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Encyclopedia > Road map for peace

The "road map" for peace is a plan to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict proposed by a "quartet" of international entities: the United States, the European Union, Russia, and the United Nations. The principles of the plan were first outlined by U.S. President George W. Bush in a speech on June 24, 2002, in which he called for an independent Palestinian state living side by side with Israel in peace. A plan is a proposed or intended method of getting from one set of circumstances to another. ... The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a part of the greater Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Palestinian people. ... The Quartet on the Middle East, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international entities involved in mediating the peace process between the State of Israel and the Palestinian National Authority. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Proposals for a Palestinian state vary depending on ones views of Palestinian statehood, as well as various definitions of Palestine and Palestinian (see also State of Palestine). ...

Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas, United States President George W. Bush, and Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon after reading statement to the press during the closing moments of the Red Sea Summit in Aqaba, Jordan, June 4, 2003.
Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas, United States President George W. Bush, and Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon after reading statement to the press during the closing moments of the Red Sea Summit in Aqaba, Jordan, June 4, 2003.

Contents

http://www. ... http://www. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: محمود عباس) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Aqaba (Arabic: العقبة al-Ê»Aqabah) is a coastal town with a population of 101,290 (2000) and 2% of Jordans population in the far south of Jordan (). It is the capital of Aqaba Governorate. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Concept

In exchange for statehood, the road map requires the Palestinian Authority to make democratic reforms and abandon the use of terrorism. Israel, for its part, must support and accept the emergence of a reformed Palestinian government and end settlement activity of the Gaza Strip and West Bank as the Palestinian terrorist threat is removed. The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ... The term Palestinian terrorism is commonly used to describe acts of political violence committed by Palestinian individuals or groups against Israelis, Jews, and nationals of other countries. ...


Process

Israeli-Palestinian peace process

Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip
Negotiating parties

Palestinian Authority
Israel
Israel-Palestinian peace process series

Peace Process · Camp David Accords · Madrid Conference · Oslo Accords · Hebron Agreement · Wye River Memorandum · Sharm e-Sheikh memorandum · Camp David 2000 Summit · Taba Summit · Road map for peace · The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (330x715, 18 KB)An altered Image:Cia-is-map. ... Image File history File links Palestinian_flag. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... It has been suggested that Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty be merged into this article or section. ... The Madrid Conference of 1991 was an early attempt by the international community to start a peace process through negotiations with Israel and the Palestinians. ... The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP), were finalized in Oslo, Norway on August 20, 1993, and subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993, with Mahmoud Abbas signing for the... Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron, also known as The Hebron Protocol or Hebron Agreement, began January 7 and was concluded from January 15 to January 17, 1997 between Israel, represented by Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), represented by PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat... The Wye River Memorandum was a political agreement negotiated to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 28 September, 1995 brokered by the United States between Israel and the Palestine Authority completed on October 23, 1998. ... The Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum, full name: The Sharm el Sheikh Memorandum on Implementation Timeline of Outstanding Commitments of Agreements Signed and the Resumption of Permanent Status Negotiations was a memorandum signed on September 4, 1999 by Prime Minister of Israel Ehud Barak and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat at Sharm... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The Taba summit (or: Taba Summit; Taba Talks; Taba Conference; Taba), also known as the permanent status talks at Taba between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, held from January 21 to January 27, 2001 at Taba in the Sinai peninsula, were peace talks aimed at reaching the final status negotiations...

Primary negotiation concerns

Arab boycott of Israel · East Jerusalem · Israeli settlements · Jewish state · Incitements · Prohibitng illegal weapons · Israeli West Bank barrier · Jewish exodus from Arab lands · Palestinian political violence · Palestinian refugees · Palestinian state · Places of Worship issues · Terrorism against Israel · Water issues Boycotts of Israel are a series of economic and political campaigns designed to weaken and isolate the State of Israel in the course of the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ... The term Jewish state is sometimes used to describe the State of Israel and refers to its status as a nation-state for the Jewish people. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Karin A (also Karine A) was a 4,000 ton freighter intercepted by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) on January 3, 2002 carrying a wide variety of weapons. ... The barrier route as of May 2005. ... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (نكبة, meaning disaster). History Most of the refugees had already fled by the time the neighboring Arab states intervened on the side of Palestinians... Proposals for a Palestinian state vary depending on ones views of Palestinian statehood, as well as various definitions of Palestine and Palestinian (see also State of Palestine). ... Since the failure of the Camp David Summit in the summer of 2000, many acts of terrorism were committed by individuals, militant Palestinian groups, and members of the Palestinian National Authority against Israeli civilians. ... The proposed Two Seas Canal would run from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea and provide electricity and potable water to Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority. ...

Israeli leaders

Ehud Barak · Menachem Begin · Tzipi Livni · Benjamin Netanyahu · Ehud Olmert · Shimon Peres · Yitzhak Rabin · Yitzhak Shamir · Ariel Sharon · Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born February 12, 1942, in Mishmar HaSharon kibbutz, then British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli politician and was the 10th Prime Minister of Israel from 1999 to 2001. ...   (August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) (Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בְּגִין) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Tzipi Livni, Israeli Foreign Minister Tzipora (Tzipi) Livni (Hebrew: ציפי לבני) (born July 5, 1958) is a senior Israeli politician currently serving as Foreign Affairs Minister, with the recently added title of Vice Prime Minister. ... (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ (without niqqud: בנימין נתניהו), Hebrew transliteration written in English: Binyamin Netanyahu, nicknamed Bibi) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel. ... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew: אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ...   (Hebrew: ; born Shimon Perske on August 2, 1923 in Poland, and immigrated with his family to Palestine in 1934), is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minister and current Vice Premier. ... For other people named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ...

Palestinian leaders

Mahmoud Abbas · Yasser Arafat · Ismail Haniya · Ahmed Qurei · Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: محمود عباس) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... Yassir Arafat (Arabic: ) August 24 or August 4, 1929 – November 11, 2004), born in Cairo[1] to Palestinian parents Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini and also known by the kunya Abu `Ammar (أبو عمّار), was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969–2004); President[1] of the Palestinian... Ismail Haniya (more frequently Haniyeh) (born 1963) (Arabic: إسماعيل هنية) is the Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Ahmed Qurei (Abu Alaa) Ahmed Ali Mohammed Qurei (or Qureia; احمد علي محمد قريع), also known by his Arabic Kunya Abu Alaa (أبو علاء) (born March 26, 1937) was prime minister of the Palestinian Authority. ...

International brokers

George W. Bush · Jimmy Carter · Bill Clinton · Diplomatic Quartet George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... James Earl Carter, Jr. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Quartet on the Middle East, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international entities involved in mediating the peace process between Israel and the Palestinian People. ...

Other proposals

Beirut Summit · Elon Peace Plan · Lieberman Plan · Geneva Accord · Hudna · Israel's unilateral disengagement plan and Realignment plan· Projects working for peace Israel and the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... The Elon Peace Plan is a solution for the Arab-Israeli conflict proposed in 2002 by Rabbi Binyamin Elon, who was the Israeli tourism minister at the time he put forward his proposal. ... // The Lieberman Plan is named after Avigdor Lieberman, the leader of the Israeli political party Yisrael Beytenu. ... The Draft Permanent Status Agreement, better known as the Geneva Accord or Geneva Initiative, is an extra-governmental and therefore unofficial peace proposal meant to solve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... Hudna (هدنة) is an Arabic term meaning truce or armistice as well as calm or quiet, coming from a verbal root meaning calm. It is sometimes translated as cease-fire. In the Lisan al-Arab (Ibn al-Manzurs definitive dictionary of classical Arabic, dating to the 14th century) it is... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (termed in Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to... The realignment plan (Hebrew: ) (originally known as the convergence plan) is a plan that was formulated and introduced to the Israeli public by prime minister Ehud Olmert, in a number of media interviews during the election campaign for the 17th Knesset in 2006. ... This page discusses the many projects that work to create a peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs including the Palestinians. ...


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The road map comprises three goal-driven phases with the ultimate goal of ending the conflict as early as 2005. However, as a performance-based plan, progress will require and depend upon the good faith efforts of the parties, and their compliance with each of the obligations quartet put the plan together, with amendments following consultations with Israelis and Palestinians: 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Phase I (as early as May 2003): End to Palestinian violence; Palestinian political reform; Israeli withdrawal and freeze on settlement expansion; Palestinian elections.
  • Phase II (as early as June-Dec 2003): International Conference to support Palestinian economic recovery and launch a process, leading to establishment of an independent Palestinian state with provisional borders; revival of multilateral engagement on issues including regional water resources, environment, economic development, refugees, and arms control issues; Arab states restore pre-intifada links to Israel (trade offices, etc.).

2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Intifada (also Intefadah or Intifadah; from shaking off) is an Arabic term for uprising. It came into common usage in English as the popularised name for two recent Palestinian campaigns directed at ending the Israeli military occupation. ...

Start of implementation

The first step on the road map was the appointment of the first-ever Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas (also known as Abu Mazen) by Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. The United States and Israel demanded that Arafat be neutralized or sidelined in the road map process, claiming that he had not done enough to stop Palestinian attacks against Israelis while in charge. The United States refused to release the road map until a Palestinian Prime Minister was in place. Abbas was appointed on March 19, 2003, clearing the way for the release of the road map's details on April 30, 2003. A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: محمود عباس) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... Yassir Arafat (Arabic: ) August 24 or August 4, 1929 – November 11, 2004), born in Cairo[1] to Palestinian parents Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini and also known by the kunya Abu `Ammar (أبو عمّار), was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969–2004); President[1] of the Palestinian... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On May 27, 2003, Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon stated that the "occupation" of Palestinian territories was "a terrible thing for Israel and for the Palestinians" and "can't continue endlessly." Sharon's phraseology prompted shock from many in Israel, leading to a clarification that by "occupation," Sharon meant control of millions of Palestinian lives rather than actual physical occupation of land. Nevertheless, outsiders believed that Sharon knew what he was saying when he used the word "occupation" and was carefully offering the road map for peace a chance, despite his traditionally hawkish views towards the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ...


President Bush visited the Middle East from June 2-4 2003 for two summits in an attempt to push the road map as part of a seven-day overseas trip through Europe and Russia. On June 2, Israel freed about 100 Palestinian political prisoners before the first summit in Egypt as a sign of goodwill. In Egypt on June 3, President Bush met with the leaders of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Bahrain, and with Prime Minister Abbas. The Arab leaders announced their support for the road map and promised to work on cutting off funding to "terrorist groups." On June 4, Bush headed to Jordan to meet directly with Sharon and Abbas. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A summit is: A point higher than all the ground immediately surrounding it; see topographical summit. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...


Halt in implementation

After Bush left the region, a series of retaliatory attacks by Israelis and Palestinians threatened to derail the road map. On June 10, 2003, Israeli helicopters fired missiles at a car in Gaza in a failed attempt to assassinate Hamas leader Abdel Aziz Rantisi. Two Palestinians were killed in the attack. The next day, a Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself up on an Israeli bus, killing 17 passengers and bystanders. In the following few days, Israel continued its targeting of Hamas leaders with new helicopter attacks. June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hamas (Arabic: ‎; acronym: Arabic: ‎, or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement; the Arabic acronym means zeal) is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization that currently forms the majority party of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Dr. Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi (in the Arabic script عبدالعزيز الرنتيسي) (October 23, 1947 - April 17, 2004) was the co-founder of the Palestinian Islamist paramilitary and political organization Hamas. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death in addition to the attacks primary purpose (see suicide, suicide weapons). ...


On June 29, 2003, a tentative cease-fire was reached between the Palestinian Authority and four major Palestinian groups. Islamic Jihad and Hamas announced a joint three-month cease-fire, while Yasser Arafat's Fatah faction declared a six-month truce. The cease-fire was later joined by the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine. One condition of maintaining the truce is a demand for the release of prisoners from Israeli jails, which is not part of the road map process. Despite this, Israel withdrew troops from the northern Gaza Strip and was discussing the transfer of territory to Palestinian control. The apparent breakthrough coincided with a visit to the region by United States National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice. June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... Hamas (Arabic: ‎; acronym: Arabic: ‎, or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement; the Arabic acronym means zeal) is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization that currently forms the majority party of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Fatah (Arabic: فتح); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a multi-party confederation. ... Flag of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954 in Birmingham, Alabama) is the 66th and current United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ...


On July 1, 2003, in Jerusalem, Sharon and Abbas held a first-ever ceremonial opening to peace talks, televised live in both Arabic and Hebrew. Both leaders said the violence had gone on too long and that they were committed to the U.S.-led road map for peace. On July 2, Israeli troops pulled out of Bethlehem and transferred control to Palestinian security forces. The plan required that Palestinian police take over from withdrawing Israeli forces and stop any anti-Israeli militant attacks. At the same time, the U.S. announced a $30 million aid package to the Palestinian Authority to help rebuild infrastructure destroyed by Israeli incursions. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds (the Holy); official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-al-Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names) is the capital and largest city[1] of the State of Israel with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006[2... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... Bethlehem (Arabic بيت لحم house of meat; Standard Hebrew בית לחם house of bread, Bet léḥem / Bet láḥem; Tiberian Hebrew Bêṯ léḥem / Bêṯ lāḥem; Greek: Βηθλεέμ) is a city in the West Bank under Palestinian Authority considered a central hub of Palestinian cultural and tourism industries. ...


By the end of 2003, the Palestinian Authority had not prevented Palestinian terrorism, while Israel had not withdrawn from Palestinian areas occupied since September 28, 2000 or frozen settlement expansion. Thus the parties have not complied with the requirements of Phase I of the road map and no further progress on the roadmap has been made. It is thus currently effectively in limbo. The term Palestinian terrorism is commonly used to describe acts of political violence committed by Palestinian individuals or groups against Israelis, Jews, and nationals of other countries. ...


On February 13, 2004 the United States government decided that it would endorse Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's plan for a unilateral withdrawal of most Israeli settlements from the Gaza Strip, noting that "...negotiations were impossible because of Palestinian recalcitrance."[1] February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Unilateralism is an antonym for multilateralism. ...


Continuation of the road map

On April 14, 2004, President George W. Bush wrote a letter to Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon seeming to herald two significant changes or increased specifications to longstanding but ambiguous U.S. policy which had most recently been embodied in the road map. For the first time during the road map process, Bush indicated his expectations as to the outcome of the final status negotiations. The letter was widely seen as a triumph for Sharon [2], since Bush's expectations seemed to favor Israel on two highly contentious issues. Regarding final borders, the letter stated: "In light of new realities on the ground, including already existing major Israeli population centers, it is unrealistic that the outcome of final status negotiations will be a full and complete return to the armistice lines of 1949, and all previous efforts to negotiate a two-state solution have reached the same conclusion. It is realistic to expect that any final status agreement will only be achieved on the basis of mutually agreed changes that reflect these realities...". Second, regarding the Palestinian refugees' right of return, Bush also stated: "It seems clear that an agreed, just, fair and realistic framework for a solution to the Palestinian refugee issue as part of any final status agreement will need to be found through the establishment of a Palestinian state and the settling of Palestinian refugees there rather than Israel." [3] April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (نكبة, meaning disaster). History Most of the refugees had already fled by the time the neighboring Arab states intervened on the side of Palestinians... The term Right of return reflects a belief that members of an ethnic or national group have a right to immigration and naturalization into the country that they, the country, or both consider to be that groups homeland, without prior personal citizenship in that country. ...


On May 8, 2004 in an interview with Egypt's Al-Ahram newspaper, President George W. Bush clarified the current situation regarding the road map stating: May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al-Ahram, founded in 1875, is the oldest daily newspaper in the Arab world. ...

Well, 2005 may be hard, since 2005 is right around the corner. I readily concede the date has slipped some, primarily because violence sprung up. When I laid out the date of 2005, I believe it was around the time I went to Aqaba, Jordan. It was a very meaningful moment, where former Prime Minister Abu Mazen, myself, Prime Minister Sharon and His Majesty, the King of Jordan, stood up and pledged to work together.


But we hit a bump in the road -- violence, as well as Abu Mazen being replaced, which changed the dynamic. I don't want to make any excuses, but nevertheless, I think the timetable of 2005 isn't as realistic as it was two years ago. Nevertheless, I do think we ought to push hard as fast as possible to get a state in place.


And I repeat to you, sir, that part of my frustrations were alleviated with the Quartet making the statement it made the other day -- the Quartet being the EU, Russia, United Nations and the United States, working together. I think we can get the World Bank involved. But there is a certain sense of responsibility that falls upon the Palestinians, reform-minded Palestinians to step up and say, yes, we accept these institutions necessary for a peaceful state to emerge. [4]

On July 18, 2004, United States President George W. Bush stated that the establishment of a Palestinian state by the end of 2005 was unlikely due to instability and violence in the Palestinian Authority. (Le Figaro) July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (1861-1865) The majority of this article is about heads of states. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ...


In November of 2004 Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat died aged 75 in a French hospital. Arafat's powers were divided among his officials, with Mahmoud Abbas elected head of the Palestine Liberation Organization and Rawhi Fattuh sworn in as acting president of the Palestinian Authority. [5]


Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon said the death could be a turning point for peace if the Palestinians "ceased terrorism" and waged a "war on terror".


The White House simply described the death as a "significant moment in Palestinian history", and offered condolences.


On 8 February 2005, the leaders of Israel, Egypt, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority came together at Sharm el-Sheikh for a summit meeting at which they declared their continuing support for the road map. February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... View of the Red Sea and Tiran Island from the Sheraton Sharm hotel. ... The Sharm el-Sheikh Summit of 2005 took place on February 8, (2005), when four Middle Eastern leaders gathered at Sharm el-Sheikh, a town at the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in order to declare their wish to work towards the end of the four-year Al-Aqsa...


In his May 26, 2005 joint press conference with Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas in the Rose Garden, President Bush said: May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: محمود عباس) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... The tulips are in full bloom in the Rose Garden at the White House, April 20, 2005. ...

Any final status agreement must be reached between the two parties, and changes to the 1949 Armistice lines must be mutually agreed to. A viable two-state solution must ensure contiguity of the West Bank, and a state of scattered territories will not work. There must also be meaningful linkages between the West Bank and Gaza. This is the position of the United States today, it will be the position of the United States at the time of final status negotiations. [6] The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ...

This statement was widely seen as a triumph for Abbas, as many commentators view it as contradictory to his April 14, 2004 letter[7]. The Bush administration has made no attempts to clarify any perceived discrepancies between the two statements.


In August 2005, the Israelis started their planned disengagement from the Gaza Strip, removing all of its settlements from this area and from a portion of the West Bank. This was widely endorsed around the world and the process, although unilateral on Israel's part, was co-ordinated with the Palestinian Authority. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות (the official name) or תוכנית ההנתקות), also known as the disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Gaza Expulsion plan (by its opponents) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to remove all permanent Israeli...


In early January 2006, Sharon suffered a major stroke and slipped into a induced coma. [8]


With Sharon in a serious condition in hospital, his powers were transferred to his deputy, Finance Minister Ehud Olmert.[9] On March 28, 2006 Knesset elections were held, and Olmert`s party, Kadima, won the most seats. On April 14, 2006 Sharon was declared permanently incapacitated, and Olmert was named interim Prime Minister. [citation needed]


On 4 June, 2006 Ehud Olmert announced he will meet Mahmoud Abbas to resume talks on the Road map for peace. Olmert and Abbas joined breakfast with King Abdullah II of Jordan on 22 June 2006 in Petra. [1] They pledged to meet again in coming weeks. [2] June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew: אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: محمود عباس) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... King Abdullah and Queen Rania King Abdullah appears here at a summit in Mexico. ... The Treasury at Petra Petra (from petra, rock in Greek; Arabic: البتراء, al-Bitrā) is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Wadi Araba, the great valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. ...


On 22 June, Hamas accepts parts of the prisoners' document, which calls for an Israeli withdrawal to the pre-1967 borders and the creation of a Palestinian state. On 27 June, 2006 Hamas and Fatah both accept the document fully. [3] June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... Hamas (Arabic: ‎; acronym: Arabic: ‎, or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement; the Arabic acronym means zeal) is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization that currently forms the majority party of the Palestinian National Authority. ... The National Conciliation Document of the Prisoners or the Prisoners Document is a document drafted by some Palestinian militant leaders in Israeli jails as a base for the Palestinian national dialogue. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... Hamas (Arabic: ‎; acronym: Arabic: ‎, or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement; the Arabic acronym means zeal) is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization that currently forms the majority party of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Fatah (Arabic: فتح); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a multi-party confederation. ...


2006: hostilities resume

In mid-2006, the 2006 Israel-Gaza conflict started between Hamas and the Israeli Defense Forces in the Gaza strip. Not long after, Hezbollah in Lebanon drew Israel into the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. This conflict had a profound impact on the Middle-East crisis surrounding Israel. Controversial armament shipments from the USA were "rushed" to Israel[10], inducing Arab resentment.[11]. Combatants Israel Defense Forces (Israeli Security Forces) Hamas Popular Resistance Committees, al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, Jaish al-Islam Commanders Dan Halutz (Chief of Staff) Yoav Galant (Regional) Khaled Mashal (Leader of Hamas[1])Mohammed Deif (Leader of Hamas military wing) Strength 3,000 unknown Casualties 4 soldiers killed 15 soldiers... This article is becoming very long. ... Combatants Hezbollah  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General and Commander of Islamic Resistance)[3] Dan Halutz (CoS), Moshe Kaplinsky[12], Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters (of 3,000 - 5,000 available and 10,000 reservists) [4] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC) [13] Casualties Hezbollah...


The crisis caused many analysts to declare the road map dead, or at least severely strained.


In January 2006, the Islamic militant group Hamas won a surprise victory in the Palestinian parliamentary elections. The preliminary results gave Hamas 76 of the 132 seats in the chamber, with the ruling Fatah party trailing with 43. [12]


Both Israel and the U.S. announced that they would not deal with Hamas. In Israel, Interim Prime Minister Ehud Olmert stated, "Israel will not conduct any negotiation with a Palestinian government if it includes any members of an armed terror organization that calls for Israel's destruction." Bush said the U.S would not deal with Hamas until it renounced its call to destroy Israel. But Hamas co-founder Mahmoud Zahhar refused to renounce violence. "We are not playing terrorism or violence. We are under occupation," he told BBC World TV. [13]


In October 2006, it was revealed in a Haaretz expose that rampant construction of settlements was ongoing in the West Bank, contrary to Israeli promises to the United States to halt settlement construction.[14] According to the report, many of these settlements were built on private Palestinian property, including properties previously guaranteed by Israel. The report was allegedly kept secret in order to avoid a political crisis with the US. Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ...


See also

The Elon Peace Plan is a solution for the Arab-Israeli conflict proposed in 2002 by Rabbi Binyamin Elon, who was the Israeli tourism minister at the time he put forward his proposal. ...

Arab-Israeli peace diplomacy and treaties

The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3, 1919, by Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization) as part of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 settling disputes stemming from World War I. It was a short-lived agreement... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords in the White House Rose Garden: Menachem Begin (right), Jimmy Carter (center), Anwar Sadat (left) The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP), were finalized in Oslo, Norway on August 20, 1993, and subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993, with Mahmoud Abbas signing for the... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, or Israel-Jordan peace treaty is a peace treaty signed between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in 1994. ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... This page discusses the many projects that work to create a peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs including the Palestinians. ... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... The Sharm el-Sheikh Summit of 2005 took place on February 8, (2005), when four Middle Eastern leaders gathered at Sharm el-Sheikh, a town at the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in order to declare their wish to work towards the end of the four-year Al-Aqsa...

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