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Encyclopedia > River Euphrates
Euphrates
Map of the Tigris-Euphrates Watershed
Map of the Tigris-Euphrates Watershed
Origin Eastern Turkey
Mouth Shatt al Arab
Basin countries Turkey Syria Iraq
Length 2,800 km
Source elevation 4,500 m
Avg. discharge 818 m³/s
Watershed area 765,831 km²

The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic Al-Furat الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the other being the Tigris. The form Euphrates may originate from Old Persian and Avestan (Old-Iranian) huperethuua "good to cross over," from hu- "good" + peretu- "ford," [1] but the Sumerian ruler Gudea called the river buranun in a Sumerian language inscription about 1600 years before Indo-European Old Persian speakers conquered Mesopotamia. Image File history File links Tigr-euph. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in southern Iraq. ... A watershed is a region of land where water flows into a specified body of water, such as a river, lake, sea, or ocean. ... The source of a river or stream may be a lake, a spring, or a collection of headwaters. ... In hydrology, the discharge of a river is the volume of water transported by it in a certain amount of time. ... A watershed is a region of land where water flows into a specified body of water, such as a river, lake, sea, or ocean. ... The Murray River in Australia. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The Arabic language (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the city of Ashur. ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... Bethnahrin is the Aramaic word for Greek word), which is the land between the rivers Frot and Deqlath (Euphrates and Tigris). ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Tigris River in Mosul, Iraq The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Aramaic Assyrian: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; Hebrew: חידקל; biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ... Yasna 28. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Statue of Gudea, British Museum London Gudea was a ruler (ensi) of the city of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled ca. ... The Sumerian language of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BC. Sumerian was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language around 2000 BC, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial and scientific language in Mesopotamia until about 1 AD. Then, it... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ...

Contents


Course of the Euphrates

The river is approximately 2,780 km (1,700 miles) long. It is formed by the union of two branches, the Kara (the western Euphrates), which rises in the highlands of eastern Turkey north of Erzerum and the Murat (the eastern Euphrates), which issues from an area southwest of Mount Ararat, north of Lake Van. The upper reaches of the Euphrates flow through steep canyons and gorges then southeast across Syria and then through Iraq. The Khabur and the Balikh River join the Euphrates in eastern Syria. Erzurum (or Erzerum, Arzen in antiquity, Karin in ancient Armenian, Theodosiupolis or Theodosiopolis during Byzantine rule) is one of the Provinces of Turkey, in the Eastern Anatolia Region, to the east of the country. ... Mount Ararat (Turkish Ağrı Dağı; Armenian Արարատ; Persian آرارات; Hebrew אררט, Standard Hebrew Ararat, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂrārāṭ), the tallest peak in modern Turkey, is a snow-capped dormant volcanic cone, located in the far northeast of Turkey, 16 km west of Iran and 32 km south of Armenia. ... Lake Van from space, September 1996 Lake Van Landsat photo Lake Van (Turkish Van Gölü, in Armenian: Վանա լիճ) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... The Khabur river (also Habor, Habur) is 200 miles (320 km) long, beginning in southeastern Turkey, and flowing generally south to Syria where it is joined by the Jaghjagh River and eventually empties into Euphrates River. ... The Balikh River has its origins in Turkey, and ends up in Syria, on the very western part of Euphrates. ...

Boat on the Shatt-al-Arab
Boat on the Shatt-al-Arab

They both have their origins in Turkey. Downstream, through its whole length, the Euphrates receives no further water flow. North of Basra, in southern Iraq, the river merges with the Tigris to form the Shatt al-Arab, which in turn empties into the Persian Gulf. Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1318 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1318 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Location of Basra Basra (also spelled Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes written Busra, Busrah, and the early form Bassorah; Arabic: , Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of c. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


The river used to divide into many channels at Basra, forming an extensive marshland, but the marshes were largely drained by the Saddam Hussein government in the 1990s as a means of driving out the rebellious Marsh Arabs. Since the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the drainage policy has been reversed, but it remains to be seen whether the marshes will recover. The Euphrates is only navigable by very shallow-draft boats, which can reach as far as the Iraqi city of Hit, located 1,200 miles upstream and which is only 53 meters above sea level. Above Hit, however, shoals and rapids make the river commercially unnavigable. Its annual inundation, caused by snowmelt in the mountains of north-eastern Turkey, has been partly checked by new dams and reservoirs in the upper reaches. A 550-mile canal links the Euphrates to the Tigris to serve as a route for river barges. Saddam Hussein Wikinews has news related to this article: Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majīd al-Tikrīti, sometimes spelled Hussayn or Hussain; (Arabic صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 ) was President of Iraq from 1979 until his removal and capture after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The 1990s refers to the years 1990 to 1999; the last decade of the 20th Century. ... The Marsh Arabs are the inhabitants of the lowlands of southern Iraq, the former Mesopotamia, whose families have lived in the area for thousands of years. ... The 2003 Invasion of Iraq began on March 20 comprising United States and United Kingdom forces (98%), and several other nations. ...

The Euphrates River near Ar Raqqah, Syria
The Euphrates River near Ar Raqqah, Syria

Download high resolution version (1260x840, 61 KB)The Euphrates River near Ar Raqqah File links The following pages link to this file: Euphrates User:Zeledi ... Download high resolution version (1260x840, 61 KB)The Euphrates River near Ar Raqqah File links The following pages link to this file: Euphrates User:Zeledi ... Ar Raqqah (ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺔ; also spelled Rakka), city in north central Syria, capital of the Raqqah province, located on the north bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 km east of Aleppo. ...

Euphrates in the Bible

The river Euphrates is one of the four rivers that flow from the Garden of Eden according to Book of Genesis 2:14. It is the fourth river, after Pishon, Gihon, and Tigris, to form from the river flowing out of the garden. The river also marked one of the boundaries of the land promised by God to Abraham and his descendants. In the Hebrew Bible it is often referred to simply as "The River" (ha-nahar). The Fall of Man by Lucas Cranach, a 16th century German depiction of Eden Garden of Eden, from Hebrew Gan Eden, גן עדן is the location of the story told in Genesis 2 and 3—part of the creation belief of the Abrahamic religions. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... The Pishon is mentioned in the Biblical Genesis (2:11) as one of four rivers branching off from a single river within the Eden. ... Gihon is the title of a river first mentioned in the second chapter of the Biblical book of Genesis. ... Tigris River in Mosul, Iraq The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Aramaic Assyrian: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; Hebrew: חידקל; biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... God is the Supreme Being believed to exist in monotheistic religions as the creator and ruler of the Universe. ... Abraham (אַבְרָהָם Father/Leader of many, Standard Hebrew Avraham, Latin Abrahamus, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAḇrāhām; Arabic ابراهيم Ibrāhīm) is the patriarch of Judaism, recognized by Christianity, and a very important prophet in Islam. ...


In the Book of Revelation, it is prophesied that in the "end times" the river will dry up in preparation for the Battle of Armageddon. Visions John the Evangelist, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... The Last Judgement - Fresco in the Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo The end times are, in one version of Christian eschatology and in Islam, a time of tribulation that will precede the Second Coming of Jesus. ... In Christian apocalyptic literature (the Book of Revelation), Armageddon or Har-Mageddon is the site of the final battle between the kings of the earth (incited by Satan) and the Christian God. ...


In Islam, some of the hadiths of Muhammad suggest that the Euphrates will dry up, revealing unknown treasures that will be the cause of strife and war. Islām is described as a dīn, meaning way of life and/or guidance. Six articles of belief There are six basic beliefs shared by all Muslims: 1. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... Muhammad is a common Muslim male name. ...


Euphrates in history

The Euphrates provided the water that led to the first flowering of civilisation in Sumeria, dating from about the 4th millennium BC. Many important ancient cities were located on or near the riverside, including Mari, Sippar, Nippur, Shuruppak, Uruk, Ur and Eridu. The river valley formed the heartlands of the later empires of Babylonia and Assyria. For several centuries the river formed the eastern limit of effective Egyptian and Roman control and western regions of the Persian Empire. Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) // Events Sumerian city of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC); Sumerian hegemony in Mesopotamia, with the invention of writing, base-60 mathematics, astronomy and astrology, civil law, complex hydrology, the sailboat, the wheel, and the potters wheel, 4000... The Mari (also known as Cheremis in Russian and Çirmeş in Tatar) are a Volga-Finnic people in the Volga area, the natives of Mari El, Russia. ... Sippara (Zimbir in Sumerian, Sippar in Assyro-Babylonian) was an ancient Babylonian city on the east bank of the Euphrates, north of Babylon. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... Ancient sumerian city. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles SSE from Baghdad. ... UR, Ur, or ur can refer to several things: The City of Ur Ur can be used as shorthand in online communication - referring to the word words You are. EG. ur crazy Ur, the first known continent Royal Game of Ur Unreal the computer game Ur is the name of... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur. ... Babylonia, named for the city of Babylon, was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the city of Ashur. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that existed in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East between 753 BC and its downfall in AD 476. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Controversial issues

As with the Tigris there is much controversy over rights and use of the river. The Southeast Anatolia Development Project in Turkey involves the construction of 22 dams and 19 power plants by 2005, the biggest development project ever undertaken by Turkey. The first of the dams was completed in 1990. Southeast Turkey is still struggling economically, adding fuel to the discontent expressed by Turkey's Kurdish minority centered there. The Turkish authorities hope that the project will provide a boost to the region's economy, but domestic and foreign critics have disputed its benefits as well as attacking the social and environmental costs of the scheme. 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


In Syria the Tabqa Dam (completed in 1973 and sometimes known simply as the Euphrates Dam) forms a reservoir, Lake Assad, that is used for irrigating cotton. Syria has dammed its two tributaries and is constructing another dam. Iraq has seven dams in operation, but water control lost priority during Saddam Hussein's regime. Since the collapse of Ba'ath Iraq in 2003, water use has come once again to the fore. The scarcity of water in the Middle East leaves Iraq in constant fear that Syria and Turkey will use up most of the water before it reaches Iraq. As it is, irrigation in southern Iraq leaves little water to join the Tigris at the Shatt-al-Arab. 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... 2003 (MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

The 19th-century evangelical Protestants who invented the term Cradle of Humanity made generalized but undocumented claims that the term originated in Mesopotamia in the 2nd century, and that it was used by early Christians who were non-Arab, to refer to a geographic area that falls within a 1... This is a list of places in Iraq. ... ecoregion : Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh (Ref PA0906). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Euphrates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (835 words)
It is formed by the union of two branches, the Kara (the western Euphrates), which rises in the highlands of eastern Turkey north of Erzerum and the Murat (the eastern Euphrates), which issues from an area southwest of Mount Ararat, north of Lake Van.
The river used to divide into many channels at Basra, forming an extensive marshland, but the marshes were largely drained by the Saddam Hussein government in the 1990s as a means of driving out the rebellious Marsh Arabs.
The river Euphrates is one of the four rivers that flow from the Garden of Eden according to Book of Genesis 2:14.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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