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A rishi (Sanskrit ऋषि: ṛṣi) is a Hindu "saint" or "sage" and in its most strict canonical sense denotes 'a Vedic sage to whom Vedic hymns were originally revealed'. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...

Contents

Etymology

A Rishi is a person who can hold and transmit knowledge in the form of Light. He is a person who works selflessly for the entire humanity and not for his Individual growth. A Rishi is said to be doing Tapas or intense Meditation continuosly for years so that the energies gathered in the process can be used to help and guide Sadhaks (Spiritual Aspirants)in their spiritual growth. A Rishi is also known in the West as Lightbeings.


Traditionally, this word has been derived from the root 'rsh' which is actually not one but two separate verbs in Sanskrit grammar. All traditional Sanskrit grammarians (cf. Commentary on Unādi-Sutra, iv, 119) derive this word from the second root which means (1) 'to go, move' (- Dhatupāth of Pānini,xxviii). V. S. Apte [1] gives this particular meaning and derivation, and Monier-Williams[2] also gives the same, with some qualification. Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819-1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ...


Another form of this root means (2) 'to flow, to move near by flowing', which seems to be related to the first meaning. Secondary meanings are (3) 'to push, thrust', or (4) to kill, which are not related to rishi. All the meanings and derivations cited above are based upon Sanskrit English Dictionary of Monier-Williams[3]. Monier-Williams quotes Tārānātha who compiled the world's greatest (Sanskrit-to-Sanskrit) dictionary named Vāchaspatyam: "rishati jnānena samsāra-pāram" (i.e., one who reaches beyond this mundane world by means of spiritual knowledge). Monier-Williams also conjectures that the root 'drish' (to see) might have given rise to an obsolete root 'rish' meaning 'to see', although no Sanskrit grammarian including Pānini supported such a meaning. Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819-1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ... Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819-1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ... Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819-1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ...


This word's PIE (Proto Indo-European) etymology is unknown. It has an Avestan cognate ərəšiš (Yasna 31.5) "an ecstatic" (see also Yurodivy, Vates). Monier-Williams tentatively suggests derivation from drś "to see"[1]. A suggestion referenced by Julius Pokorny connects the word to a PIE root *h3er-s meaning "rise, protrude", in the sense of "excellent, egregious". Manfred Mayrhofer in his Etymological Dictionary prefers a connection to either ṛṣ "pour, flow" (PIE *h1ers), or to ras "yell". This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... Yasna 28. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The yurodivy (accented on the second syllable, юро́дивый) is the Russian version of the holy fool. ... Vates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819-1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ... Julius Pokorny (1887–1970) was born in Prague and studied at Vienna university. ... Manfred Mayrhofer (born 26 September 1926 in Linz, Austria) is an Indo-Europeanist specialized on Indo-Iranian languages. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ...


Monier-Williams quotes Hebrew form 'arsan' (a sage, a man old in wisdom) and 'arrach' (old, ancient, aged) as related to rishi. Since Hebrew is a non-IE language, the meaning 'sage' may be supposed to be the most archaic meaning of the unknown PIE etymon of rishi. In Sanskrit, forms of root 'rish' become 'arsh-' in many words, e.g., arsh. Vedic, Avestic, Hebrew etc ., show rish- or arsh- in the root, hence the PIE etymon was certainly very near to these forms structurally, and PIE meaning must have contained the meaning 'sage' as well. Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819-1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ... Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ...


Seer of the Vedas

In the Vedas, the word denotes a singer of sacred hymns, an inspired poet or sage, or any person who alone or with others invokes the deities in rhythmical speech or song of a sacred character. In particular, it refers to the authors of the hymns of the Rigveda. Later generations regarded the Rishis as patriarchal sages or saints, occupying the same position in India history as the heroes and patriarchs of other countries, constituting a peculiar class of beings in the early mythical system, as distinct from Asuras, Devas and mere mortal men. The patriarchical structure is evident in the gotra names of Vedic sages as well. But in later period, we have two different sets of patriarchical saptarshis (Sapta-rishis or seven rishis)( cf. Mahābhārata-xii)[4] Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... // In Hinduism In Hindu mythology, the Asura (Sanskrit: असुर) are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... For other uses, see Deva (disambiguation). ... SaptaÅ—iÅŸhi or SaptarÅŸi (सप्तर्षि, pronounced as sÉ™ptÉ™rÅžhi) in Sanskrit means the Seven Sages or rishis who are extolled at many places in the Vedas and other Hindu literature. ...


The main rishis recorded in the Rigveda-Anukramanis include Gritsamada, Vishvamitra, Vamadeva, Atri, Angiras, Bharadvaja, Vasishta, Agastya. An is an index of Vedic hymns, recording poetic meter, content, and traditions of authorship. ... Grtsamada is a rishi, credited with most of Mandala 2 of the Rigveda (36 out of 43, hymns 27-29 being attributed to his son Kurma and 4-7 to Somahuti). ... Brahmarshi Vishvamitra (Sanskrit all-friend) is one of the most venerated rishis or sages of since ancient times in India. ... In Hinduism, Vamadeva is the name of the preserver aspect of the god Shiva, one of five aspects of the universe he embodies. ... In Hinduism, Atri (Sanskrit: अत्रि) is a legendary bard and scholar, and a son of Brahma. ... In Hinduism, the Angiris (or Angiras) are a group of angels responsible for watching over humans performing sacrifices. ... In Hinduism, Bharadwaja was one of the great sages(rishi) who lived in ancient India. ... Vasishta, in Hindu mythology was chief of the seven venerated sages (or Saptharishi) and the Rajaguru of the Suryavamsha or Solar Dynasty. ... In Hinduism, Agastya (अगस्त्य in devanagari, pronounced /ə gəs tyə/) is a legendary Vedic sage or rishi. ...


Seven Rishis (the Saptarshi) are often mentioned in the Brahmanas and later works as typical representatives of the character and spirit of the pre-historic or mythical period; in Shatapatha Brahmana 14.5.2.6, their names are Gautama, Bharadvaja, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Vasishtha, Kashyapa, and Atri. In Mahabharata 12, on the other hand, Marici, Atri, Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya and Vasishtha. The Mahābhārata list explicitly refers to the saptarshis of the first manvantara(cf. SED by Monier-Williams) and not to those of the present manvantara. It implies that each manvantara had a unique set of saptarshi. In Harivamsha-417-ff,names of Rishis of each manvantara is enumerated. Daksha,Bhrigu and Nārada were also added to saptarshis in the list of patriarchical riṣis in Āshvalāyana-Shrauta-Sutra, these ten being principal patriarchs created by the first Manu (Svāyambhuva Manu) for producing everyone else. In addition to the Saptarṣi, there are other classifications of sages. In descending order of precedence, they are Brahmarshi , Maharshi, Rajarshi. Devarṣi, Paramrṣi, Shrutarṣi and Kvndarṣi are added in Manusmriti iv-94 and xi-236 and in two dramas of Kālidasa. SaptaÅ—iÅŸhi or SaptarÅŸi (सप्तर्षि, pronounced as sÉ™ptÉ™rÅžhi) in Sanskrit means the Seven Sages or rishis who are extolled at many places in the Vedas and other Hindu literature. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... Shatapatha Brahmana (Brahmana of one-hundred paths) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual. ... Standing Buddha, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... In Hinduism, Bharadwaja was one of the great sages(rishi) who lived in ancient India. ... Brahmarshi Vishvamitra (Sanskrit all-friend) is one of the most venerated rishis or sages of since ancient times in India. ... In Hinduism, Jamadagni is the father of Parashurama, one of the avatars of Vishnu. ... Vasishtha (Sanskrit: वसिष्ठ), in Hindu mythology was chief of the seven venerated sages (or Saptarishi) and the Rajaguru of the Suryavamsha or Solar Dynasty. ... This article is about the Hindu god Kasyapa. ... In Hinduism, Atri (Sanskrit: अत्रि) is a legendary bard and scholar, and a son of Brahma. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... In Japanese mythology Marishi-ten is known as the goddess of heaven, goddess of light, being a Solar deity. ... In Hinduism, Atri (Sanskrit: अत्रि) is a legendary bard and scholar, and a son of Brahma. ... In Hinduism, the Angiris (or Angiras) are a group of angels responsible for watching over humans performing sacrifices. ... Pulastya was one of the 7 saint when Bhrama was Prajabathi. ... Vasishtha (Sanskrit: वसिष्ठ), in Hindu mythology was chief of the seven venerated sages (or Saptarishi) and the Rajaguru of the Suryavamsha or Solar Dynasty. ... Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819-1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ... In Hinduism, Brahmarishi (from the Sanskrit words Brahma and Rishi) is the highest of the Rishis, the Hindu sages - one who has understood the meaning of Brahman. ... Maharshi (Sanskrit mahará¹£i, from maha great + ṛṣi; also anglicized Maharishi; compare maharaja vs. ... Rajarshi or Rajarishi (from Sanskrit rajan king + rishi) is in Hinduism and Hindu mythology, a royal saint and rishi. ...


Putting this in simple terms, the classification of a Rishi is determined by the amount of Light (Tejas) that he can hold within him. The more Light he can hold, the higher the order.


Chaturvarga-Chintāmani of Hemādri puts 'riṣi' at the seventh place in the eight-fold division of Brāhmanas. Amarkosha [5] (a famous Sanskrit lexicon compiled by a colleague of Kālidasa named Amarsimha at the court of Vikramāditya Chandragupta according to tradition) mentions seven types of riṣis : Shrutarshi, Kāndarshi, Paramarshi, Maharshi, Rājarshi, Brahmarshi and Devarshi. Amarkosha strictly distinguishes Rishi from other types of sages, such as sanyāsi, bhikṣu, parivrājaka, tapasvi, muni, brahmachāri, yati,etc, and gives only one synonym for 'riṣi': satyavachāh (one who speaks truth). Other sages might falter, but a riṣi was believed to speak truth only, because he had reached the Higher World (of Truth, of God) according to the Sanskrit etymology of the term 'riṣi'.


In Hindu astronomy, the Saptarṣi form the constellation of Ursa Major (e. g. RV 10.82.2 and 10.109.4 ; AV 60.40.1.), which are distinct from Dhruva (Polaris). Hindu Astronomy is one of the ancient astronomical systems of the world. ... This article is about the constellation. ... Dhruva in Hindu mythology was the prince blessed to eternal existence and glory as the Pole Star (Dhruva Nakshatra in Sanskrit) by Lord Vishnu. ...


Notes

  1. ^ V. S. Apte (Sanskrit-Hindi Kosh, 1890, reprint 1997 by Motilāl Banārasidās Publishers Pvt Ltd, Bungalow Road, Jawāhar Nagar, Delhi-7)
  2. ^ cf.Monier-Williams's SED, p.226
  3. ^ cf. Monier-Williams's SED, p.226
  4. ^ Cf. D. D. Kosambi.
  5. ^ Cf. Amarkosha (2.7.41-42)

References

  • Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965), The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary (Fourth Revised and Enlarged ed.), New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0567-4.
  • Apte, Vaman Shivram (1966), Sanskrit-Hindi Koṣa (Reprint 1997 ed.), New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
  • Monier-Williams, Monier (1899), A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, <http://www.ibiblio.org/sripedia/ebooks/mw/>.
  • Śāstri, Hargovinda (1978), Amarkoṣa with Hindi commentary, Vārānasi: Chowkhambā Sanskrit Series Office
  • Kosambi, D. D. (1956), An Introduction to the Study of Indian History (Second ed.), Bombay: Popular Prakashan Pvt Ltd,35c Tardeo Road,Popular Press Bldg,Bombay-400034

Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819–1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ...

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