore the id "VA-1587" (the postal abbreviation for Virginia and the year in which the final group of colonists arrived); and the colony ship the characters arrive in is called the Roanoke. This article is about the television network. ... Earth 2 is a short-lived science fiction television series which aired on NBC from November 6, 1994 to June 4, 1995. ... Ananias Dare (c. ...


The first episode of the 2000 Fox series, FreakyLinks, entitled "Fearsum" deals with the disappearance of the Roanoke Colony. This episode states there are two reasons for the colony's disappearance, the official and the "unofficial". The official reason is the colony ran out of supplies and relocated to the Croatoan Island, with the unofficial being an evil spirit being born into John White's granddaughter, Virginia Dare. The evil spirit killed everybody in the colony during the three years between White's last voyage and when he discovered the colony to be empty. Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Fox Broadcasting Company, usually referred to as just Fox (the company itself prefers the capitalized version FOX), is a television network in the United States. ... FreakyLinks was an American television show that combined elements of horror, mystery, and comedy. ...


The TV miniseries Storm of the Century, written by Stephen King, alludes to the mystery of the Lost Colony, claiming that the Demon in the story, Andre Linoge, had demanded a child from the Roanoke colonists to raise as his heir. The colonists refused, and the demon forced them to walk into the Atlantic Ocean and commit suicide. Storm of the Century is a 1999 horror TV miniseries written by Stephen King and directed by Craig R. Baxley. ... For other persons named Stephen King, see Stephen King (disambiguation). ...


Made for TV movie "Wraith of Roanoke" first aired 10/13/07 - See more under FILM


Fictional literature

In the novel "IT", also written by Stephen King, the colony is referenced in relation to a similar, fictional mystery of a missing settlement occurring in the novel's main setting, Derry, Maine. It is a horror novel by Stephen King, published in 1986. ... Derry, Maine is a fictional town used by Stephen King as the setting for a number of his novels, novellas, and short stories. ...


Harlan Ellison's 1975 short story "Croatoan" describes a subterranean colony of aborted fetuses. Harlan Jay Ellison (born May 27, 1934) is a prolific American writer of short stories, novellas, teleplays, essays, and criticism. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In this short story by Harlan Ellison, the narrator is forced by a hysterical girlfriend to go into the sewers to find her aborted child, which he had just flushed into New Yorks sewers. ...


The Dean Koontz novel Phantoms makes reference to the Lost Colony, insomuch as the ancient evil in the novel was credited with the massive disappearance of the people in Roanoke and other such mysteries. Dean Ray Koontz (born July 9, 1945 in Everett, Pennsylvania), also known under a number of pseudonyms, including Leigh Nichols, is an American writer. ... Phantoms is the third album by British new wave band The Fixx, released in 1984 (see 1984 in music). ...


A recent novel, Rising Shore Roanoke [11] by Deborah Homsher tells the story of the Lost Colony through the voices of two women, Elenor Dare, daughter of John White, and her servant, Margaret Lawrence. Elenor Dare was mother of Virginia Dare, said to be the first English child born in North America. The name "Margaret Lawrence" appeared on John White's company list. The Rising Shore - Roanoke is a novel about The Lost Colony by Deborah Homsher. ...


The series "Blue Bloods" by Melissa de la Cruz blames the Roanoke disappearance on rampant vampires.


In Tales of the Slayer vol. 1, the disappearance is blamed of Vampires (called Walkers in the books) and lack of a trained Slayer. Note: This is not to be confused with Tales of the Slayers Graphic Novel. ...


In the novel "Dare" by Philip Jose Farmer, the colonists of Roanoke, including the child Virginia Dare were kidnapped by extraterrestrials and taken to a planet circling Tau Ceti; the book describes the adventures of some of their descendants, 500 years later. Philip José Farmer (born January 26, 1918) is an American author, principally known for his science fiction and fantasy novels and short stories. ... Virginia Dare (born August 18, 1587) was the first child born in the Americas to English parents, Eleanor (or Ellinor/Elyonor) and Ananias Dare. ... Extraterrestrial life refers to forms of life that may exist and originate outside of the planet Earth. ... Tau Ceti (Ï„ Cet / Ï„ Ceti) is a star commonly mentioned by science fiction authors since it is similar to the Sun in mass and spectral type in addition to being relatively close to us. ...


The novel The Last Colony by John Scalzi is about colonists settling a world named Roanoke that then becomes "lost". The Last Colony is the third book by John Scalzi set in the Old Mans War universe. ... John Michael Scalzi II (born May 10, 1969) is an author and online writer, best known for his Hugo Award-nominated science fiction novel Old Mans War, released by Tor Books in January 2005, and for his blog Whatever, at which he has written daily on a number of...


In Blue Blood the novel by Melissa De La Cruz the vampires were said to have come to America as colonists and this "lost colony" was said to be one of the main groups that crossed over from england. Blue (from Old High German blao shining) is one of the three primary additive colors; blue light has the shortest wavelength (about 470 nm) of the three primary colors. ...


In The Zombie Survival Guide by Max Brooks the colony was supposedly destroyed by zombies after a Solanum infected hunting party returns. The Zombie Survival Guide, published in 2003, is a fictional survival manual that deals with the potentiality of an undead attack. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Comics

In DC Comics, Roanoke was visited by Melmoth, a future king, who had been exiled in the past. Using inherent magic, he trapped the entire town and impregnated all the women. Believing they had been cursed by the Devil, the women and their half-human children burrowed underground and founded Limbo Town, based on their original society and their preconceptions of witchcraft. DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Melmoth the Wanderer is a gothic novel written by Charles Robert Maturin Melmoth, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa is a small town in zululand. ...


In the Marvel Comics 1602 Universe (see Marvel 1602#New World), the Roanoke Colony serves as the location for the entire New World miniseries. In this parallel universe, the Roanoke colony survives, and becomes home to alternate 17th Century versions of many Marvel characters. This article is about the comic book company. ... Marvel 1602 is an eight-issue Marvel comic limited series, published in 2003, written by Neil Gaiman, illustrated by Andy Kubert, and digitally painted by Richard Isanove. ... Parallel universe or alternate reality in science fiction and fantasy is a self-contained separate reality coexisting with our own. ...


In the DC Comics/Image Comics crossover event Batman/Spawn: War Devil, the colony's disappearance is attributed to a demon named Croatoan who sacrificed one hundred colonists of Roanoke in an effort to appease hell.


In the DC Comics/Vertigo series 100 Bullets, the mysterious carving "croatoa" found at the site of the lost colony is used to activate dormant Minute Men. The Minute Men are a group, led by Agent Graves, who police the families of The Trust, which was responsible for the destruction of the Roanoke Colony. The plan was carried out by the first group of Minute Men formed by The Trust to punish Queen Elizabeth I for not accepting their offer of peace with the monarchies of Europe. In exchange for this The Trust would receive control of the Americas thus ensuring their own empire beyond anything a crown could achieve. In issue #50 of 100 Bullets, Minute Man Victor Ray recounts the story of Lost Colony's fate and the hidden significance of the word "Croatoa" to The Trust and its agents. 100 Bullets is an Eisner and Harvey Award-winning comic book written by Brian Azzarello and illustrated by Eduardo Risso. ...


In Melissa De La Cruz's Blue Blood series "Croatan" mean "Silver Blood"(a vampire who feeds on other vampires).


Film

The dramatic feature, "The Legend of Two Path" (1998), recounts the arrival of the English settlers from the viewpoint of the Native Americans of Roanoke Island in 1584. Initially the Algonquians welcomed the English, but soon their opposing views became apparent. Conflict and disease led to a profound change in the Native American world. The challenge of the two cultures meeting is explored in this fictional drama based on fact, with a Native American cast portraying the Algonquian characters of Manteo, Wanchese and Skyco (Two Path). Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... , Roanoke Island is an island in Dare County near the coast of North Carolina, United States. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


The film was produced by Sam L Grogg and the North Carolina School of the Arts, and directed by Harrison Engle. Presented in large-screen format, "The Legend of Two Path" plays several times a day in the Film Theater at Roanoke Island Festival Park. An arts conservatory of international renown, the North Carolina School of the Arts was the first state-supported, residential school of its kind in the nation. ...


The 2004 crime thriller Mindhunters makes reference to the Roanoke Colony's disappearance. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mindhunters is a 2004 crime thriller, directed by Renny Harlin and written by Wayne Kramer and Kevin Brodbin (with an uncredited rewrite by Ehren Kruger). ...


Roanoke The Lost Colony is an independent feature film produced in the UK. The film follows the story of the first English settlement on American soil at Roanoke Island in 1587, when mysteriously all 117 of the colonists vanished without a trace. The film is believed to be shot for under £10,000 and was made exclusively by university students[citation needed]. 1587 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


On October 13, 2007, the Sci-Fi Channel aired their made-for-TV film, Wraiths of Roanoke' 'with encore showings. Premise: The film offers up the theory that the Lost Colony was destroyed by demonic Wraiths. Disappearance of colonists stems from their encounters with these trapped Viking souls or Wraiths, who being unable to ascend to Valhalla, thereby terrorized the colonists. In this version, all of the colonists are killed, save for Virginia Dare, who is taken in by the Croatans at the end of the film. Film mixes both actual facts (birth of Virginia Dare, colonist attacks on mainland Native Americans, food shortage, carving on tree discovered by supply ship, etc.) with the supernatural 'what if....' dramatizations. Cast includes veteran science fiction actor Adrian Paul ("War of the Worlds", "Highlander", "Dark Shadows", ...) as Ananias Dare, son-in-law of the Colony’s absent Governor and father of Virginia.


Other cultural references

Former North Carolina State Senator, Charles E. Whitmeyer (1918-1975) was given the nickname "Croatan" after he invented one of the first child leashes and stated: "No More will we have generations of Lost Children."[1] Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Charles E. Whitmeyer (1918-1975) Charles E. Croatan Whitmeyer (April 17, 1918-March 27, 1975) was an illiterate undertaker, bootlegger, inventor, turned state legislator from North Carolina. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the online video game City of Heroes, Croatoa is a mid-level city zone inhabited by supernatural denizens. Roanoke is mentioned briefly. City of Heroes (CoH) is a massively multiplayer online role-playing computer game based on the superhero comic book genre, developed by Cryptic Studios and published by NCsoft. ...


In 2006, author Clint Krause wrote and published a role-playing game called Roanoke, in which the players can explore what might have happened with the colony. Game rules are based on the Wushu system. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... Wushu is a free but copyright protected universal role-playing game which was written by Dan Bayn. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Charles E. Whitmeyer, North Carolina Encyclopedia of Politics, General Assembly Press, Raleigh North Carolina, 1977.

References

  • Hariot, Thomas, John White and John Lawson (1999). A Vocabulary of Roanoke. Evolution Publishing: Merchantville, NJ. ISBN 1-889758-81-7.  This volume contains practically everything known about the Croatan language spoken on Roanoke Island.
  • Milton, Giles (2000). Big Chief Elizabeth. Farrar, Straus and Giroux: New York. ISBN 0374265011.  Critically acclaimed account, based on contemporary travel accounts from 1497-1611, of attempts to establish a colony in the Roanoke area.

Merchantville highlighted in Camden County Merchantville is a borough located in Camden County, New Jersey. ... This article is about the state. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony - History (900 words)
James, in fact, clearly intended the Roanoke Island colony to be a permanent settlement, a model that would be emulated throughout the South.
Work in the colony presented Northern missionary teachers from the American Missionary Association and the New York branch of the National Freedman’s Relief Association with a grand opportunity to put into practice ideas about abolition and evangelicalism that had been simmering in New England for almost forty years.
The colony was a trial run for some significant ideas-free universal public education, small freeholding, wage labor-that could have drastically altered society and culture in late nineteenth-century North Carolina and the South in general.
Roanoke Colony - Search Results - MSN Encarta (180 words)
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