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Encyclopedia > Road
Mountain road with hairpin turns in the French Alps
Mountain road with hairpin turns in the French Alps

A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places.[1] Roads are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel;[2] though they need not be, and historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance[3]. In urban areas roads may pass through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route.[4] Economics and society depend heavily on efficient roads. In the European Union (EU) 44 % of all goods are moved by trucks over roads and 85 % of all persons are transported by cars, buses or coaches on roads. [5] Look up road in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1017, 235 KB) Summary Route du Col de Braus I (User:Ericd) took this picture myself with a Minolta SR-T 100X and 200mm f/4. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1017, 235 KB) Summary Route du Col de Braus I (User:Ericd) took this picture myself with a Minolta SR-T 100X and 200mm f/4. ... Road D2204 ascends to the Col de Braus using hairpin bends in the Alpes Maritimes in the French Alps ( ) The kind of hair pin (bobby pin) from which a hairpin turn gets its name Some of the 48 hairpin turns near the top of the northern ramp of the Stilfserjoch... The French Alps are simply those parts of the Alps mountain range which lie in France. ... A road number is a number assigned to a stretch of road, or of a long distance route. ... “Footpath” redirects here. ... Look up Place in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For a pedestrian path situated alongside a road, see sidewalk. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Maintenance, Repair and Operations or Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO), is fixing any sort of mechanical or electrical device should it get out of order or broken (repair) as well as performing the routine actions which keep the device in working order (maintenance) or prevent trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... A city-centre street in Frankfurt, Germany A residential street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA A street is a public thoroughfare in the built environment. ... An easement is the right to do something or the right to prevent something over the real property of another. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... EU redirects here. ... A good or commodity in economics is any object or service that increases utility, directly or indirectly, not to be confused with good in a moral or ethical sense (see Utilitarianism and consequentialist ethical theory). ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... “Autobus” redirects here. ...

Contents

Usage and etymology

See also: Usage of the terms railroad and railway and Street name
Misty road in Australia, entering into a township.
Misty road in Australia, entering into a township.

In original usage, a "road" was simply any pathway fit for riding. The word “street,” whose origin is the Latin strata, was kept for paved pathways that had been prepared to ease travel in some way. Thus, many "Roman Roads" have the word "street" as part of their name.[6][7] Roads are a prerequisite for road transport of goods on wheeled vehicles[6]. The terms railroad and railway generally describe the same thing, a guided means of land transport, designed to be used by trains, for transporting both passengers and freight. ... Abbey Road in London A street name or odonym is an identifying name given to a street. ... Misty Road File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Misty Road File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The word path has a variety of meanings: a path is a route between two points. ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... A city-centre street in Frankfurt, Germany A residential street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA A street is a public thoroughfare in the built environment. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American English usage of pavement as the durable surfacing of roads and walkways. ... Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ... For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ...


Words with related usage include, Avenue, Boulevard, Court, Drive, Freeway, Highway, Lane, Street, Turnpike and Way. The French word avenue can mean or refer to any of the following : Most commonly, it refers to two parallel lines of trees specially planted as a landscape feature. ... The Champs Elysees in Paris, France. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Look up Drive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Interstate 80 (Eastshore Freeway) in Berkeley, California: a typical American freeway (MUTCD definition) A freeway, also known as a highway, superhighway, autoroute, autobahn, autostrada, dual carriageway, expressway, Autosnelweg or motorway, depending on the country of discussion, is a type of road designed for safer high-speed operation of motor vehicles... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The word lane has two meanings: a portion of a paved roadway which is intended for a single line of vehicles and is marked by white or yellow lines. ... A city-centre street in Frankfurt, Germany A residential street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA A street is a public thoroughfare in the built environment. ... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... Way is another word for: Look up way in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


History

See also: History of road transport
A cobblestone Roman road in Pompeii.

That the first pathways were the trails made by animals has not been universally accepted, arguing that animals do not follow constant paths. [3] Others believe that some roads originated from humans following animals trails.[8][9] The Icknield Way is given as an example of this type road origination were man and animal both selected the same natural line.[10] By about 10,000 BC, rough pathways were used by human travelers. [3] The history of road transport started with the development of tracks by humans and their beasts of burden. ... Download high resolution version (620x820, 105 KB)Street in Pompeii Author: Paul Vlaar Date: 2003-06-21 Source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (620x820, 105 KB)Street in Pompeii Author: Paul Vlaar Date: 2003-06-21 Source: http://www. ... A cobblestone-covered street Cobblestones are stones used in the pavement of early streets. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... A trail, in the most general sense, is any linear route for travel. ... The Icknield Way is one of the oldest roads in Britain, being one of the few long-distance trackways to have existed before the Romans occupied the country. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Historical road construction dating to 4000 BC

  • In ancient times, transport by river was far easier and faster than transport by road,[6] especially considering the cost of road construction and the difference in carrying capacity between carts and river barges. A hybrid of road transport and ship transport beginning in about 1740 is the horse-drawn boat in which the horse follows a cleared path along the river bank.[13][14]
  • In the 1600's road construction and maintenance in Britain was traditionally done on a local parish basis.[6] This resulted in a poor and variable state of roads. To remedy this, the first of the 'Turnpike Trusts' around 1706, to build good roads and collect tolls from passing vehicles. Eventually there were approximately 1,100 Trusts in Britain and some 36,800 km of engineered roads.[6] The Rebecca Riots in Carmarthenshire and Rhayader from 1839 to 1844 contributed to having a Royal Commission and the demise of the system in 1844.[16]

(5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... A cobblestone-covered street Cobblestones are stones used in the pavement of early streets. ... For a pedestrian path situated alongside a road, see sidewalk. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the town in England, for the town in the United States see Glastonbury, Connecticut. ... The Sweet Track is an ancient causeway in the Somerset Levels, England. ... The Hindenburgdamm rail causeway across the Wadden Sea to the island of Sylt in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany In modern usage, a causeway is a road or railway elevated by a bank, usually across a broad body of water or wetland. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... (40th century BC - 39th century BC - 38th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) // Construction in England of the Sweet Track, the Worlds first known engineered roadway. ... (40th century BC - 39th century BC - 38th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) // Construction in England of the Sweet Track, the Worlds first known engineered roadway. ... The growth rings of an unknown tree species, at Bristol Zoo, England Pinus taeda Cross section showing annual rings, Cheraw, South Carolina Pine stump showing growth rings Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The map of Achaemenid Empire and the Royal Road. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... A cart is a vehicle or device, using two wheels and normally one horse, designed for transport. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... A horse-drawn boat or tow-boat is a historic boat operating on a canal, pulled by a horse walking on a special road along the canal, the tow-path. ... In the Third war of the Diadochi, Ptolemy I Soter meets a force under Antigonuss son Demetrius at Gaza, where they fight an inconclusive battle. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Romans road. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... The Rebecca Riots happened between 1839 and 1842 in South Wales. ... Carmarthenshire (Welsh: ) is a one of thirteen historic counties and a principal area in Wales. ... The A470 passing through Rhayader Rhayader (Welsh: ) is a busy and historic market town in Mid Wales. ...

Road transport economics

Main article: Transport economics

Transport economics is a branch of economics that deals with the allocation of resources within the transport sector and has strong linkages with civil engineering. Transport economics differs from some other branches of economics in that the assumption of a spaceless, instantaneous economy does not hold. People and goods flow over networks at certain speeds. Demands peak. Advanced ticket purchase is often induced by lower fares. The networks themselves may or may not be competitive. A single trip (the final good from the point-of-view of the consumer) may require bundling the services provided by several firms, agencies and modes. Transport economics is a cross-disciplinary study linking civil engineering and economics. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Competition characterises a biochemical, ecologic, economic, political, or sporting activity whereby two or more individuals or groups strive antagonistically against one another for some reward. ...


Although transport systems follow the same supply and demand theory as other industries, the complications of network effects and choices between non-similar goods (e.g. car and bus travel) make estimating the demand for transportation facilities difficult. The development of models to estimate the likely choices between the non-similar goods involved in transport decisions "discrete choice" models led to the development of the important branch of econometrics, and a Nobel Prize for Daniel McFadden.[17] The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ... A network effect is a characteristic that causes a good or service to have a value to a potential customer which depends on the number of other customers who own the good or are users of the service. ... In economics, discrete choice problems involve choices between two or more discrete alternatives, such as entering or not entering the labor market, or choosing between modes of transport. ... Econometrics is concerned with the tasks of developing and applying quantitative or statistical methods to the study and elucidation of economic principles. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, are awarded for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace. ... Daniel L. McFadden (born July 29, 1937) is an econometrician who won (jointly with James Heckman) the 2000 Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice. He is currently the E. Morris Cox Professor of...


In transport, demand can be measured in numbers of journeys made or in total distance traveled across all journeys (e.g. passenger-kilometres for public transport or vehicle-kilometres of travel (VKT) for private transport). Supply is considered to be a measure of capacity. The price of the good (travel) is measured using the generalised cost of travel, which includes both money and time expenditure. The effect of increases in supply (capacity) are of particular interest in transport economics (see induced demand), as the potential environmental consequences are significant. The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ... Bangkok Skytrain. ... Private transport, as opposed to public transport, is transport in ones own vehicle (e. ... Look up supply in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up capacity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In economics and business, the price is the assigned numerical monetary value of a good, service or asset. ... In transport economics, the generalised cost is the sum of the monetary and non-monetary costs of a journey. ... For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ... Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Induced demand is the phenomenon that after supply increases, more of a good is consumed. ...


Road building and maintenance is an area of economic activity that remains dominated by the public sector (though often through private contractors).[18] Roads (except those on private property not accessible to the general public) are typically paid for by taxes (often raised through levies on fuel),[19] though some public roads, especially highways are funded by tolls.[20] < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ... A general contractor is an organization or individual that contracts with another organization or individual (the owner) for the construction of a building, road or other facility. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... A public road is a road that is open to common use by the general population. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Environmental aspects

Prior to the advent of the internal combustion engine, a principal environmental effect was production of animal excrement from horses, cattle and other animals on drovers' roads and other streets. In the 19th century this issue became significant enough to have some European city officials call for more cleanliness on the roads. [citation needed] Beginning in the 20th century the excrement issue has been overshadowed by vehicle production of noise and air pollution emissions. [citation needed] Drovers road is the term used for an ancient route for the long distance driving of animals on the hoof to market in the British Isles[1] and some other world regions. ...


Motor vehicle traffic on roads generate noise pollution especially at higher operating speeds. Therefore, considerable noise health effects are expected from road systems used by large numbers of motor vehicles. Noise mitigation strategies exist to reduce sound levels at nearby sensitive receptors. The idea that road design could be influenced by acoustical engineering considerations first arose about 1973.[21] Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Roadway noise is the main source of exposure Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ... Noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce unwanted environmental sound. ...


Motor vehicles operating on roads contribute emissions, particularly for congested city street conditions and other low speed circumstances. Concentrations of air pollutants and adverse respiratory health effects are greater near the road than at some distance away from the road. [22] This power plant in New Mexico releases sulfur dioxide and particulate matter into the air. ...


Driving on the right or the left

A sign on Australia's Great Ocean Road reminding foreign motorists to keep left.
A sign on Australia's Great Ocean Road reminding foreign motorists to keep left.

Traffic flows on the right or on the left side of the road depending on the country.[23] In countries where traffic flows on the right, traffic signs are mostly on the right side of the road, roundabouts and traffic circles go counter-clockwise, and pedestrians crossing a two-way road should watch out for traffic from the left first.[24] In countries where traffic flows on the left, the reverse is true.  drive on right drive on left Driving on either the left or the right side of the road reduces the incidence of vehicles being involved in head-on collisions with each other. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 2770 KB) Summary Description: A sign on the Great Ocean Road in Victoria, Australia that reads Drive on left in Australia. Source: self-made Date: taken 16th April 2006 Author: Mat Connolley Permission: GFDL (self made) Other versions of this... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 2770 KB) Summary Description: A sign on the Great Ocean Road in Victoria, Australia that reads Drive on left in Australia. Source: self-made Date: taken 16th April 2006 Author: Mat Connolley Permission: GFDL (self made) Other versions of this... The Great Ocean Road (known as the Surfcoast Highway between Geelong and Torquay) which stretches along the South Eastern coast of Australia between the Victorian cities of Geelong and Warrnambool is one of Australias great scenic coastline drives. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Unused traffic signs in Austria Most countries post signage, known as traffic signs or road signs, at the side of roads to impart information to road users. ... A roundabout is a type of road junction at which traffic enters a one-way stream around a central island. ... Columbus Circle, New York City, NY; site of the first traffic circle in the United States completed in 1905 DeSoto Fountain sits in the center of a traffic circle in the city of Coral Gables, Florida. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


About 34% of the world by population drive on the left, and 66% keep right. By roadway distances, about 28% drive on the left, and 72% on the right,[25] even though originally most traffic drove on the left worldwide.[26]


Construction

Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument.
Caterpillar D9 armoured bulldozer. Heavy bulldozers are powerful tools making them highly suitable for large earthmoving projects.
Ride-on with articulating-swivel (small machine)
Ride-on with articulating-swivel (small machine)

Road construction requires the creation of a continuous right-of-way, overcoming geographic obstacles and having grades low enough to permit vehicle or foot travel.[27] (pg15) and may be required to meet standards set by law[28] or official guidelines.[29] The process is often begun with the removal of earth and rock by digging or blasting, construction of embankments, bridges and tunnels, and removal of vegetation (this may involve deforestation) and followed by the laying of pavement material. A variety of road building equipment is employed in road building.[30] [31] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Dumpy level in use on a construction site A dumpy level, builders auto level, leveling instrument or automatic level is an instrument used in surveying and building to transfer, measure, or set horizontal levels. ... USMC D9R bulldozer PhotoID: 20053711914 Submitted by: 1st Marine Division Operation/Exercise/Event: Operation Iraqi Freedom Caption: Marines from Company C, 2nd Combat Engineers Battalion, Regimental Combat Team 7, improved the international border between Iraq and Syria near the town of Husaybah by building a massive dirt barricade. ... USMC D9R bulldozer PhotoID: 20053711914 Submitted by: 1st Marine Division Operation/Exercise/Event: Operation Iraqi Freedom Caption: Marines from Company C, 2nd Combat Engineers Battalion, Regimental Combat Team 7, improved the international border between Iraq and Syria near the town of Husaybah by building a massive dirt barricade. ... The Caterpillar D9 is a large track-type tractor designed and manufactured by Caterpillar Inc. ... An armored Caterpillar D9 bulldozer used by the IDF. Armored bulldozers are a standard tool of combat engineering battalions, and the Israeli Defence Forces has gained notoriety for their use of armored bulldozers for urban warfare in the Al-Aqsa Intifada. ... In civil engineering, earthworks are engineering works created through the moving of massive quantities of soil or unformed stone. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 660 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1050 × 954 pixel, file size: 282 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Road Road roller ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 660 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1050 × 954 pixel, file size: 282 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Road Road roller ... In the United Kingdom, rights of way are paths on which the public have a legally-protected right to travel. ... A grade (or gradient) is the pitch of a slope, and is often expressed as a percent tangent, or rise over run. It is used to express the steepness of slope on a hill, stream, roof, railroad, or road, where zero indicates level (with respect to gravity) and increasing numbers... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... In order to keep a road or rail line straight and/or flat, and where the comparative cost or practicality of alternate solutions (such as diversion) is too prohibitive, the land over which the road or rail line will travel is built up to form an embankment. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... An underground pedestrian tunnel between buildings at MIT. Note the utility pipes running along the ceiling. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... For a pedestrian path situated alongside a road, see sidewalk. ... An excavator Engineering vehicles are heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing engineering tasks. ...


After design, approval, planning, legal and environmental considerations have been addressed alignment of the road is set out by a surveyor. [15] The Radii and gradient are designed and staked out to best suit the natural ground levels and minimize the amount of cut and fill.[29] (page34) Great care is taken to preserve reference Benchmarks [29](page59) All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... An approval rating is a polling term which reflects the percent of respondents to an opinion poll who approve of a particular person or program. ... For planning in AI, see automated planning and scheduling. ... This article is about law in society. ... An environment is a complex of external factors that acts on a system and determines its course and form of existence. ... Surveyor at work with a leveling instrument. ... Important points in intrinsic coordinates Intrinsic coordinates is a coordinate system which defines points upon a curve partly by the nature of the tangents to the curve at that point. ... This article is about the mathematical term. ... An Ordnance Survey benchmark A C&GS benchmark disk Typical C&GS triangulation station A benchmark is a point of reference for a measurement. ...


Roadways are designed and built for primary use by vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Storm drainage and environmental considerations are a major concern. Erosion and sediment controls are constructed to prevent detrimental effects. Drainage lines are laid with sealed joints in the road easement with runoff coefficients and characteristics adequate for the land zoning and storm water system. Drainage systems must be capable of carrying the ultimate design flow from the upstream catchment with approval for the outfall from the appropriate authority to a watercourse, creek, river or the sea for drainage discharge. [29] (page38 to 40) Vehicles are non-living means of transport. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Storm drain in use A storm drain, storm sewer, stormwater drain (Australia and New Zealand) or surface water system (UK) is designed to drain excess rain and ground water from paved streets, parking lots, sidewalks, and roofs. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Compression seal example A mechanical seal is a device which helps join systems or mechanisms together by preventing leakage (e. ... An easement is the right to do something or the right to prevent something over the real property of another. ... For other senses of this word, see coefficient (disambiguation). ... A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ... A waterway is any navigable body of water. ... Butchers Creek, Omeo, Victoria A stream, brook, beck, burn or creek, is a body of water with a detectable current, confined within a bed and banks. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body of water. ...


A Borrow pit (source for obtaining fill, gravel, and rock) and a water source should be located near or in reasonable distance to the road construction site. Approval from local authorities may be required to draw water or for working (crushing and screening) of materials for construction needs. The top soil and vegetation is removed from the borrow pit and stockpiled for subsequent rehabilitation of the extraction area. Side slopes in the excavation area not steeper than one vertical to two horizontal for safety reasons. [29] (page 53 to 56 ) A borrow pit is a term used in construction and civil engineering. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... Topsoil is the uppermost layer of soil, usually the top six to eight inches. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... Look up Rehabilitation on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Rehabilitation is the restoration of lost capabilities, or the treatment aimed at producing it. ...


Old road surfaces, fences, and buildings may need to be removed before construction can begin. Trees in the road construction area may be marked for retention. These protected trees should not have the topsoil within the area of the tree's drip line removed and the area should be kept clear of construction material and equipment. Compensation or replacement may be required if a protected tree is damaged. Much of the vegetation maybe mulched and put aside for use during reinstatement. The topsoil is usually stripped and stockpiled nearby for rehabilitation of newly constructed embankments along the road. Stumps and roots are removed and holes filled as required before the earthwork begins. Final rehabilitation after road construction is completed will include seeding, planting, watering and other activities to reinstate the area to be consistent with the untouched surrounding areas.[29] (page 66 to 67 ) The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Topsoil is the uppermost layer of soil, usually the top six to eight inches. ...


Processes during earthwork include excavation, removal of material to spoil, filling, compacting, construction and trimming. If rock or other unsuitable material is discovered it is removed, moisture content is managed and replaced with standard fill compacted to 90% relative compaction. Generally blasting of rock is discouraged in the road bed. When a depression must be filled to come up to the road grade the native bed is compacted after the topsoil has been removed. The fill is made by the "compacted layer method" where a layer of fill is spread then compacted to specifications, the process is repeated until the desired grade is reached.[29] (page 68 to 69 ) Rock blasting is the controlled use of explosives to excavate rock. ...

Typical pavement stratum for a heavily traveled road
Typical pavement stratum for a heavily traveled road

General fill material should be free of organics, meet minimum California bearing ratio (CBR) results and have a low plasticity index. Select fill (sieved) should be composed of gravel, decomposed rock or broken rock below a specified Particle size and be free of large lumps of clay. Sand clay fill may also be used. The road bed must be "proof rolled" after each layer of fill is compacted. If a roller passes over an area without creating visible deformation or spring the section is deemed to comply. [29] (page 70 to 72 ) Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2616 × 3488 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2616 × 3488 pixel, file size: 2. ... Fill dirt is earthy material which is used to fill in a depression or hole in the ground. ... Organic may refer to: Look up organic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Liquid Limit, also known as the upper plastic limit, and the Atterberg limit, is the water content at which a soil changes from the liquid state to a plastic state. ... In general, a sieve separates wanted/desired elements from unwanted material using a tool such as a mesh, net or other filtration or distillation methods. ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... “Rock” redirects here. ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... Particle size, also called grain size, refers to the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... Loam is soil composed of a relatively even mixture of three mineral particle size groups: sand, silt, and clay. ... It has been suggested that Steamroller be merged into this article or section. ...


The completed road way is finished by paving or left with a gravel or other natural surface. The type of road surface is dependent on economic factors and expected usage. Safety improvements like Traffic signs, Crash barriers, Raised pavement markers, and other forms of Road surface marking are installed. For a pedestrian path situated alongside a road, see sidewalk. ... Dirt road is a common term for an unpaved road. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Road-traffic safety aims to reduce the harm (deaths, injuries, and property damage) resulting from crashes of road vehicles traveling on public roads. ... Unused traffic signs in Austria Most countries post signage, known as traffic signs or road signs, at the side of roads to impart information to road users. ... Standard guardrail (A-profile) A crash barrier is a barrier on a road designed to prevent vehicles from leaving the roadway to improve road safety. ... The amber markers separate opposing traffic lanes. ... Road surface marking is any kind of device or material that is used on a road surface to convey official information. ...


Duplication

When a single carriageway road is converted into dual carriageway by building a second separate carriageway alongside the first, it is usually referred to as duplication[32] or twinning. The original carriageway is changed from two-way to become one-way, while the new carriageway is one-way in the opposite direction. In the same way as converting railway lines from single track to double track, the new carriageway is not always constructed directly alongside the existing carriageway. A typical arterial single carriageway: the A511 Ashby-de-la Zouch bypass Diagram of types of road in the UK Single carriageway is the British designation for the most common type of road; one with no physical separation (central reservation) between opposing flows of traffic. ... This early German Autobahn uses a dual carriageway design. ... A single track railway A single track railway is one where traffic in both directions shares the same track. ... A BNSF Railway intermodal train passes some maintenance of way equipment on the double track mainline in Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. ...


Sometimes, the new carriageway may be constructed along one side of the existing carriageway for some distance, then constructed on the opposite side. When this occurs, the existing carriageway is split and joined to the new sections, with a short section of the old carriageway being torn up and turned into median.


Maintenance

Like all structures, roads deteriorate over time. Deterioration is primarily due to accumulated damage from vehicles, however environmental effects such as frost heaves, thermal cracking and oxidation often contribute.[33] According to a series of experiments carried out in the late 1950s, called the AASHO Road Test, it was empirically determined that the effective damage done to the road is roughly proportional to the 4th power of axle weight.[34] A typical tractor-trailer weighing 80,000 pounds with 8,000 pounds on the steer axle and 36,000 pounds on both of the tandem axle groups is expected to do 7,800 times more damage than a passenger vehicle with 2,000 pounds on each axle. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Frost heaving (or frost heave) occurs when soil expands and contracts due to freezing and thawing. ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... The AASHO Road Test was a series of experiments carried out by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials to determine how traffic contributed to the deterioration of road surfaces. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ...


Pavements are designed for an expected service life or design life. In some UK countries the standard design life is 40 years for new bitumen and concrete pavement. Maintenance is considered in the whole life cost of the road with service at 10, 20 and 30 year milestones. [35] Roads can be and are designed for a variety of lives (8-, 15-, 30-, and 60-year designs). When pavement lasts longer then its intended life, it may have been overbuilt, and the original costs may have been too high. When a pavement fails before its intended design life, the owner may have excessive repair and rehabilitation costs. Many concrete pavements built since the 1950's have significantly outlived their intended design lives. [36] Some roads like Chicago, Illinois's "Wacker Drive", a major two-level viaduct in downtown area are being rebuilt with a designed service life of 100 years. [37] Service life refers to the expected lifetime of a product. ... The design life of a component or product is the period of time during which the item is excected by its designers to work within its specified parameters; in other words, the life expectancy of the item. ... Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ... This article is about the construction material. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... All three levels of Wacker Drive, east of Columbus Drive, including a ramp between the upper and lower (middle) levels Wacker Drive is a major street in Chicago, Illinois, United States, running along the south side of the main branch and the east side of the south branch of the...


Virtually all roads require some form of maintenance before they come to the end of their service life. Maintenance treatments for asphalt concrete generally include crack sealing, surface rejuvenating, fog sealing, micro-milling and thin surfaceings. Thin surfacing preserves, protects and improves the functional condition of the road while reducing the need for routing maintenance, leading to extended service life without increasing structural capacity.[38] Asphalt As shown in this cross-section, many older roadways are smoothed by applying a thin layer of asphalt concrete to the existing portland cement concrete. ...


Terminology

// A bollard is a short vertical post. ... A byway in the United Kingdom is a minor secondary or tertiary road. ... In the United Kingdom, rights of way are paths on which the public have a legally-protected right to travel. ... In England and Wales, a bridleway is a way over which the public have the following, but no other, rights of way: a right of way on foot and a right of way on horseback or leading a horse, with or without a right to drive animals of any description... A bypass is a road or highway that avoids (bypasses) a built-up area, town, or village, to let through traffic flow without interference from local traffic, to reduce congestion in the built-up area, and to improve road safety. ... A bottleneck is literally the neck of a glass or pottery bottle. ... Botts dots on Interstate 280 (California), near the Sand Hill Road exit Botts dots are a form of reflective raised pavement marker used on roads. ... The amber markers separate opposing traffic lanes. ... A regular white cats eye of the kind invented by Shaw, marking the middle of the road. ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... The amber markers separate opposing traffic lanes. ... The Ford chicane on Le Mans A chicane is a sequence of tight serpentine curves (usually an S-shape curve) in a roadway, used in auto racing and on city streets to slow cars. ... Chipseal is a pavement rehabilitation method. ... Asphalt As shown in this cross-section, many older roadways are smoothed by applying a thin layer of asphalt concrete to the existing portland cement concrete. ... This article is about the construction material. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The word corniche is typically used to describe a road on the side of a cliff or mountain, with the ground rising on one side of the road and falling away on the other. ... “Precipice” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Curb, gutter, and storm drain A curb or kerb (see spelling differences) is the edge where a raised pavement/sidewalk/footpath, road median, or road shoulder meets an unraised street or other roadway. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Typical motorway road layout (Irish road markings). ... A hard shoulder or simply shoulder is a reserved area alongside the verge of a road or motorway. ... A city-centre street in Frankfurt, Germany A residential street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA A street is a public thoroughfare in the built environment. ... A curb extension marked by darkened tarmac and black posts A curb extension (or also kerb extension, bulb-out, curb bulge and blister) is a traffic calming measure, intended to slow the speed of traffic and increase driver awareness, particularly in built-up and residential neighbourhoods. ... Traffic calming is a set of strategies used by urban planners and traffic engineers which aim to slow down or reduce traffic, thereby improving safety for pedestrians and bicyclists as well as improving the amenity of the street for residents and visitors. ... Neighbourhood is also a term in topology. ... Diagram of a fork. ... In the field of road transport, an intersection is a road junction where two or more roads either meet or cross at grade (they are at the same level). ... Guard rail, sometimes referred to as guide rail, is a system designed to keep people or vehicles from (in most cases unintentionally) straying into dangerous or off-limits areas. ... A green lane is a type of road. ... A byway in the United Kingdom is a minor secondary or tertiary road. ... Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ... The second proper album of Beth Orton, Central Reservation helped Orton build on the success of her debut Trailer Park. ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... The word lane has two meanings: a portion of a paved roadway which is intended for a single line of vehicles and is marked by white or yellow lines. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In a range of hills, or especially of mountains, a pass (also gap, notch, col, saddle, bwlch or bealach) is a lower point that allows easier access through the range. ... A Spanish kilometre stone A milestone on the Boston Post Road in Harvard Square, Massachusetts, USA Slate milestone near Bangor, Wales A milestone or kilometre sign is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road at regular intervals, typically at the side of the road or in... A pedestrian crossing or crosswalk is a designated point on a road at which some means are employed to assist pedestrians wishing to cross. ... Driving over the Millau Viaduct in France, which forms part of a privately run toll highway A private highway is a highway owned and operated for profit by private industry. ... The private sector of a nations economy consists of those entities which are not controlled by the state - i. ... A private road is a road owned and maintained by a private individual, organization, or company rather than by a government. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... An organisation (or organization — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. ... Look up company in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gathering place. ... Socioeconomics or Socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. ... A Farm to Market Road is a state government road which serves to connect rural and agricultural areas to market towns. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52... The market town is a medieval phenomenon. ... A road number is a number assigned to a stretch of road, or of a long distance route. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A typical rural stretch of Interstate highway, with two lanes in each direction separated by a large grassy median, and with cross-traffic limited to overpasses and underpasses. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Road-traffic safety aims to reduce the harm (deaths, injuries, and property damage) resulting from crashes of road vehicles traveling on public roads. ... Roadworks on the A9 Autobahn in Germany. ... A hard shoulder, or simply shoulder, is a reserved area by the verge of a road or motorway. ... This article is about the idea of state highways State Highway, and is more formally known as Route 139 State highway, and state route are terms that usually apply to numbered highways that are primarily administered and financed by a state government in countries that are divided into states. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Current U.S. Route shield Current U.S. Route shield in California The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated system of roads and highways in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. ... Traffic calming is a set of strategies used by urban planners and traffic engineers which aim to slow down or reduce traffic, thereby improving safety for pedestrians and bicyclists as well as improving the amenity of the street for residents and visitors. ... An Urban planner is a professional who works in the field of urban planning. ... Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bicycle-friendly is a descriptive term that describes policies, places and practices which make it easier for people to ride bicycles. ... “Traffic Signal” redirects here. ... A pedestrian crossing or crosswalk is a designated point on a road at which some means are employed to assist pedestrians wishing to cross. ... Current U.S. Route shield Current U.S. Route shield in California The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated system of roads and highways in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. ...

See also

Corpse roads provided a practical means of allowing the transport of corpses to cemeteries that had burial rights. ... The Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB) is a series of 15 volumes that provide official standards, advice notes and other documents relating to the design, assessment and operation of trunk roads, including motorways in the United Kingdom. ... Habitat fragmentation is a process of environmental change important in evolution and conservation biology. ... Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ... North-South Expressway in Malaysia; a roadway can be considered as a line source of air and noise pollution and need not be a straight line. ... List of articles related to roads and highways around the world. ... For other uses, see Road Movie (disambiguation). ... Roadway air dispersion is applied to highway segments Roadway air dispersion modeling is the study of air pollutant transport from a roadway or other linear emitter. ... Roadway noise is the most prevalent form of environmental noise. ... Towing is the process of pulling or drawing behind a chain or line. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ...

References

  1. ^ Major Roads of the United States (Web). NationalAtlas.gov, Map Layer Info. United States Department of the Interior (March 13, 2006 17:07). Retrieved on March 24, 2007.
  2. ^ Road Infrastructure Strategic Framework for South Africa (Web). A Discussion Document. National Department of Transport (South Africa). Retrieved on March 24, 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Lay, Maxwell G (1992). Ways of the World: A History of the World's Roads and of the Vehicles that Used Them. Rutgers University Press. 0813526914. 
  4. ^ What is the difference between a road and a street? (Web). Word FAQ. Dictionary.com (Lexico Publishing Group, LLC) (2007). Retrieved on March 24, 2007.
  5. ^ Road Transport (Europe) (Web). Overview. European Communities, Transportation (15-02-2007). Retrieved on March 24, 2007.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g O'Flaherty, Coleman A. (2002). Highways: The Location, Design, Construction & Maintenance of Road Pavements. Elsevier. ISBN 0750650907. 
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas (November 2001). Street (Web). Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on March 25, 2007.
  8. ^ Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 2001, volume 28 (Self-organizing pedestrian movement), Page 376. DOI:10.1068/b2697. 
  9. ^ Marshalls Heath Nature Reserve (Web). History. wheathampstead.net (24 Feb 2003). Retrieved on April 28, 2007.
  10. ^ The Icknield Way Path (Web). Icknield Way Association (2004). Retrieved on April 29, 2007.
  11. ^ The Somerset Levels (the oldest timber trackway discovered in Northern Europe) (Web). Current Archaeology 172. Current Archaeology (February 2001). Retrieved on March 25, 2007.
  12. ^ Lendering, Jona. Royal Road (Web). History of Iran. Iran Chamber of Society. Retrieved on April 9, 2007.
  13. ^ Horseboating (Web). The Horseboating Society. Retrieved on April 9, 2007.
  14. ^ Horses and Canals 1760 - 1960 The people & the horses (Web). Horse Drawn Boats. © Canal Junction Ltd. Retrieved on April 9, 2007.
  15. ^ a b Hart-Davis, Adam (2001-06-01). Roads and surveying (Web). Discovering Roman Technology. BBC.CO.UK. Retrieved on April 22, 2007.
  16. ^ The Rebecca Riots (Web). Rebecca and her daughters come to Rhayader. Victorian Powys for Schools (March 2002). Retrieved on April 28, 2007.
  17. ^ The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2000 (Web). Daniel L. McFadden "for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice". Nobel Foundation (2000). Retrieved on May 2, 2007.
  18. ^ Author = www.stat-usa.gov/ (Updated: 2006-02-28). International Market Research Reports (Web). Australia CCG 2004 Update: Economic Trends and Outlook (E. INFRASTRUCTURE ). Industry Canada. Retrieved on April 17, 2007.
  19. ^ State and Federal Gasoline Taxes (Web). Maps, Reports and history of gas tax in the United States. American Road & Transportation Builders Association ("ARTBA"). Retrieved on May 2, 2007.
  20. ^ International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association (Web) (April 16, 2007). Retrieved on April 17, 2007.
  21. ^ C.Michael Hogan, Analysis of highway noise, Journal of Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, Volume 2, Number 3, Biomedical and Life Sciences and Earth and Environmental Science Issue, Pages 387-392, September, 1973, Springer Verlag, Netherlands ISSN 0049-6979
  22. ^ Traffic-related Air Pollution near Busy Roads (Web). American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Vol 170. pp. 520-526 (2004).
  23. ^ Why In Britain Do We Drive On The Left? (Web). 2Pass.co.uk (© 1996-2007). Retrieved on March 24, 2007.
  24. ^ Kincaid, Peter (1986). The Rule of the Road: An International Guide to History and Practice. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-25249-1. 
  25. ^ Lucas, Brian (2005). Which side of the road do they drive on?. Retrieved on 2006-08-03.
  26. ^ Why do some countries drive on the right and others on the left?.
  27. ^ Kitsap County Road Standards 2006 (Doc). Kitsap County, Washington (2006). Retrieved on April 20, 2007.
  28. ^ Washington State County Road Standards (Web). Chapter 35.78 RCW requires cities and counties to adopt uniform definitions and design standards for municipal streets and roads. Municipal Research & Services Center of Washington (2005). Retrieved on April 20, 2007.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h Shire of Wyndham East Kimberly (October 2006). Guidelines for rural road design and construction technical specifications (PDF). Western Australia (The Last Frontier). Retrieved on April 24, 2007.
  30. ^ Road Building Equipment (Web). Constructing roads into forestry work areas. Caterpillar (2007). Retrieved on April 20, 2007.
  31. ^ Volvo Construction Equipment (Europe} (Web). Building the cities, towns, streets, highways and bridges in your neighborhood and in communities around the globe. Volvo (2007). Retrieved on April 20, 2007.
  32. ^ Glossary: Princes Highway, Traralgon Bypass - Planning Assessment Report at The State of Victoria
  33. ^ ISAP 9th Conference Titles & Abstracts (#09044) (Web). Effects of Frost Heave on the Longitudinal Profile of Asphalt Pavements in Cold Regions. International Society for Asphalt Pavements (August, 2002). Retrieved on 13 May, 2007.
  34. ^ (2002) The Motorway Achievement: Frontiers of Knowledge and Practice. Thomas Telford, Page 252. ISBN 0727731971. 
  35. ^ O'Flaherty, Coleman A. (2002). Highways: The Location, Design, Construction & Maintenance of Road Pavements. Elsevier, Page 252. ISBN 0750650907. 
  36. ^ Road Map to the Future (Web). United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration (July/August 2002). Retrieved on 13 May, 2007.
  37. ^ ISG Resources, Inc (December 2003). Fly Ash Concrete Design for Chicago’s 100-Year Road Structure (PDF). Case Study. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved on 13 May, 2007.
  38. ^ Thin Surfacing - Effective Way of Improving Road Safety within Scarce Road Maintenance Budget (PDF). Paper for presentation at the 2005 Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada in Calgary, Alberta. Transportation Association of Canada (2005). Retrieved on 14 May, 2007.

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External links

Look up Road in
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Road ID® (348 words)
If you are a runner, cyclist, triathlete or just a person who doesn't sit on the couch all day, Road ID is for you.
The inspiration for Road ID was born in the fall of 1999.
For me, the inspiration was a fl, King Kong size pick-up truck that I nearly came face to face with on a long Saturday run.
Road Editions (380 words)
This book is a writer’s journey around Greece, with as signposts the hospitality provided at the most exceptional accommodation the country has to offer to discerning travellers.
The editors of ROAD Editions are especially proud of this map of Thrace, one of the largest an best designed maps of ROAD Editions.
ROAD was founded specifically to cover the significant gap in precision map and travel guide availability existing at the time.
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