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Encyclopedia > Ritualist movement
Portal:Christianity
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Image of a thurible in a stained glass window, St. Ignatius Church, Chestnut Hill, MA
Image of a thurible in a stained glass window, St. Ignatius Church, Chestnut Hill, MA

Ritualism, in Christian history, refers an emphasis on the rituals and ceremony of the church, in particular of holy communion. Ritualism is often defined in opposition to movements that emphasise the tole of the text of the Bible, or discourses (sermons) based upon it. In the Anglican church the role of ritual became a subject of great, often heated, debate in the nineteenth century, a debate that was associated with struggles between High church and Low church movements. Opponents of Ritualism considered that it privileged the actions of the ritual over the meanings that are meant to be conveyed by it. Supporters believed that a renewed emphasis on ritual was necessary to counter the increasing secularisation of the church and laity. Image File history File links Cor-jesus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata BC_St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata BC_St. ... Stained glass window of a thurible, St. ... Chestnut Hill is a place in the State of Massachusetts in the United States of America: see Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... High Church is a term that may now be used in speaking of viewpoints within a number of denominations of Protestant Christianity in general, but it is one which has traditionally been employed in Churches associated with the Anglican tradition in particular. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England, initially designed to be pejorative. ... This article concerns secularism, the exclusion of religion and supernatural beliefs. ...

Contents


Defining Ritualism in the Church of England and the arguments generated by it

In Anglicanism, the term "ritualist" is controversial (i.e. rejected by some of those to whom it is applied) and often used to describe the second generation of the Oxford Movement/Anglo-Catholic/High Church revival of the 19th century which sought to introduce into the Church of England a range of Catholic liturgical practices. The term is also used to describe those who follow in their tradition. The term Anglican (from medieval Latin ecclesia Anglicana meaning the English church) is used to describe the people, institutions, and churches that adhere to the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England, the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican Churches, a loosely affiliated group of independent churches which... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... High Church is a term that may now be used in speaking of viewpoints within a number of denominations of Protestant Christianity in general, but it is one which has traditionally been employed in Churches associated with the Anglican tradition in particular. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... From the Greek word λειτουργια, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning the work of the people, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may be refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), a daily...


When trying to decipher the argument about Ritualism in the Church of England, it is worth remembering that it is partly shaped by opposing (and often unannounced) attitudes towards the concept of sola scriptura and the nature of the authority of the Bible for Christians. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Sola scriptura (Latin By Scripture alone) is one of five important slogans of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...


Common arguments used by some Anglicans in favour of Ritualism

Those who support the Ritualist outlook in the Church of England have often argued that the adoption of key elements of Catholic ritual

  • gives liturgical expression to the ecclesiological belief that the Church of England is more Catholic than Protestant;
  • gives liturgical expression to a belief in the Real Presence and its concommitant that the Eucharist is the most important act of Church worship and should be the norm;
  • is the most effective vehicle for giving expression to the worship of heaven as it is described in the Book of Revelation in which the use of white robes and incense in a setting of considerable beauty is described;
  • is a liturgical expression of the story in the Gospel of Matthew of the response of the Magi to the birth of Jesus who brought gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh as an act of adoration;
  • enables worshippers to use all of their senses in worship - worship with the whole person, not just the mind;
  • is "incarnational" - by placing an emphasis on liturgical action and physical objects, it draws attention to the importance that Christians should attach to the fact that they believe that, in Jesus, "the Word became flesh" (John 1): material things are part of what God makes and saves, and not repudiated by Him;
  • is the most effective form of worship for cultures that are either highly visual or in which literacy rates are low;
  • is fun as well as being serious;
  • is beautiful and an expression of the human response to God that calls on humans to offer their best in worship - a way of expressing the value ("worth") that they place on God: worship is, etymologically, "worth-ship".

In Christian theology, ecclesiology is a branch of study that deals with the doctrines pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament,[1] to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... Heaven is an afterlife concept found in many religions or spiritual philosophies. ... Visions of John the Evangelist, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Incense is a preparation of aromatic plant matter, often with the addition of essential oils extracted from plant or animal sources, intended to release fragrant smoke for religious, therapeutic, or aesthetic purposes as it smolders. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally: according to Matthew, Greek: Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον ) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... The Wise Men are given the names Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthasar in this Romanesque mosaic from the Basilica of St Apollinarius in Ravenna, Italy. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE — 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... 100g of Myrrh. ... Adoration (Latin ad, to, and as, mouth; i. ... Worship usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as a god or goddess. ... Worship usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as a god or goddess. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE — 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Matter is commonly defined as the substance of which physical objects are composed. ... Worship usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as a god or goddess. ... World literacy rates by country The traditional definition of literacy is the ability to use language–to read, write, listen, and speak. ... Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ...

Common arguments used by some Anglicans against Ritualism

Bishop Ryle of Liverpool - a leading critic of Ritualism [1] - by Carlo Pellegrini, 1881 (See link to his tract at the bottom of this article).
Bishop Ryle of Liverpool - a leading critic of Ritualism [1] - by Carlo Pellegrini, 1881 (See link to his tract at the bottom of this article).

Those who oppose Ritualism in the Church of England have generally argued that it: Image File history File links John_Charles_Ryle. ... Image File history File links John_Charles_Ryle. ... John Charles Ryle (May 10, 1816 - June 10, 1900) was the first bishop of Liverpool (Anglican / Church of England). ... Carlo Pellegrini (1838‑1889) was a caricaturist, born in Capua; came to London and worked for Vanity Fair. ... 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...

  • encourages idolatry in that it encourages worshippers to focus on ritual objects and actions rather than the things they are meant to symbolise;
  • constitutes an attempt to wrest the Church of England from its Protestant identity;
  • constitutes a downgrading of the significance of preaching and biblical exposition in regular Christian worship;
  • encourages an idolatrous attitude to the Eucharist because Ritualism is predicated on a belief in the Real Presence;
  • uses excessive elaborations in worship that cannot be justified on the basis of the descriptions of worship in the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, or the Epistles in the New Testament;
  • undermines a key Protestant belief that no human actions, even worship precisely and carefully offered, can be of any value when it comes to being justified in the eyes of God: worship should be an unfussy, obedient, penitent, grateful, and sponaneously joyful response to the experience of being saved by faith in Jesus - ritual and tradition are merely human inventions;
  • has often impeded the understanding of the gospel by wrapping up Christian worship in indecipherable symbolic acts.

The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Preaching is the most important element in the protestant churches. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament,[1] to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... The word epistle is from the Greek word epistolos which means a written letter addressed to a recipient or recipients, perhaps part of exchanged correspondence. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of making or declaring a sinner righteous before God. ... Penance is the actual name of the Catholic Sacrament of Reconciliation/ Confession. ... In religion, salvation refers to being saved from an undesirable state or condition — typically one in which an individual faces the prospect of eternal torment in hell. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE — 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... Worship usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as a god or goddess. ...

The Ritualist Controversies in the Church of England in the 19th century

The origins of Ritualism in the Church of England

Part of the series on
Anglicanism
Anglican Communion
Background

Christianity
English Reformation
Apostolic Succession
Roman Catholicism
Episcopal polity
The term Anglican (from medieval Latin ecclesia Anglicana meaning the English church) is used to describe the people, institutions, and churches that adhere to the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England, the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican Churches, a loosely affiliated group of independent churches which... Photograph by Keith Edkins File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... The English Reformation was the process whereby the external authority of the Roman Catholic Church in England was abolished and replaced with Royal Supremacy and the establishment of a Church of England outside the Roman Catholic Church and under the Supreme Governance of the English monarch. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor of the Church of the Apostles. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... It has been suggested that episcopal be merged into this article or section. ...

People

Thomas Cranmer
Henry VIII
Richard Hooker
Elizabeth I
An oil painting of Thomas Cranmer by Gerlach Flicke (1545) - National Portrait Gallery, London Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Richard Hooker (March 1554 - November 3, 1600) was an influential Anglican theologian. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of England from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...

Instruments of Unity

Archbishop of Canterbury
Lambeth Conferences
Anglican Consultative Council
Primates' Meeting
Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Anglican Consultative Council is one of the four Instruments of Unity of the Anglican Communion. ... The Anglican Communion Primates Meetings are regular meetings of the senior archbishops and bishops of the Anglican Communion. ...

Liturgy and Worship

Book of Common Prayer
High Church · Low Church
Broad Church
Oxford Movement
Thirty-Nine Articles
1979 ECUSABCP The Book of Common Prayer[1] is foundational prayer book of the Church of England and also the name for similar books used in other churches in the Anglican Communion. ... High Church is a term that may now be used in speaking of viewpoints within a number of denominations of Protestant Christianity in general, but it is one which has traditionally been employed in Churches associated with the Anglican tradition in particular. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England, initially designed to be pejorative. ... Broad church is a term referring to latitudinarian churches in the Church of England. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ...

Saints in Anglicanism
This box: viewtalkedit

The development of Ritualism in the Church of England is mainly associated with what is commonly called "Second Generation" Anglo-Catholicism, i.e. the movement as it developed after Newman left the Church of England to become a Roman Catholic in 1845. It can be argued that there was a kind of inevitability to the fact that some of the leaders of Anglo-Catholicism turned their attentions to questions of liturgy and ritual and started to champion the use of Roman Catholic practices and forms of worship - although there was only a limited enthusiasm amongst Ritualists for trying to introduce the widespread use of Latin in the liturgy. The provinces of the Anglican Communion commemorate many of the same saints as those in the Roman Catholic calendar, often on the same days, but also commemorate various famous (often post-Reformation and/or English) Christians who have not been canonized. ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first Sermon John Henry Newman (February 21, 1801 – August 11, 1890) was an English convert to Catholicism, later made a cardinal. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... From the Greek word λειτουργία, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning a public work, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), or a daily activity such as... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Worship usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as a god or goddess. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... From the Greek word λειτουργία, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning a public work, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), or a daily activity such as...

A traditional biretta
A traditional biretta

Where does the perception of the inevitability of the growth of this liturgical preoccupation spring from? The answer lies in the nature of the origins of the Oxford Movement. The leaders of the first generation of the Anglo-Catholic revival (e.g. Newman, Pusey, and Keble) had been primarily concerned with theological and ecclesiological questions and had little concern with questions of ritual, i.e. they championed the view that the fundamental identity of the Church of England was Catholic rather than Reformed - they had not been concerned with liturgical reform and had argued that Anglicans were bound by obedience to the use of the Book of Common Prayer. Tract 3 of the Tracts for the Times had strenuously argued against any revision of the Book of Common Prayer and saw its use as a matter of absolute obligation. Even Tract 90, which is an analysis of the 39 Articles and perhaps the high water mark of the development of the first generation of Anglo-Catholicism, insofar as the ritual aspects of liturgical practice is touched on by the Articles, is far more concerned with the theological dimension of the issue than any question of altering current liturgical practice in the Church of England. Biretta File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Cardinals biretta The biretta is a square cap with three ridges or peaks [four for those who hold doctorates in sacred sciences(canon law, sacred scripture, and theology)], surmounted by a tuft, traditionally worn by Roman Catholic clergy, as well as by some clergy of the Anglican Churches. ... From the Greek word λειτουργια, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning the work of the people, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may be refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), a daily... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... ... J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first Sermon John Henry Newman (February 21, 1801 – August 11, 1890) was an English convert to Catholicism, later made a cardinal. ... Edward Bouverie Pusey (August 22, 1800 - September 16, 1882), was an English churchman, and one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement. ... John Keble John Keble (April 25, 1792- March 29, 1866) was an English churchman, one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement, and gave his name to Keble College, Oxford (1870). ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason) means reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God. ... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is a branch of study that deals with the doctrines pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... From the Greek word λειτουργια, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning the work of the people, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may be refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), a daily... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... 1979 ECUSABCP The Book of Common Prayer[1] is foundational prayer book of the Church of England and also the name for similar books used in other churches in the Anglican Communion. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... 1979 ECUSABCP The Book of Common Prayer[1] is foundational prayer book of the Church of England and also the name for similar books used in other churches in the Anglican Communion. ... Tract 90 is the most famous and the most controversial of the Tracts for the Times (from which the term Tractarian is derived), produced by the first generation of the Anglo-Catholic Oxford Movement. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...


However, from an ecclesiological point of view, this all seemed to beg the question: "If the Church of England is truly Catholic in its identity, why does it not more visibly express this fact in its worship?" In other words, Ritualism in the late nineteenth century Church of England was, at one level, doing no more than giving liturgical expression to the theological conviction that the Church of England had sustained a fundamentally Catholic character after the Reformation. However, in some circles, this shift of focus to the question of ritual proved to be every bit as provocative as the theological assertions of the first generation of Anglo-Catholicism had been. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... From the Greek word λειτουργια, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning the work of the people, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may be refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), a daily... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ...


The clearest illustration of the shift that took place within Anglo-Catholicism from theological to liturgical questions is to be found in Pusey's attitude towards Ritualism. Pusey, the only pre-eminent first-generation leader of Anglo-Catholicism to survive into the second generation, had no sympathy with the preoccupation with ritual: he once famously asked, "What is a cope?", a question displaying an ignorance of ritual that no self-respecting Ritualist would dare display. However, when priests started to be prosecuted and imprisoned as a result of the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, Pusey was quick to show his support for those who were prosecuted. The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... Edward Bouverie Pusey (August 22, 1800 - September 16, 1882), was an English churchman, and one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement. ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... a priest wearing a cope The cope is a liturgical vestment, which may be of any liturgical colour, and is like a very long mantle or cloak, fastened at the breast by a clasp. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... The Public Worship Regulation Act 1874 was an English Act of Parliament, introduced as a Private Members Bill by Archbishop of Canterbury Archibald Campbell Tait, to limit what he perceived as the growing ritualism of Anglo-Catholicism and the Oxford Movement within the Church of England. ... Edward Bouverie Pusey (August 22, 1800 - September 16, 1882), was an English churchman, and one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement. ...


The early Ritualist controversies in 19th century England

"Smells and Bells": the controversial ritual practices
A "fiddleback" chasuble, the use of which by the priest could lead to prosecution
A "fiddleback" chasuble, the use of which by the priest could lead to prosecution

From the 1850s to the 1890s, the following liturgical practices espoused by many Ritualists led to some occasional and intense local controversies - some leading to prosecutions (most notably as a result of the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874): Made it myself This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Made it myself This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... // Events and Trends Technology Production of steel revolutionised by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Science Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species, putting forward the theory of evolution... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... From the Greek word λειτουργια, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning the work of the people, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may be refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), a daily... The Public Worship Regulation Act 1874 was an English Act of Parliament, introduced as a Private Members Bill by Archbishop of Canterbury Archibald Campbell Tait, to limit what he perceived as the growing ritualism of Anglo-Catholicism and the Oxford Movement within the Church of England. ...

it must also be noted (see the Cambridge Camden Society) that the Ritualist movement also played a substantial role in promoting Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican Churches. ... A fiddleback chasuble from the church of Saint Gertrude in Maarheeze in the Netherlands The chasuble is the outermost liturgical vestment worn by clergy for the celebration of the Eucharist among Western-tradition Christian churches that use full vestments, primarily the Roman Catholic Church and high church congregations in the... The stole (a liturgical vestment of various Christian denominations) is an embroidered band of cloth, formerly usually of silk, about two and one-half to three metres long and seven to ten centimetres wide, whose ends are usually broadened out. ... The alb, one of the liturgical vestments of the Roman Catholic, Anglican and many Protestant churches, is an ample garment of white linen coming down to the ankles and usually girded with a cincture. ... No longer used as one of the vestments of the Roman Catholic church since the Second Vatican Council, the maniple was an embroidered band of silk, about 110cm long, 8cm wide and with ends about 12cm wide. ... Johann Friedrich Freiherr von Cotta (* April 27, 1764 in Stuttgart - † December 29, 1832 in Stuttgart) was a German publisher, industrial pioneer and politician. ... A Cardinals biretta The biretta is a square cap with three ridges or peaks [four for those who hold doctorates in sacred sciences(canon law, sacred scripture, and theology)], surmounted by a tuft, traditionally worn by Roman Catholic clergy, as well as by some clergy of the Anglican Churches. ... a priest wearing a cope The cope is a liturgical vestment, which may be of any liturgical colour, and is like a very long mantle or cloak, fastened at the breast by a clasp. ... MITRE is a US not-for-profit corporation that manages three federally-funded research and development centers whose main activities are applying computer-based automation to large and complex tasks. ... Stained glass window of a thurible, St. ... Incense is a preparation of aromatic plant matter, often with the addition of essential oils extracted from plant or animal sources, intended to release fragrant smoke for religious, therapeutic, or aesthetic purposes as it smolders. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament,[1] to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament,[1] to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... Sacring-Bell, also known as Sanctus-Bell, is the bell which rings when the Host is elevated at the celebration of High Mass. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament,[1] to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... A Medieval Low Mass by a bishop. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Savior Not Made By Hands (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) An icon (from Greek εικων, eikon, image) is an artistic visual representation or symbol of anything considered holy and divine, such as God, saints or deities. ... Blessed Virgin Mary A traditional Catholic picture sometimes displayed in homes. ... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... A benediction is a short invocation for divine help, blessing and guidance, usually after a church worship service. ... The Cambridge Camden Society, known also as the Ecclesiological Society, was a learned architectural society founded in 1839 by undergraduates at Cambridge University to promote the study of Gothic Architecture, and of Ecclesiastical Antiques. ...

Fr. Arthur Tooth SSC who was prosecuted for Ritualist practices
Fr. Arthur Tooth SSC who was prosecuted for Ritualist practices

The prosecution and conviction of Arthur Tooth in 1876 and Sidney Faithorn Green in 1879 are good illustrative examples of the kind of issues that could be involved in controversies caused by these liturgical practices. The prosecutions (which were often instigated by the Church Association) gave considerable impetus to the foundation and work of the English Church Union. SSC (the Society of the Holy Cross) played a crucial role in championing and developing the use of elements of proscribed Catholic ritual in Anglicanism. This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... This article is about choirs, musical ensembles containing singers. ... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ... The organ of Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... West Gallery Music is a term which refers to music conventionally sung and played in the West Gallery of a Church of England church. ... Image File history File links FatherTooth. ... Image File history File links FatherTooth. ... Father Arthur Tooth SSC (1839–1931), a Ritualist and clergyman in the Church of England, and a member of the Society of the Holy Cross, is most famous for having being prosecuted in 1876 under the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874 for using proscribed liturgical practices. ... The Symbol of the Society of the Holy Cross The Society of the Holy Cross is an international Anglo-Catholic society for priests in the Anglican tradition. ... Father Arthur Tooth SSC (1839–1931), a Ritualist and clergyman in the Church of England, and a member of the Society of the Holy Cross, is most famous for having being prosecuted in 1876 under the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874 for using proscribed liturgical practices. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Rev. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Church Association was an English evangelical Christian organisation, founded in 1865. ... The Church Union is an Anglo-Catholic advocacy group within the Church of England. ... The Symbol of the Society of the Holy Cross The Society of the Holy Cross is an international Anglo-Catholic society for priests in the Anglican tradition. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... The term Anglican (from medieval Latin ecclesia Anglicana meaning the English church) is used to describe the people, institutions, and churches that adhere to the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England, the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican Churches, a loosely affiliated group of independent churches which...


The perception of Ritualism as a threat to English identity

For many who opposed Ritualism, the key concern was to defend what they saw as the fundamentally Protestant identity of the Church of England. Nor was this just a matter of an ecclesiological argument: for many, there was a sense that Catholic worship is somehow "unEnglish". Catholicism was deeply associated in many minds with cultural identities which, historically, many English people had commonly treated with suspicion, especially the Spanish, the French, and the Irish. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is a branch of study that deals with the doctrines pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... Worship usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as a god or goddess. ... It has been suggested that Catholic, One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church be merged into this article or section. ... The English are an ethnic group or nation associated with England and the English language. ...


For an ideological defence of this position, it was argued that English identity was closely tied in with England's history as a Protestant country that, after the Reformation, had played a key role in opposing Catholic powers in Continental Europe (especially Spain and then France). In the minds of such people, Protestantism was inextricably identified with anti-despotic values and Catholicism with autocracy that, in the religious arena, hid behind the "disguise" of such things as complicated rituals whose meaning deliberately lacked transparency. The opposition to Ritualism therefore had a deeply cultural and symbolic significance that extended far beyond purely theological concerns. The English are an ethnic group or nation associated with England and the English language. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Despotism is government by a singular authority, either a single person or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute power. ... An Autocracy is a form of government in which unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ...


Ritualists themselves were often at pains to try and present the "Englishness" of the Ritual they championed by (mostly) keeping English as the language of the liturgy and reconstructing Anglo-Catholicism as a recovery of pre-Reformation Catholic forms that were specifically English: a revival of interest in the Sarum Rite (the pre-Reformation Catholic liturgy of Salisbury) was sparked off by the Ritualist movement. This tendency was also often expressed in such details as the revival in the use of the pre-Reformation Gothic forms rather than the Baroque — the Baroque was more closely linked in the minds of many with specifically continental and Counter Reformation forms. The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Sarum Rite, more properly called the Sarum Use, was a variant of the Latin Rite practiced in Great Britain & Ireland from the late 11th Century until the Reformation. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Salisbury (pronounced Solsbree or Sauls-bree) is a small cathedral city in Wiltshire, England. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin Gothic Revival was an architectural movement with its origins in mid-18th century England. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Ritualism and Christian Socialism

Although Ritualism had an aesthetic and ideological appeal for many in the cultural elite, and had a cognate relationship with the Gothic Revival, the idea that it was inextricably linked with an inclination towards political despotism was a misapprehension. Certainly, Ritualism had an appeal for many who were politically conservative and had supporters highly placed in the establishment (e.g. Viscount Halifax and the 4th Marquess of Bath). However, the outlook of many of the Ritualist clergy themselves, many of whom inevitably operated in some of the most deprived communities in England, resulted in their becoming politically radicalised by the experience — some became ardent Christian Socialists. Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... Charles Lindley Wood, 2nd Viscount Halifax (7 January 1839–19 January 1934) married, Lady Agnes Courtenay, daughter of the 11th Earl of Devon. ... The Most Honourable Sir John Alexander Thynne, 4th Marquess of Bath (March 1, 1831–April 20, 1896) was the son of Henry Thynne, 3rd Marquess of Bath. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Christian socialism. ...


Anti-Ritualism, homophobia, and "muscular Christianity"

In the spectrum of hostility that it aroused, Ritualism also provoked in some of its opponents a homophobic reaction that saw its theatricality and its aestheticism as symptoms of "effeminacy". A typical charge was that ritualistic clergy were "man milliners," more concerned with lace and brocade than doctrine. This reaction played a central role in the evolution of the Broad and Low Church enthusiasm for "muscular Christianity". Homophobia is a term used to describe: A culturally determined phobia manifesting as fear, revulsion, or contempt for homosexuality. ... Effeminacy is a character trait in males that generally contradicts traditional male (masculine) gender roles. ... Broad church is a term referring to latitudinarian churches in the Church of England. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England, initially designed to be pejorative. ...


Ritualism and the outreach of the Church of England to the unchurched urban poor

One of the key ideological justifications used by many of the early Ritualists, apart from the fact that it was a symbolic way of affirming their belief in the essentially Catholic nature of Anglicanism, was the argument that it provided a particularly effective medium for bringing Christianity to the poorest, "slum parishes" of the Church of England. The term Anglican (from medieval Latin ecclesia Anglicana meaning the English church) is used to describe the people, institutions, and churches that adhere to the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England, the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican Churches, a loosely affiliated group of independent churches which... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...


It was argued that ritual and aesthetically impressive liturgy did not only provide a powerful contrast to the drabness of the lives of the poor, its emphasis on symbol and action rather than word was a more effective medium for spreading Christian faith in areas with poor literacy rates than the highly cerebral and logocentric worship that was focused on the Book of Common Prayer. A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... From the Greek word λειτουργία, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning a public work, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), or a daily activity such as... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... World literacy rates by country The traditional definition of literacy is the ability to use language–to read, write, listen, and speak. ... 1979 ECUSABCP The Book of Common Prayer[1] is foundational prayer book of the Church of England and also the name for similar books used in other churches in the Anglican Communion. ...


This argument may have had some merits, but, very often, the respect that the most successful ritualists often gained in the highly impoverished communities they went to serve was based on the fact that they had successfully expressed a genuine pastoral concern for the poor amongst whom they lived. Pastoral care is the ministry of care and counseling provided by pastors, chaplains and other religious leaders to members of their group (church, congregation, etc). ...


The argument for Ritualism in Anglicanism was also based on the slightly misleading analogy with the success of the Roman Catholic Church amongst the highly impoverished Irish migrant communities in the urban areas of England - it was argued by some that ritual played a key role in the growth of the Roman Catholic Church amongst the poor. However, this argument sometimes overlooked or ignored the fact that the use of ritual probably played little more than a subsidiary role in the success of the Catholic Church in this area: its success was probably largely due to a special cultural identity that many Irish migrants felt with the Roman Catholic Church as one of the few institutions that they encountered in diaspora that was also a key feature of life in their country of origin. The term Anglican (from medieval Latin ecclesia Anglicana meaning the English church) is used to describe the people, institutions, and churches that adhere to the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England, the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican Churches, a loosely affiliated group of independent churches which... Analogy is either the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... The Irish diaspora consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, New Zealand, Mexico, South Africa and states of the Caribbean and continental Europe. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Irish diaspora consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, New Zealand, Mexico, South Africa and states of the Caribbean and continental Europe. ...


Drawing conclusions from the Ritualist controversies in the Church of England

Edward King, Bishop of Lincoln, by Leslie Ward 1890 — King was prosecuted for ritualist practices.
Edward King, Bishop of Lincoln, by Leslie Ward 1890 — King was prosecuted for ritualist practices.

Image File history File links Edward_King. ... Image File history File links Edward_King. ... Edward King as Bishop of Lincoln, by Leslie Ward, 1890. ... Arms of the Bishop of Lincoln The Bishop of Lincoln heads the Anglican Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury. ... Sir Leslie Ward (1851–1922) was a British portrait artist and caricaturist. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ...

The legacy of the Ritualist controversies in the Church of England

Despite the heat created within the Church of England by the Ritualist controversies, the campaign and the sacrifices of the early Ritualists proved to be fruitful: the use of vestments and wafer bread for the eucharist became widespread, even normal in the Church of England for much of the 20th Century. Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican Churches. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament,[1] to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Although most members of the Church of England today would still be uncomfortable or sceptical about certain Catholic liturgical practices, they are often astonished to be told that, in the late 19th century, using incense, wearing vestments, putting candles on the altar, and using unleavened (wafer) bread in the Eucharist could spark riots, put priests in prison, and even lead in 188890 to the prosecution of a bishop — Edward King, bishop of Lincoln. The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Incense is a preparation of aromatic plant matter, often with the addition of essential oils extracted from plant or animal sources, intended to release fragrant smoke for religious, therapeutic, or aesthetic purposes as it smolders. ... Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican Churches. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament,[1] to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... Roman Catholic priests in traditional clerical clothing. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Edward King as Bishop of Lincoln, by Leslie Ward, 1890. ... Arms of the Bishop of Lincoln The Bishop of Lincoln heads the Anglican Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury. ...


Deciphering and evaluating the cultural significance of Ritualism in the Church of England

Perhaps one reflection needs to be made in the light of that aspect of the Ritualist controversy that took it into some of the most economically marginalised communities in England: maybe it needs to be asked whether part of the appeal of Ritualism, in common with the Gothic Revival in architecture and the revival of interest in Chivalric forms in art and literature, is an essentially Romantic and nostalgic protest against the growth of industrial and machine civilisation. However, even if such a speculation is true, it cannot provide a global explanation for the phenomenon of Ritualism or its attendant controversies. Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ...


Theologically speaking, there can be little doubt that Ritualism, at its best, gave expression to a profoundly incarnational theology that sought to engage the whole body and the imagination in worship — and gave a vehicle for the expression of paternalistic concern for the poor amongst its politically conservative supporters and a passionate enthusiasm for improving the lot of the powerless amongst its more politically radical supporters. Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Paternalism refers to a policy that prevents others from doing harm to themselves or a belief in such policies. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ...


Bibliography

  • James Bentley: Ritualism and Politics in Victorian Britain: Oxford: Oxford University Press: 1978: ISBN 0-19-826714-2
  • Lida Ellsworth: Charles Lowder and the Ritualist Movement: London: Darlton, Longman and Todd: 1982: ISBN 0-232-51535-2
  • Gary Graber: Ritual Legislation in the Victorian Church of England: Antecedents and Passage of the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874: San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press: 1993: ISBN 0-7734-2216-1
  • Kenneth Hylson-Smith: High Churchmanship in the Church of England: From the Sixteenth to the Late Twentieth Centuries: Edinburgh: T&T Clark: 1993: ISBN 0-567-09623-8
  • Frank Reynolds: Martyr of Ritualism: Father MacKonochie of St Albans, Holborn: London: Faber and Faber: 1965.
  • Martin Wellings, Evangelicals Embattled: Responses of Evangelicals in the Church of England to Ritualism, Darwinism and Theological Liberalism (1890–1930): Carlisle: Paternoster Press: 2003: ISBN 1-84227-049-4
  • James Whisenant: A Fragile Unity: Anti-Ritualism and the Division of Anglican Evangelicalism in the Nineteenth Century: Carlisle: Paternoster Press: 2003: ISBN 1-84227-105-9
  • Nigel Yates: Anglican Ritualism in Victorian Britain: (1830–1910). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999: ISBN 0-19-626989-7

See also

Neo-Gothic "solar" monstrance used for Benediction.
Neo-Gothic "solar" monstrance used for Benediction.

made it myself This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... made it myself This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Neo-gothic architecture is an American branch of the Gothic revival style that was imported from England in the 1830s. ... A benediction is a short invocation for divine help, blessing and guidance, usually after a church worship service. ... The term Anglican (from medieval Latin ecclesia Anglicana meaning the English church) is used to describe the people, institutions, and churches that adhere to the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England, the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican Churches, a loosely affiliated group of independent churches which... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... The Book of Common Prayer is the prayer book of the Church of England and also the name for similar books used in other churches in the Anglican Communion. ... The Cambridge Camden Society, known also as the Ecclesiological Society, was a learned architectural society founded in 1839 by undergraduates at Cambridge University to promote the study of Gothic Architecture, and of Ecclesiastical Antiques. ... The Church Association was an English evangelical Christian organisation, founded in 1865. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Thomas Pelham Dale, (1821–1892), Anglo-Catholic ritualist clergyman, most famous for being prosecuted and imprisoned for ritualist practices, was born at Greenwich on 3 April 1821, was brought up in Beckenham, Kent. ... The Revd Dr Percy Dearmer MA (Oxon), DD, in 1911. ... George Anthony Denison (11 December 1805 - 21 March 1896) was an English churchman. ... Robert William Radclyffe Dolling (1851-1902), English divine, known as Father Dolling, was born at Magheralin, County Down, and educated at Harrow and Cambridge. ... The Church Union is an Anglo-Catholic advocacy group within the Church of England. ... The English Hymnal was published in 1906 for the Church of England under the editorship of Percy Dearmer and Ralph Vaughan Williams. ... The Liturgical Movement is a movement of scholarship and the reform of worship within the Roman Catholic Church which has taken place over the last century and a half and which has affected many Reformed Churches including the Church of England and other Churches of the Anglican Communion. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... The Oxford Movement was a loose affiliation of High Church Anglicans, most of them members of the University of Oxford, who sought to demonstrate that the Church of England was a direct descendant of the Christian church established by the Apostles. ... The Public Worship Regulation Act 1874 was an English Act of Parliament, introduced as a Private Members Bill by Archbishop of Canterbury Archibald Campbell Tait, to limit what he perceived as the growing ritualism of Anglo-Catholicism and the Oxford Movement within the Church of England. ... John Charles Ryle (May 10, 1816 - June 10, 1900) was the first bishop of Liverpool (Anglican / Church of England). ... The Symbol of the Society of the Holy Cross The Society of the Holy Cross is an international Anglo-Catholic society for priests in the Anglican tradition. ... The vestments controversy arose in the English Reformation, ostensibly concerning vestments, but more fundamentally concerned with English Protestant identity, doctrine, and various church practices. ... Map sources for Walsingham at grid reference TF934368 This refers to the town, for other uses see Walsingham (disambiguation) Walsingham (full name Little Walsingham) is a small market town (population 864) in Norfolk, England, famed for its religious shrines in honour of the Virgin Mary. ...

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