FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Rishikas

Rshikas were an ancient tribe living in the northern division of ancient India. They find references in the Mahabharata, Ramayana, Brhat Samhita, Markendeya Purana etc. Ashtadhyayi of Panini does not mention the Rishikas, but Mahabhasya of Patanjali does make reference to this people. Mahabharata refers to the Rishikas as Uttara Rishikas as well as Parama Rishikas [1]. Rishikas are stated to have been living as neighbors to the Parama-Kambojas and the Lohas in Transoxiana region, in Saka-dvipa. In second century prior to Christian era, a section of them is believed to have migrated to south-west India via Afghanistan, Balochistan, Sindhu, Sovira and settled in a region, later known as Khandesh (north-western Maharashtra). This settlement of the Rishikas is known as Southern Rishikas. The southern Rshikas are also attested as Saha.isikas, Saha.chaisika and Saha.vaisikyas in Puranic literature. The Prakrit form of Rishika is said to be Isika/Ishika, Esika/Eshika or Asika/Ashika (Dr Motichandra). The Prishakas of Al biruni, are stated to be same as the Rishikas. The Uttara Rishikas were the military allies as well as the cultural & geographical neighbors of the Parama Kambojas [2]. http://www. ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... The Ashtadhyayi (Ạṣtādhyāyī, meaning eight chapters) is the earliest known grammar of Sanskrit, and one of the first works on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics, or linguistics altogether. ... Panini can refer to: Pāṇini, the 5th century BC Sanskrit grammarian Panini (sandwich), a type of Italian sandwich Panini (stickers), a brand of collectible stickers Giovanni Paolo Panini, an Italian artist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... Balochistan or Baluchistan may refer to: Balochistan (region) is the name of a large region covering southwest Pakistan and southeast Iran Balochistan (Iran) is part of the Iranian Sistan and Baluchistan Province Balochistan (Pakistan) is the name of a province of Pakistan. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Sovira or Souveera was the territory which is now known as the Sindh Province in Pakistan . ... Maharashtra   (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , English: , IPA: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Biruni commemorated on a Soviet stamp for his millennial anniversary. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ...


Some scholars hold that the Rishikas are same as the Yuezhis [3]. Prof Stein thinks that the Tukharas or Tusharas were a branch of the Yue-ches (Yuezhi) [4], where as Dr P. C. Bagchi holds that the Yue-ches, Tokharoi/Tokarai and the Tukharas/Tusharas were identical [5]. Dr J. C. Vidyalankar believes that the Kushanas or Kanishkas are same as Rishikas [6]. Thus, according to above several equations, the Rishikas are also indentifiable with the Tusharas/Kushanas. According to Dr B. N. Puri, the Kambojas were a branch of Tukharas [7]. Languages Unknown, altough the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian. ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Languages Unknown, altough the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Kanishka (Kushan language: , Ancient Chinese: 迦腻色伽) was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, ruling an empire extending from Northern India to Central Asia in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Rishikas are also stated to be same as the Asioi or Asii of Strabo. This name Asioi/Asii alludes to their connections with Asva or Assa (horses) (cf: Aspasioi, Aspasii, Hippasii, Assa-seni, Aseni, Asscani---the names used by classical writers for the Kamboja clans of Swat/Kunar valleys). The Aspasios and Assakenois (q.v.) were important clans of the Kambojas exclusively engaged in horse culture. It is therefore, believed by many scholars that the Asio/Asii or Aseni of Strabo may refer to the people of Parama-Kamboja (the bigger and the further branch of the Kambojas living in Scythia or Shaka-dvipa, across the Hindukush/Himalaya) in Transoxiana region. Asii, Asio, Osii, Asiani etc is the name of a people, believed to be followers of Scythian culture, a section of whom had moved out from Alai valley during second century BCE under pressure from Ta Yuezhi, and in association with Pasiani and Sacarauloi (Sacae) tribes, they had wrested Sogdiana... Asii, Asio, Osii, Asiani etc is the name of a people, believed to be followers of Scythian culture, a section of whom had moved out from Alai valley during second century BCE under pressure from Ta Yuezhi, and in association with Pasiani and Sacarauloi (Sacae) tribes, they had wrested Sogdiana... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... This article is about Special Weapons and Tactics. ... Kunar province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country and on the border with Pakistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ...

Contents

Rishikas on Sarasvati/Greater Panjab

Matsya Purana wants to make us believe that the Rishikas were so called since they had descended from the Rishis or wisemen or learned parentage [8]. It’s the sixteenth Purana. ... RSI may refer to: Repetitive strain injury, a disorder affecting bone and muscle from repetitive movements Rapid sequence induction, a form of anæsthesia Relative strength index, a security market indicator Radiotelevisione svizzera di lingua italiana, a Swiss radio broadcaster Research Science Institute, a summer research program held at MIT...


Since Sarasvati, in ancient times, was connected with people of scholarly lineage, Dr M. R. Singh tends to locate the Rishikas of the Puranic accounts on Sarasvati in Haryana [9]. This article is about Saraswati, the Hindu goddess. ... The term lineage can refer to several things. ... ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Rishikas in Saka-dvipa

The name Rishika occurs in Mahabharata as a part of Saka-dvipa [10]. Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ...


These northern Rishikas have been addressed as Uttara Rishikas (i.e. Rishikan.uttaranapi) and are shown as very close neighbors of the northern division of the Kambojas i.e the Parama-Kambojas and the Lohas. Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ...


These allied forces of the Lohas, Parama-Kambojas and northern Rishikas had fought a fierce war with the forces of Pandava Arjuna during latter's Digvijay expedition against the tribes of Uttarapatha or northern division [11]. In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... Krishna to Arjuna: Behold My mystic opulence! Arjuna (Sanskrit: अर्जुन, arjuna) is one of the heroes of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ...


The Kishikindha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana also refers to these northern Rishikas [12] and locates them in Saka-dvipa, in the neighborhood of the Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Bahlikas, Tanganas, Chinas, Parama-Chinas etc of the Central Asia. For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Rishikas in South-west India

The Saka invasion of India in second century BCE was a joint military venture in which the allied tribes of the Shakas, Pahlavas, Kambojas, Paradas, Rishikas, Bahlikas etc seem to have participated. These tribes had spread into and occupied the parts of western and south-western India. The Sakas were Iranian people stock who lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia, in the centuries before 300 AD. They are considered to be a branch of Scythians by most scholars. ... Only known drawing of Shaka standing with the long throwing assegai and the heavy shield in 1824 - four years before his death Shaka (sometimes spelled Tshaka, Tchaka or Chaka; ca. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... There are parishes that have the name in Portugal: Parada, a parish in the district of Alfândega da Fé Parada, a parish in the district of Almeida Parada, a parish in the district of Arcos de Valdevez Parada, a parish in the district of Bragança Parada, a parish... Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ...


Thus, the Rishikas are attested in later literature as living in south-western/southern parts of India also.


Some verses in Karanaparava and Bhishmaparava of Mahabharata composed and edited during post-Christian times (400 AD) refer to the Rishikas in the Dakshinapatha or southern India and show them as a Janapada located in close vicinity to the Vidarbhas and the Ashmakas [13]. Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that expression Dakshinpatha, in general was used as a name both for the southern high road as also for the region lying south of Majjhimdesa or Mid India. ... The political process among the ancient Aryans appears to have originally started with semi-nomadic tribal units called Jana (Sanskrit: Jana = tribe). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Kishikindha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana also refers to this second branch of the Rishikas and also places them in Dakshinapatha in the neighborhood of the Vidarbhas [14]. Valmiki composes the Ramayana Maharishi Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मिकी, vālmikī) is the author of the Hindu epic Ramayana. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that expression Dakshinpatha, in general was used as a name both for the southern high road as also for the region lying south of Majjhimdesa or Mid India. ...


Many scholars assume that the current version of the Valmiki Ramayana was a creation of 200 BCE to 200 CE, hence this reference to the souhern Rishikas .


Post-Christian creation Markendeya Purana[15] also attests the Rishikas of the Dakshinapatha or southern division.


Likewise, a sixth century creation Brhat Samhita by Varaha Mihira also attests the Rishikas in Dakshinapatha or southern division [16]. Varahamihira (505 – 587) was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer born in Ujjain. ...


The geographical location of these Rishikas is said to fall on river Krsnavena. Rishika country laid on south of Vindhya, north of Mulakas, north-east of Nasika, west of Vidharba and south of Anupa or Anupadesha. The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ...


Modern Khandesh is stated to have formed part of southern Rishika country.


It is notable that the same Brhat Samhita [17] and the Markendeya Purana [18] also attest some Kamboja and Pahlava settlements located in south-west India [19].


The geographical location of these Kambojas and Pahlavas is thought to be around Gujarat/Maharashtra somewhere, thus in close neighborhood of the southern Rishikas. Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Maharashtra   (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , English: , IPA: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ...


The following evidence from Udyogaparava of Mahabharata associates the Rishikas with the Kambojas, Shakas and Pahlavas and states them all living around Anupa region or Anupadesha [20]. Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ...

Shakanam Pahlavana.n cha Daradanam cha ye nripah |
Kamboja Rishika ye cha pashchim.anupakash cha ye ||5.5.15||

Trans: The kings of the Shakas, Pahlavas and the Daradas, and the Kamboja Rishikas live in the west in Anupadesa or sea coast regions.


The Daradas in the verse above appears to be a copyist's mistake for Daradas since it were the Paradas, not the Daradas, who have, most often, been associated with the corporated military confederation of the Shakas, Kambojas and Pahlavas etc (Pānca-ganah or five hordes of Kshatriyas in the Puranic texts, for instance) [21] [22]. Daradas were a people who lived north and north-east to the Kashmir valley. ... A copyist is a person who makes written copies. ... ...



Anupadesha of Sanskrit traditions is stated to have comprised Doab of rivers Narbada and Tapti. It lied on east of Gujarat, north of Vindhya and south of the Avanti Janapada. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ... The Tapti River is a river of central India. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... The name may refer to one of the following. ... The political process among the ancient Aryans appears to have originally started with semi-nomadic tribal units called Jana (Sanskrit: Jana = tribe). ...


Whatever may be the context, these verses probably reflect on the post-Christian scenario when mass encroachment of interior India had occurred due to invasion of India by these foreign hordes. For the American magazine, see Foreign Policy. ... Look up Horde in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


On Kamboja Rishika Connection?

There are not enough references in ancient literature on Rishika clan. But it looks like there is somehow, a connection between the ancient Rishikas and the ancient Kambojas. Some notable observations follow:

  • The Sabhaparava of Mahabharata portrays the Lohas, Kambojas and the Rishikas as very close neighborly and allied tribes and places them all in Saka-dvipa in trans-Himalayan territory [23].
  • Adiparva of Mahabharata collates the Kambojas and the Rishikas together and views them both as despised people. Chandravarma, the king of Kambojas is branded as an incarnation of Daitya Chandra and also the sage Rishika (from the Rishika tribe), likewise is branded as an incarnation of Danva Arka. The Kambojas and Rishikas here are placed side-by-side in the same verse [24], thus implying them as possibly related or else closely connected together, geographically and culturally, at least.
  • The Udyogaparava of Mahabharata [25] also connects the Kambojas and Rishikas together and treats them as if they are one people (Kambojarishika). Based on the wording of this verse of Mahabharata, Prof Ishwa Misra, a very outstanding Sanskrit scholar and notable contributor on Indiancivilization forum [26], identifies the Rishikas as a sub-section of the Kambojas themselves [27].
  • As noted above, both the Brahat Samhita as well as Markendeya Purana locate one section of the Rishikas in Dakshinapatha (south/south-west India), on river Krsnavena, in Khandesh (Maharashtra). Interestingly, the same two texts also locate one section of the Kambojas and the Pahlavas in south-west India, in Anupadesha, which region borders on this south-western Rishika country. All these people are obviously sections of the invading hordes who had come and settled in India in the wake of second century BCE Saka invasion of India.
  • Scholars say that the tribal name Rishika implies scholarly class of people as Matsya Purana and the Vayu Purana would like us to believe. Thus Rishikas had either sprung from Rishis i.e. the scholarly parentage or else they, themselves, were a scholarly people. This compares well with the Kambojas who, in Dronaparava section of Mahabharata, are also portrayed as a scholarly people [28].
  • And so forth and so on.

Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Perspective view of the Himalayas and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that expression Dakshinpatha, in general was used as a name both for the southern high road as also for the region lying south of Majjhimdesa or Mid India. ... Maharashtra   (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , English: , IPA: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... The Sakas were Iranian people stock who lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia, in the centuries before 300 AD. They are considered to be a branch of Scythians by most scholars. ...

Conclusions

The firm ethnical connection between the ancient Rishikas and the Kambojas may not be easy to establish due to inadequacy of sufficient reliable references, but whatever limited evidence we have with us definitely points towards this connection and at least attest the fact that the ancient Rishikas and the Kambojas were culturally, militarliy, politically and geographically connected together. Therefore, it may be possible that the Rishikas were a furthermost tip of the Parama-Kambojas.


References

  1. ^
    Lohan.ParamaKambojan.Rishikan.uttaranapi |
    sahita.nstanmaharaja vyajayatpakashasanih ||24||
    Rishikeshu tu sanggramo babhuvAtibhaya.n karah|
    taraka maya sankashah Paramarshika parthayoh ||25||
    {Mahabharata, Critical Edition, 2.25.24-25.
  2. ^ Mahabharata 2.27.25.
  3. ^ India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashtadhyayi, 1953, p 321, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.
  4. ^ Rajatrangini, I, p 136 fn.
  5. ^ India and Central Asia, p 24, Dr P. C. Bagchi.
  6. ^ See quote in: Problems of Ancient India, 2000, p 4, K. D. Sethna.
  7. ^ Buddhism in Central Asia, p 90.
  8. ^ Rishika.putra.rishikastu.. 145.86; See also: Vayu Purana 59.84-94; Geographical Data in Early Puranas, p 31).
  9. ^ Ibid.
  10. ^
    Lohan. Parama. Kambojan. Rishikan.uttaranapi|
    sahita.nstanmaharaja vyajayatpakashasanih || 24||
    (Mahabharata, Critical Editions 2.25.24)
    See comments by Dr Agarwala in: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p 64.
  11. ^ Mahabharata 2.27.27.
  12. ^ The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India, Volume 4: Kiskindhakanda, 151, Rosalind Lefeber; Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India: (a Study on the Puranic Lists of the Peoples of Bharatavarsa), 1955, p 71, Dr Sashi Bhusan Chaudhuri.
  13. ^ Mahabharata 6.10.63.
  14. ^ Op cit., R. Lefeber, p 145.
  15. ^ Markendeya Purana Chapter 58.20-28.
  16. ^ Brhat Samhita Ch XIV.11-16.
  17. ^ Brhat Samhita XIV.17-19.
  18. ^ Markendeya Purana 58.30-32.
  19. ^ Geographical data in Early Puranas, p 135. See also: [1].
  20. ^ cf: Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India: (a Study on the Puranic Lists of the Peoples of Bharatavarsa), 1955, p 71, Dr Sashi Bhusan Chaudhuri.
  21. ^ Harivamsa 14.1-19; Vayu Purana: v 88.127-43.
  22. ^ Cultural History from Vayu Purana, 1973, p 27, fn 185, Reprint of 1946 Edition, published by Deccan College Post Graduate Research Institute, Poona; Foreign Elements in Ancient Indian Society, 2nd Century BC to 7th Century AD - 1979, p 125, Uma Prasad Thapliyal.
  23. ^ MBH II.27.25
  24. ^ MBH 1/67/31-32.
  25. ^ Mahabharata 5.5.15, see the verse above.
  26. ^ [2]
  27. ^ [3].
  28. ^
    Sanskrit:
    ye tvete rathino rajandrishyante kanchanadhvajah.|
    ete durvarana nama Kamboja yadi te shrutah.||43||
    shurashcha kritavidyashcha dhanurvede cha nishthitah.|
    sa.nhatashcha bhrisha.n hyete anyonyasya hitaishinah.||44||
    akshauhinyashcha sa.nrabdha dhartarahhtrasya bharata.|
    (MBH 7.112.43-44)
    English Trans:
    Those other car-warriors with golden standards, O king, whom you see, and who, like the wild elephants are difficult of being resisted, they are called the Kambojas. They are brave, a learned people (kritavidyash) and are firmly devoted to the science of weapons. Desiring one another's welfare, they are all highly united and mutually co-operative. They constitute a full Akshauhini of wrathful warriors.

Deccan College, Pune Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute is a post-graduate institute of Archeology and Linguistics in Pune, India. ...

Books and Megazines

  • Mahabharata, Tans: Kisari Mohan Ganguli.
  • Matsya Purana
  • Vayu Purana
  • Brhat Samhita of Varaha Mihira
  • Markendeya Purana
  • Mahabhasya of Patanjali
  • India as Known to Panini, Dr V. S. Aggarwala
  • Gographical Data in Early Puranas 1972, Dr M. R. Singh
  • Ancient Kamboja, People and Country, 1981, Dr J. L. Kamboj.
  • The Mahabharata, Volume 2 : Book 2; Book 3: 1981, J. A. B. Van Buitenen
  • The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India, Volume 4 Kiskindhakanda 1994, Rosalind Lefeber.
  • Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India: (a Study on the Puranic Lists of the Peoples of Bharatavarsa), 1955, p 71, Dr Sashi Bhusan Chaudhuri

See also

Kambojas
Parama Kambojas
Uttara Madras
Kurus
Uttara Kurus
Indo-Scythians
Sakas
Scythians
Yona
Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. ... The Uttaramadra was the northern branch of the Madra people numerously referenced in ancient Sanskrit and Pali literature. ... The Kurus are an ancient people of Indo-Aryans known from the early Vedic period. ... Uttarakuru was the name of ancient country and its people as numerously referenced in ancient Vedic, Brahmanical and the Buddhist texts and numerous other ancient Sanskrit texts. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... Yona (also sometimes Yonaka) is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate ancient Greek people. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Agre (601 words)
Tocharian people were settled in between the areas of Sakas and Rishikas (Yuezhi) in the north of Tarim River and ‘Tianshan’ hills.
Rishikas and Tocharians who were earlier defeated by Huns became powerful now.
Rishikas and Tocharians along with Ta-Yuezhi Jats became Muslims in this region.
Agre - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (610 words)
Tocharian people were settled in between the areas of Sakas and Rishikas (Yuezhi) in the north of Tarim River and 'Tianshan' hills.
Rishikas and Tocharians who were earlier defeated by Huns became powerful now.
Rishikas and Tocharians along with Ta-Yuezhi Jats became Muslims in this region.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m