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Encyclopedia > Rivonia Trial

The Rivonia Trial was an infamous trial which took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to "ferment violent revolution". In legal parlance, a trial is an event in which parties to a dispute present information (in the form of evidence) in a formal setting, usually a court, before a judge, jury, or other designated finder of fact, in order to achieve a resolution to their dispute. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the Nintendo 64 emulator, see 1964 (Emulator). ... The African National Congress (ANC) is a centre-left political party, and has been South Africas governing party (in a coalition) since the establishment of majority rule in May 1994. ...

Contents


Origins

It was named after Rivonia, the suburb of Johannesburg where 19 ANC leaders were arrested at Liliesleaf Farm, privately owned by Arthur Goldreich, on 11th July 1963. It had been used as a hideout for the African National Congress. Among others, Nelson Mandela had moved onto the farm in October 1961 and evaded security police while masquerading as a gardener and cook called David Motsamayi (meaning "come-and-go"). Rivonia is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ... City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... Arthur Goldreich was an abstract painter born in 1929 in Johannesburg, South Africa, and a key figure in the anti-apartheid movement. ... (Redirected from 11th July) July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The African National Congress (ANC) is a centre-left political party, and has been South Africas governing party (in a coalition) since the establishment of majority rule in May 1994. ... Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, (born July 18, 1918), was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully-representative democratic elections. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Arrests

Arrested were:

and others. Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Govan Archibald Mvuyelwa Mbeki (1910 - 2001) was a South African politician, and father of Thabo Mbeki, the current President of South Africa. ... Raymond Mhlaba (February 12, 1920-February 20, 2005) was an anti-apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Elias Motsoaledi (July 26, 1924- May 9, 1994) was one of the eight men sentenced to life imprisonment at the Rivonia Trial. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ANC redirects here. ... Ahmed Mohamed Kathrada (sometimes nicknamed Kathy) (21 August 1929 - ) is a South African politician and was an anti-apartheid activist and political prisoner. ... City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Province Western Cape Mayor Nomaindia Mfeketo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Arthur Goldreich was an abstract painter born in 1929 in Johannesburg, South Africa, and a key figure in the anti-apartheid movement. ...


Goldberg, Bernstein, Hepple and Goldreich were Caucasian Jews, Kathrada was Indian, and Sisulu, Mbeki, Motsoaledi and Mhlaba were black. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The trial brought in Nelson Mandela and chief of MK, Walter Mkwayi. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, (born July 18, 1918), was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully-representative democratic elections. ...


The government took advantage of 90 days without trial, and the defendants were held incommunicado. Meanwhile, Goldreich and Wolpe bribed a guard and escaped from jail on August 11. Their escape infuriated the prosecutors and police who considered Goldreich to be "the arch-conspirator." August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Lawyers were unable to see the accused until two days before indictment on October 9. Leading the defense team was Bram Fischer, the distinguished Afrikaner lawyer, assisted by Joel Joffe, Arthur Chaskalson, George Bizos and Harold Hanson. At the end of October, Hepple was able to leave the dock because he had agreed to testify for the prosecution; later he managed to flee the country. October 9 is the 282nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (283rd in Leap years). ... Abram Louis Fischer, commonly known as Bram Fischer, (1908-1975) was a South African lawyer of Afrikaner descent, notable for anti-apartheid activism and for the legal defense of anti-apartheid figures, including Nelson Mandela at the Rivonia Trial. ... Joel Goodman Joffe, Baron Joffe, the Lord Joffe CBE, is a crossbench peer in the House of Lords. ... Arthur Chaskalson, (b. ... George Bizos a distinguished human rights advocate who defended against apartheid in South Africa. ... Harold Joseph Hanson (1904 - 1973) was an eminent South African Advocate (QC)and Senior Member of the Johannesburg Bar Council. ...


The chief prosecutor was Dr. Percy Yutar, deputy attorney-general of the Transvaal, also Jewish. Flag of Transvaal The Transvaal (lit. ...


The trial began on November 26, 1963. After dismissal of the first indictment as inadequate, the trial finally got under way on December 3 with an expanded indictment. Each of the ten accused pleaded not guilty. The trial ended on June 12, 1964. November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... For the Nintendo 64 emulator, see 1964 (Emulator). ...


List of defendants

The accused in the Rivonia Trial. ... Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, (born July 18, 1918), was the first President of South Africa to be elected in fully-representative democratic elections. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Govan Archibald Mvuyelwa Mbeki (1910 - 2001) was a South African politician, and father of Thabo Mbeki, the current President of South Africa. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the President of the Republic of South Africa. ... Raymond Mhlaba (February 12, 1920-February 20, 2005) was an anti-apartheid activist and leader of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Elias Motsoaledi (July 26, 1924- May 9, 1994) was one of the eight men sentenced to life imprisonment at the Rivonia Trial. ... Ahmed Mohamed Kathrada (sometimes nicknamed Kathy) (21 August 1929 - ) is a South African politician and was an anti-apartheid activist and political prisoner. ...

Charges

Charges were:

  • recruiting persons for training in the preparation and use of explosives and in guerrilla warfare for the purpose of violent revolution and committing acts of sabotage
  • conspiring to commit the aforementioned acts and to aid foreign military units when they invaded the Republic,
  • acting in these ways to further the objects of communism
  • soliciting and receiving money for these purposes from sympathizers in Algeria, Ethiopia, Liberia, Nigeria, Tunisia, and elsewhere.

"Production requirements" for munitions for a six-month period were sufficient, the prosecutor Percy Yutar said in his opening address, to blow up a city the size of Johannesburg. City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ...


Kantor was discharged at the end of the prosecution's case.


The trial was condemned by the United Nations Security Council, and led to their trying to get international sanctions imposed against the South African government. The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations (UN). ... Sanctions is the plural of sanction (see also penalty). ...


Escapes

  • Arthur Goldreich escaped from prison disguised as a priest
  • Walter Mkwayi (escaped during trial)
  • Harold Wolpe (esaped with the help of Manni Brown)
  • James Kantor (esaped with the help of Manni Brown)
  • Manni Brown Tour operator as a cover to deliver weapons to the ANC.

Arthur Goldreich was an abstract painter born in 1929 in Johannesburg, South Africa, and a key figure in the anti-apartheid movement. ...

Results

Originally the death penalty had been requested, but was changed because of world-wide protests and the ingenuity of the defence team. Eight defendants were sentenced to life imprisonment, and one acquitted. Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ...

[1] "There was no surprise in the fact that Mandela, Sisulu, Mbeki, Motsoaledi, Mlangeni, and Goldberg were found guilty on all four counts. The defense had hoped that Mhlaba, Kathrada, and Bernstein might escape conviction because of the skimpiness of evidence that they were parties to the conspiracy, although undoubtedly they could be prosecuted on other charges. But Mhlaba too was found guilty on all counts, and Kathrada, on one charge of conspiracy. Bernstein, however, was found not guilty. He was rearrested, released on bail, and placed under house arrest. Later he fled the country."

Denis Goldberg went to Pretoria Central Prison instead of Robben Island (at that time the only security wing for white political prisoners in South Africa) where he served 22 years. Prison buildings on Robben Island. ...


External links

  • "The Rivonia Trial" - article by Sunder Katwala from The Observer, dated Sunday, February 11, 2001
  • Liliesleaf Farm in South Africa
  • ANC history

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rivonia Trial - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (844 words)
It was named after Rivonia, the suburb of Johannesburg where 19 ANC leaders were arrested at Liliesleaf Farm, privately owned by Arthur Goldreich, on 11th July 1963.
The trial brought in Nelson Mandela who was serving a sentence of 5 years on Robben Island already for leaving the country without a passport.
After the Rivonia trialists were imprisoned the government rounded up further members of the ANC and in a trial known as Little Rivonia, chief of MK, Walter Mkwayi was sentenced to life imprisonment and joined Mandela and the other Rivonia trialists on Robben Island.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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