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Encyclopedia > Road transport
Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours.
Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours.

Road transport (British English) or road transportation (American English) is transport on roads, i.e. most transport over land which is not rail transport in the wide sense. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 176 KB)Traffic jam Source: U.S. Census Bureau Source: U.S. Census Bureau Public Information Office (301) 763-3030 Last Revised: July 07, 2003 at 10:19:32 AM Public domain government data. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 176 KB)Traffic jam Source: U.S. Census Bureau Source: U.S. Census Bureau Public Information Office (301) 763-3030 Last Revised: July 07, 2003 at 10:19:32 AM Public domain government data. ... In many parts of the world traffic is generally organized, flowing in lanes of travel for a particular direction, with interchanges, traffic signals, or signage at intersections to facilitate the orderly and timely flow of traffic. ... British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate the form of the English language used in the United Kingdom from other forms of the English language used elsewhere. ... American English (AmE) is the dialect of the English language used mostly in the United States of America. ... A typical rural county road in Indiana, USA, where traffic drives on the right. ... Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ...


A hybrid of road transport and ship transport is the historic horse-drawn boat. Ship Transport is the process of moving people, goods, etc. ... A horse-drawn boat or tow-boat is a historic boat operating on a canal, pulled by a horse walking on a special road along the canal, the tow-path. ...

Contents


History

Early Transport

The first forms of road transport were horses or oxen carrying goods over dirt tracks that often followed game trails. As commerce increased, the tracks were often flattened or widened to accommodate the activities. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The Horse (Equus caballus) is a sizeable ungulate mammal, one of the ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ...


Roman Roads

With the advent of the Roman Empire, there was a need for armies to be able to travel quickly from one area to another, and the roads that existed were often muddy, which greatly delayed the movement of large masses of troops. To resolve this issue, the Romans built great roads. The Roman roads used deep roadbeds of crushed stone as a underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from the crushed stone, instead of becoming mud in clay soils. The legions made good time on these roads and some are still used millennia later. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation) The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Augustus), until its radical reformation in what was later to be known as the Byzantine... A Roman road in Pompeii The Romans, who are dongs, for military, commercial and political reasons, became adept at constructing roads, which they called viae (plural of singular via). ...


On the more heavily traveled routes, there were additional layers that included six sided capstones, or pavers, that reduced the dust and reduced the drag from wheels. The pavers allowed the Roman chariots to travel very quickly, ensuring good communication with the Roman provinces. Farm roads were often paved first on the way into town, to keep produce clean. Early forms of springs and shocks to reduce the bumps were incorporated in horse drawn transport, as the original pavers were sometimes not perfectly aligned. For a solid object moving through a fluid or gas, drag is the sum of all the aerodynamic or hydrodynamic forces in the direction of the external fluid flow. ... A driving wheel on a steam locomotive. ... Springs A spring is a flexible elastic object used to store mechanical energy. ...

image:title_transport.jpg
This article is part
of the Transport series
Modes...

Animal-powered
Aviation
Human-powered
Ship
Rail
Road Transport title, both photos from sxc. ... (Non-human) animal-powered transport is a broad category of the human use of non-human animals (also known as beasts of burden) for the movement of people and goods. ... ... Human-powered transport is the movement of people (locomotion) and goods through their own power, or the power of other humans. ... Ship Transport is the process of moving people, goods, etc. ... Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ...

See also...
Topics | Portal

This is a list of transport related topics. ...

Industrial Revolution

With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, steam powered engines were developed, but most were too heavy for common roads, and were implemented on railroads, where the weight could be isolated to supporting rails, which also reduced the friction or drag. Of notable interest is that common British rail gauge is the same width as the Roman chariot wheelbase, as that was the common width for carts ever since. The Industrial Revolution was the major technological, socioeconomic and cultural change in the late 18th and early 19th century resulting from the replacement of an economy based on manual labour to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture. ... In physical chemistry and in engineering, steam refers to vaporized water. ... Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Friction is the force that opposes the relative motion or tendency of such motion of two surfaces in contact. ...


Tarmac

At the time of the Industrial Revolution, and because of the increased commerce that came with it, improved roadways became imperative. The problem was rain combined with dirt roads created commerce-miring mud. A Scotsman named McAdam designed the first modern highways. He developed an inexpensive paving material of soil and stone aggregate (aptly known as macadam), and he embanked roads a few feet higher than the surrounding terrain to cause water to drain away from the surface (and hence the birth of the term highway.) When his substance was tarred to reduce erosion, it became known as tarmacadam, or tarmac. Tarmac, a portmanteau for tar-penetration macadam, is a type of highway pavement no longer commonly used. ...


Pneumatic Tires

As the horse-drawn carriage was replaced by the car and lorry or truck, and speeds increased, the need for smoother roads and less vertical displacement became more apparent, and pneumatic tires were developed to decrease the apparent roughness. A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ... Lorry Look up Lorry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Can mean: A truck, in the sense of a commercial large goods vehicle. ... The driver of this DAF tractor with an auto-transport semi-trailer prepares to offload Skoda Octavia cars in Cardiff, Wales For further uses of the word truck, see Truck (disambiguation). ... Firestone tire A tire (U.S. spelling) or tyre (UK spelling) is a roughly toroidal piece of material placed on the circumference of a wheel, either for the purpose of cushioning or to protect the wheel from wear and tear. ...


Toll Roads in the United States

A toll road in the United States is often called a turnpike. The term turnpike may have originated from the turnstile or gate which blocked passage until the fare was paid at a toll house (or toll booth in current terminology). A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ...


History, funding through tolls

Companies were formed to build, improve, and maintain a particular section of roadway, and tolls were collected from users to finance the enterprise. The enterprise was usually named to indicate the locale of its roadway, often including the name of one of both of the termini. The word turnpike came into common use in the names of these roadways and companies, and is essentially used interchangeably with toll road in current terminology.


In the United States, toll roads began with the Lancaster Turnpike in the 1790s, within Pennsylvania, connecting Philadelphia and Lancaster. State nickname: The Keystone State Official languages None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Governor Ed Rendell (D) Senators Arlen Specter (R) Rick Santorum (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 33rd 119,283 km² 2. ... Independence Hall, as it appears today. ... Lancaster is a city located in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. ...


In New York State, the Great Western Turnpike was started in Albany in 1799 and eventually extended, by several alternate routes, to near what is now Syracuse, New York. State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... The Great Western Turnpike was a series of toll roads that crossed part of New York State from east to west. ... Motto: Nickname: Location in Albany County, New York Founded Incorporated 1614 1686  County Albany County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor Gerald D. Jennings Area  - Total  - Water 56. ... Clinton Square in Downtown Syracuse Syracuse is an American city in Central New York. ...


Toll roads peaked in the mid 19th century, and by the turn of the twentieth century most toll roads were taken over by state highway departments. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


With the development, mass production, and popular embrace of the automobile, faster and higher capacity roads were needed. In the 1920s limited access highways appeared. Their main characteristics were dual roadways with access points limited to (but not always) grade-separated interchanges. Their dual roadways allowed high volumes of traffic, the need for no or few traffic lights along with relatively gentle grades and curves allowed higher speeds. Bicyclists also campaigned for good roads early on. In many parts of the world traffic is generally organized, flowing in lanes of travel for a particular direction, with interchanges, traffic signals, or signage at intersections to facilitate the orderly and timely flow of traffic. ... Traffic lights can have several additional lights for filter turns or bus lanes. ...


The first limited access highways were Parkways, so called because of their often park-like landscaping and, in the metropolitan New York City area, they connected the region's system of parks. When the German Autobahns built in the 1930s introduced higher design standards and speeds, road planners and road-builders in the United States started developing and building toll roads to similar high standards. The Pennsylvania Turnpike, which largely followed the path of a partially-built railroad, was the first, opening in 1940. Landscaping can refer to more than one subject: Real estate on large scale, see Landscape architecture Gardening on a large or small scale, see Landscape gardening Artwork, see Landscape painting Maintenance, see Landscape maintenance This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... The construction of the Empire State Building, 1930. ... The German and Austrian autobahn sign The Swiss autobahn sign Autobahn (pronounced in IPA) is the German word for a major high-speed road confined to motor vehicles and having full control of access, similar to a motorway or freeway in English-speaking countries. ... The Pennsylvania Turnpike is a toll highway system in the state of Pennsylvania, USA. The turnpike system encompasses 531 miles (855 km) in three distinct sections. ...


After 1940 with the Pennsylvania Turnpike, toll roads saw a resurgence, this time to fund limited access highways. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, after World War II interrupted the evolution of the highway, the US resumed building toll roads. They were to still higher standards and one road, the New York State Thruway, had standards that became the prototype for the U.S. Interstate Highway System. Several other major toll-roads which connected with the Pennsylvania Turnpike were established before the creation of the Interstate Highway System. These were the Indiana Toll Road, Ohio Turnpike, and New Jersey Turnpike. The Pennsylvania Turnpike is a toll highway system in the state of Pennsylvania, USA. The turnpike system encompasses 531 miles (855 km) in three distinct sections. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as the largest and deadliest... NY Thruway Sign The New York State Thruway (officially the Thomas E. Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll highway in the U.S. state of New York. ... Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ... The Indiana Toll Road, or more officially the Northern Indiana East-West Toll Road, is a limited access, divided highway in the extreme north of Indiana. ... The Ohio Turnpike (officially the James W. Shocknessy Ohio Turnpike) is a publicly-built toll east-west expressway across northern Ohio. ... A toll ticket for the New Jersey Turnpike. ...


Interstate Highway System

By 1956, most limited access highways in the eastern United States were toll roads. In that year, the federal Interstate highway program was established, funding non-toll roads with 90% federal dollars and 10% state match, giving little incentive for states to expand their turnpike system. Funding rules initially restricted collections of tolls on newly funded roadways, bridges, and tunnels. In some situations, expansion or rebuilding of a toll facility using Interstate Highway Program funding resulted in the removal of existing tolls. This occurred in Virginia on Interstate 64 at the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel when a second parallel roadway to the regional 1958 bridge-tunnel was completed in 1976. Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ... State nickname: Old Dominion Official languages English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner (D) Tim Kaine (D-Governor Elect) Senators John Warner (R) George Allen (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 7. ... Interstate 64 is an Interstate Highway in the eastern United States. ... Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel (HRBT) is the 3. ... Aerial view of parallel trestles and one of four man-made islands which anchor tunnel portions of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel in Virginia, longest in the world A bridge-tunnel is a water crossing facility which uses a combination of bridge and tunnel structures. ...


Since the completion of the initial portion of the interstate highway system, regulations were changed, and portions of toll facilities have been added to the system. Some states are again looking at toll financing for new roads and maintenance, to supplement limited federal funding. In some areas, new road projects have been completed with public-private partnerships funded by tolls, such as the Pocahontas Parkway near Richmond, Virginia, which features a costly high level bridge over the shipping channel of the James River and connects Interstate 95 with Interstate 295 (Virginia) to the south of the city. Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ... Pocahontas Parkway (also known as Virginia State Highway 895) is a toll road near Richmond, Virginia. ... Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States of America. ... The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 547. ... Interstate 95 (abbreviated I-95) is an interstate highway that runs 1907 miles (3070 kilometers) north-south along the east coast of the United States. ... Interstate 295 (abbreviated I-295) is an eastern bypass of Richmond and Petersburg as well as a northern bypass of Richmond. ...


YOUR MOM


Toll Avoidance

The practice of selecting routes so as to avoid tolls is called shunpiking. This may be simply to avoid the expense, as a form of economic protest (or boycott), or simply to seek a road less traveled as a bucolic interlude. The term shunpiking comes from the word shun, meaning to avoid, and pike, a term referring to turnpikes, which were roads which required payment of a toll to travel on them. ... A boycott is a refusal to buy, sell, or otherwise trade with an individual or business who is generally believed by the participants in the boycott to be doing something morally wrong. ...


Interstate Highway system in U.S.

In the United States, beginning in 1956, Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System was built. It uses 12 foot (3.65m) lanes, wide medians, a maximum of 4% grade, and full access control, though many sections don't meet these standards due to older construction or constraints. This system created a continental-sized network meant to connect every population center of 50,000 people or more. Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ...


Road Trains

The least populated and most remote states of Australia have huge truck trailer combinations called road trains. Most road trains transport cattle on the long gravel beef roads of the isolated interior. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Road - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1794 words)
In the context of sea transport, a road is an anchorage.
Engineered roads in the age of horse drawn transport aimed for a maximum gradient of 1 in 30 on a macadamized surface since this was the steepest a horse could exert to pull a load up hill which it could manage easily on the flat.
Roads (except those on private property not accessible to the general public) are typically paid for by taxes (often raised through levies on fuel), though some public roads, especially highways are funded by tolls.
Road transport - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1259 words)
Road transport (British English) or road transportation (American English) is transport on roads, i.e.
The Roman roads used deep roadbeds of crushed stone as a underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from the crushed stone, instead of becoming mud in clay soils.
Toll roads peaked in the mid 19th century, and by the turn of the twentieth century most toll roads were taken over by state highway departments.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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