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Encyclopedia > Ritual servitude
Slavery
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Servitude Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Slave redirects here. ... The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures and throughout human history. ... Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The Atlantic slave trade was the trade of African slaves by Europeans that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. ... It has been suggested that Impact of Slave Trade on Africa be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islam and slavery. ... The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures and throughout human history. ... The trafficking of human beings is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people for the purpose of exploitation. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... Servitude may refer to: Service conscription employment Slavery indentured servitude ...

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Ritual servitude is practiced in Ghana, Togo, and Benin where traditional religious shrines take young girls in payment for services, or in religious atonement for alleged misdeeds of a family member —almost always a male. The girls are sexually abused, serve at hard labor without compensation, suffer harsh punishment, and are denied education and human affection. If a girl runs away or dies, she must be replaced by another girl from the family. Some girls in ritual servitude are the third or fourth girl in their family suffering for the same crime, sometimes for something as trite as the loss of trivial property. It is still practiced in some places within Ghana, in spite of being outlawed 1998, and its carrying of a minimum three year prison sentence for conviction. In Ghana the practice is also called trokosi or fiashidi. In Togo and Benin it is called voodoosi. Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... For other uses, see Girl (disambiguation). ... Child sexual abuse is an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor or exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification. ...


Christian NGO's and other Human rights organizations are fighting the practice. Some have openly labeled it slavery, although this term is disliked by traditional advocates of the practice. The NGO's use of the term slaves comes from former trokosi who have been liberated.1 These groups have actively sought to liberate girls held in ritual servitude. When Ghana (then Gold Coast) was under colonial rule, a few citizens complained about the practice, but the colonial masters turned their heads. The practice was drawn into the national spotlight in 1980 when Mark Wisdom, a Baptist pastor, responded to what he says was a vision from God, and challenged the system in the national media. Organizations that have been most active in liberating ritual slaves are FESLIM (Fetish Slaves Liberation Movement), founded by Mark Wisdom, International Needs, and Every Child Ministries. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Slave redirects here. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Flag of Gold Coast Map from 1896 of the British Gold Coast Colony. ...

Contents

Trokosi

Trokosi is a traditional practice of sexual slavery in some parts of Ghana, Togo, and Benin. In Ghana, it is practised by the Ewes in the Volta region and by their counterparts in Togo and Benin. In this practice, young girls, usually under the age of 10 and sometimes as young as three, are given to village fetish shrine priests as sexual/domestic slaves or "wives of the gods" in compensation for offenses allegedly committed, or debts incurred, by a member of the girl's family, or as payment for favours sought from the shrine. [1] In Togo and Benin the slaves are called Voodoosi (French spelling "voudounsi"). The Anlo people of Ghana call the practice fiashidi.[2] Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is...


The practice continues in Ghana despite a 1998 law against "ritual or customary servitude" mandating a three-year prison sentence on conviction.[3] No one has yet been prosecuted under the law. Women's groups, human rights groups and Christian NGOs continue to strive to end the practice, and have won the liberation of over 2000 trokosi slaves by negotiating agreements with individual shrine communities to end the practice in those places. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


The word trokosi comes from the Ewe words "tro", meaning deity or fetish, and "kosi", meaning female slave.[4] [5] However, the term is commonly used in English in Ghana, as a loanword. Ewe (native name , the language) is a Kwa language spoken in Ghana and Togo by approximately three million people. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


Categories of Tro Adherents:


1. Those who join the Tro of their own volition (extremely rare) and those who were born into the Tro and initiated as children (Trovivo);


2. Those thought to have been born through the intervention of the Tro (Dorflevivo) and thus incur a lifetime obligation to the tro;


3. Those called by the tro to serve as priest and priestesses of the shrine (Tronua);


4. Those who join through promise made by a family who supposedly benefited from the Tro; and finally


5. Those Trokosi who are sent by families, often against the will of the girl involved, out of fear that if they do not do so, further calamities may afflict them through the anger of the shrine deities. This last group consists of those vestal virgins who are sent into servitude at the shrines of the Troxovi due to crimes allegedly committed by their senior or elder family members, almost always males like fathers, grandfathers, and uncles. The trokosi is sort of a "living sacrifice," who by her suffering is thought to save the family from trouble. This latter group comprises the greatest number by far of trokosi.


Practices in traditional shrines vary, but trokosi are usually denied education, suffer a life of hardship, and are a lonely lot, stigmatized by society.


Other Countries

This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is...

References

  1. ^  Field Findings on the System of Slavery Commonly Known as Trokosi, L W Rouster,M.R.E., ECMAfrica Publications, 2005, p. 4.
  2. ^  The Trokosi System, Mark Wisdom, FESLIM, 2001, p. 4
  3. ^  Wisdom, p 3.
  4. ^  The Criminal Code of Ghana, Act. 1998 Act. 554.
  5. ^  Wisdom, p 3.
  6. Information on Trokosi--Specialized Dictionary of Trokosi Terms, Commission for Truth on Trokosi, p.3.
  7. Report on Trokosi Institution, Researched and Written by Dr. Elom Dovlo, University of Ghana, Legon, 1995.
  8. "Trokosi--Should This Practice Be Allowed to Continue?", Progressive Utilization, Vol. 2. No. 1, PO Box C267 Cantonments Communication Centre, Accra, Ghana, 1995.

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