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Encyclopedia > Rise of the Ottoman Empire


History of the
Ottoman Empire
Periods:
Rise (1299–1453)
Growth (1453–1683)
Stagnation (1683–1827)
Decline (1828–1908)
Dissolution (1908–1922)
See also:
Fall of Constantinople (1453)
Russian Wars (1633-1917)
Tulip Era (1718–1730)
Tanzimat Era (1839-1876)

In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. One of these states was Söğüt, a small tribe settled in river valley of Sakarya. The founder and bey (chief) of the tribe was Ertoğrül. When Ertoğrül died in 1281, Osman became the leader of the tribe. Image File history File links 20pxOttomanicon. ... The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I (in Arabic Uthmān, hence the name Ottoman Empire). ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Sogut (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanlı Dynasty... This article is in need of attention. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... This article details the decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire in the 17th to 20th centuries. ... // Balkan Wars The Ottoman army in the balkans was large and appeared on the surface to be modern. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Mehmed II Strength 7,000 100,000 Casualties Entire garrison killed or captured Unknown, but heavy The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of the Byzantine capital by the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Tulip Era is an important period for the Ottoman Empire. ... The Tanzimat was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that lasted from 1839 to 1876. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Söğüt was a Seljuk Turkish tribe in western Anatolia that later gave birth to the Ottoman Empire. ... ErtuÄŸrul (1198-1281), also ErtoÄŸrul, was the father of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Sultan Osman I Osman I (1258–1326) (Ottoman: عثمان بن أرطغل) was born in 1258 and inherited the title bey (chief) from his father, ErtuÄŸrul, as the ruler of the village of Söğüt in 1281. ...

Contents


Osman I

In 1299 the Byzantine city Bilecik fell to Osman I. It was but the first of many cities and villages to fall into the hands of the Turks during the 1300s and 1310s. Osman also conquered some of the nearby Turkish emirates and tribes. During the late 1310s Osman I laid siege to several important Byzantine forts. Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: ) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Sultan Osman I Osman I (1258–1326) (Ottoman: عثمان بن أرطغل) was born in 1258 and inherited the title bey (chief) from his father, Ertuğrul, as the ruler of the village of Söğüt in 1281. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1250s 1260s 1270s 1280s 1290s - 1300s - 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s Years: 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 Events and Trends MARF Categories: 1300s ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1260s 1270s 1280s 1290s 1300s - 1310s - 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s 1360s Years: 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 Events and Trends The Fraticelli pose a problem for the Roman Catholic church Categories: 1310s ...


Yenişehir was captured and with it as a base the Turks could lay siege to Prousas (Bursa) and Nicaea (Iznik), the largest Byzantine cities in Anatolia. Bursa fell in 1326, just before Osman's death. Bursa Bursa is the capital of the Bursa Province in northwestern Turkey. ... Iznik (formerly Nicaea) is a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey) which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Nicaea is also the ancient name of the French city Nice. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ...


Orhan I

The son of Osman, Orhan I, conquered Nicaea in 1331 and Nicomedia in 1337 and established the capital in Bursa. During Orhan's reign the empire was organized as a state with new currency, government and a modernized army. Orhan I Orhan, (Arabic: أورخان غازي, also Orhan Gazi or Orkhan) (1284–1359) was the second bey (chief) of the newborn Ottoman Empire (at the time known as the Osmanli tribe) from 1326 to 1359. ... Events September 8 - Stefan Dusan declares himself king of Serbia Start of the reign of Emperor Kogon of Japan, first of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Births Coluccio Salutati, Florentine political leader (died 1406) Deaths January 14 - Odoric, Italian explorer October 27 - Abulfeda, Arab historian and geographer (born 1273) Categories: 1331... Nicomedes I of Bithynia founded the city of Nicomedia (modern İzmit), at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis), in 264 BC The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Events March 17 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall, becoming the first English Duke Beginning of the Hundred Years War between France and England Bisham Priory founded Scaligeri family loses control of Padua; Alberto della Scala, music patron of the Italian trecento, moves to Verona Births Louis...


He married Theodora, the daughter of Byzantine prince John VI Cantacuzenus. In 1346 Orhan openly supported John VI in the overthrowing of the emperor John V Palaeologus. When John VI became co-emperor (1347-1354) he allowed Orhan to raid the peninsula of Gallipoli which gained the Ottomans their first stronghold in Europe. John VI Cantacuzenus (c. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... John V Palaeologus (1332 – February 16, 1391) was the son of Andronicus III, whom he succeeded as Byzantine emperor in 1341, at age nine. ... -1... Events End of reign of John VI Cantacuzenus, as Byzantine emperor. ... Gallipoli, called Gelibolu in modern Turkish, (Greek: Καλλίπολις), is a town in northwestern Turkey. ... World map showing Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ...


Orhan died in 1360 and left a growing empire to his son and successor, Murad I. Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ...


Murat I

In the early 1360s the Ottoman armies marched into Thrace through Gallipoli and captured Adrianople (Edirne) and Philippopolis (Plovdiv) and forcing the Byzantines to pay tribute. In 1366 the count Amadeus VI of Savoy (cousin to John V Cantacuzenus, the Byzantine emperor) initiated a minor crusade to aid the Byzantines. The count drove away the Turks from all of Europe except Gallipoli. The very next year Murad attacked anew and regained most of Thrace, including Adrianople. Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 Events and Trends William Langland writes Piers Plowman Categories: 1360s ... Thrace (Greek Θρᾴκη, Thrákē, Bulgarian Тракия, Trakija, Turkish Trakya; Latin: Thracia or Threcia) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece (Western Thrace), and European Turkey. ... Gallipoli, called Gelibolu in modern Turkish, (Greek: Καλλίπολις), is a town in northwestern Turkey. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Ancient Theater, Plovdiv International Fair, Plovdiv Plovdiv is a city in Bulgaria and the capital of the Plovdiv Oblast (district). ... Events Births Anne of Bohemia, Queen consort of Richard II of England. ... Amadeus VI (January 4, 1334 - March 1, 1383), surnamed the Green Count was Count of Savoy from 1343 to 1383. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ...


During the early 1370s Murad launched his forces deeper into Europe. At the Battle of Maritsa, at the Maritsa River, Murad's second lieutenant Lala Şâhin Paşa encountered a 70,000 man strong Serbian-Bulgarian army under the Serbian king Vukasin. The Ottoman army was smaller, but due to superior tactics the enemy was defeated and king Vukasin killed. Now that the Serbian coalition was weakened by such a blow, Murad was quick to advance further into Bulgaria and capture the cities of Dráma, Kavála and Seres (Serrái). Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s 1360s - 1370s - 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s 1420s Years: 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 Events and Trends Mamai was a powerful military commander of Golden Horde, who resided in the western part of this... The Battle of Maritsa was a battle that took place at the Maritsa River on September 26, 1371 between the forces of the Ottoman sultan Murad Is lieutenant LalaÅŸahin and a coalition of Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian forces numbering 70,000 men under the command of the Serbian... The Maritsa or Evros (Bulgarian: Марица, Greek: Εβρος, Romanized as Hebrus, Turkish: Meriç) river is ca . ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Independence- Declared from the Ottoman Empire Gained autonomy 1817 Independence July 13, 1878 Area – Total – % water 88,361 km² n/a Population – Total (2002) (not including data for Kosovo and Metohia Province) – Density 7. ... ...


In 1383 Murad declared himself sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Shortly thereafter he began a new campaign in Europe. Sofia fell in 1385 and the city of Niš the year after. The Ottoman Conquest halted in 1387 when the Serbs won the Battle of Plocnik but two years later Murad marched anew into the west. The Ottomans won a great victory over the Serbs in the Battle of Kosovo but the sultan himself was killed by the assassin Miloš Obilic. Events End of the reign of Emperor Chokei of Japan Emperor Go-Kameyama ascends to the throne of Japan Births Pope Eugenius IV Deaths March 1 - Amadeus VI of Savoy, Count of Savoy (b. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Nickname: Motto: Official website: sofia. ... Events August 14 - Battle of Aljubarrota between the Portuguese under John I of Portugal and the Castilians, under John I of Castile. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Serbia, Bosnia Commanders Murad I with his sons Bayazid I and Yakub Lazar Hrebeljanović, Vuk Branković, Vlatko Vuković Strength ~80,000-120,000 ~70,000 Casualties Murad I Lazar The Battle of Kosovo Polje (Косовски бој or Бој на Косову) was fought on St. ... According to a Serbian epic poetry, Miloš Obilić was the name of the Serbian knight who, at the Battle of Kosovo, between Serbia and the Ottoman Empire, assassinated the Ottoman sultan Murad I. On June 15th, 1389, Miloš made his way into the Ottoman camp on the pretext of being...


Beyazid I

Beyazid I succeeded to the sultanship upon the assassination of his father Murad. In a rage over the attack, he ordered all Serbian captives killed; Beyazid became known as Yildirim, the lightning bolt, for his temperament. Beyazid I Beyazid I (ca 1354–1403; Bayezıt, nicknamed Yıldırım, the Thunderbolt) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ...


He conquered most of Bulgaria (the capital Tarnovo fell in 1393 after a three-month siege) and northern Greece in 1389-1395 and laid siege on Constantinople in 1391-1398. On September 25, 1396 at the Battle of Nicopolis, his forces met a crusader army led by king Sigismund of Hungary. The Ottomans won and signed a peace treaty with Hungary. Beyazid then turned his attention to the east, conquering the Turkish emirate of Karaman in 1397. Veliko Tarnovo (Cyrillic: Велико Търново, Great Tarnovo, also Veliko Turnovo) is a city of approximately 65,000 people in North-central Bulgaria, 240km north-east of Sofia. ... Events Ottoman Turks occupy Veliko Turnovo in north-central Bulgaria. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I seizes Albert, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Events August 5 - Anti-Jewish riots erupt in Toledo, Spain and Barcelona. ... Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years). ... Events September 25 - Bayezid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire France, Hungary Commanders Bayezid I Sigismund of Hungary, John of Nevers Strength About 100,000 About 100,000 Casualties About 35,000 About 20,000 The Battle of Nicopolis (modern Nikopol, Bulgaria) took place on September 25, 1396, between a French-Hungarian alliance and the Ottoman Empire. ... Sigismund (February 14/15, 1368 - December 9, 1437) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 to 1437. ... A Turkish tribe in Anatolia, Karamanid first arose following the decline of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rüm in the early 13th century. ... Events February 10 - John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset. ...


Around 1400 Timur Lenk entered the Middle East. Timur Lenk pillaged a few villages in eastern Anatolia and commenced the conflict with the Ottoman Empire. In August, 1400 Timur and his horde burned the town of Sivas to the ground and advanced into the mainland. The war culminated at the Battle of Ankara in July, 1402. Timur won, captured Beyazid, and was free to raid and pillage Anatolia. Beyazid died in captivity in 1403. Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... August is the eighth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... The Battle of Ankara or Battle of Angora, fought on July 20, 1402, took place on the field of Çubukovasi between the forces of the Ottoman sultan Beyazid I and the Mongol horde of Timur, ruler of Timurid Empire. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ...


Interregnum

After the defeat at Ankara followed a time of total chaos in the Empire. Mongols roamed free in Anatolia and the political power of the sultan was broken. After Beyazid was captured, his remaining sons, Suleiman Çelebi, İsa Çelebi, Mehmed Çelebi, and Mûsa fought each other in what became known as the Ottoman Interregnum. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... The Ottoman Interregnum (also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate; Fetret Devri in Turkish) was a period in the beginning of the 15th century when chaos reigned in the Ottoman Empire following the defeat of Sultan Bayezid I in 1402 by the Tatar warlord Tamerlane. ...


Mehmed I

When Mehmed Çelebi stood as victor in 1413 he crowned himself in Edirne (Adrianople) as Mehmed I. His was the duty to restore the Ottoman Empire to its former glory. The Empire had suffered hard from the Interregnum; the Mongols were still at large in the east, even though Timur Lenk had died in 1405; many of the Christian kingdoms of the Balkans had broken free of Ottoman control; and the land, especially Anatolia, had suffered hard from the war. // Events March 20 - Henry V becomes King of England Project of Annals of Joseon Dynasty began. ... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Sultan Mehmet I Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioner) (1389 – May 26, 1421) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Events May 29 - Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, meets Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Earl of Norfolk Thomas Mowbray in Shipton Moor, tricks them to send their rebellious army home and then imprisons them June 8 - Archbishop Richard Scrope of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in... A Christian is a follower of Jesus Christ. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of south-eastern Europe. ...


During his reign, Mehmed moved the capital from Bursa to Adrianople (Edirne), reinforced control over Bulgaria and Serbia, drove the Mongols from Anatolia and assaulted Albania, Cilicia, the Turkish emirate of Candaroglu and Byzantine controlled areas in southern Greece. He also campaigned against Prince Vlad the Impaler known as Dracula. He was never able to force Wallachia into obedience until Dracula's death. Bursa Bursa is the capital of the Bursa Province in northwestern Turkey. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Independence- Declared from the Ottoman Empire Gained autonomy 1817 Independence July 13, 1878 Area – Total – % water 88,361 km² n/a Population – Total (2002) (not including data for Kosovo and Metohia Province) – Density 7. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Ki-LIK-ya) was a region, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) are small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia at the end of the 13th century. ... Candaroğlu Beylik (sometimes referred to as Candar, Candaroğulları or İsfendiyaroğulları in Turkish) is an Anatolian Turkoman emirate that ruled in Kastamonu and Sinop regions and partly in Zonguldak, Samsun and Çankırı, between 1292 - 1461, in the Black Sea region of modern day Turkey. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: ) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Portrait of Vlad III Vlad III Dracula (Also known as Vlad Ţepeş /tsepesh/ in Romanian or Vlad the Impaler) born November/December, 1431 - died December 1476, and reigned as Prince of Wallachia 1448, 1456-1462 and 1476. ... Bela Lugosi as Dracula; U.S. postage stamp first issued in 1997 as part of a series celebrating Famous Movie Monsters Dracula (1897) is a novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, and the name of the worlds most famous vampire character. ...


When Mehmed died in 1421, one of his sons, Murad, became sultan. Events March 21 - Battle of Beaugé. A small French force surprises and defeats an English force under Thomas, Duke of Clarence, a brother of Henry V of England, in Normandy. ... Murad II Murad II (1404 – February 3, 1451) (Arabic: مراد الثاني) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ...


Murad II

Murad spent his early years on the throne disposing of rivals and rebellions, most notably the revolts of the Serbs. In 1423 he paid a short visit to Constantinople, laid siege on it for a couple of months and forced the Byzantines to pay additional tribute. Murad II Murad II (1404 – February 3, 1451) (Arabic: مراد الثاني) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


In 1423 the first regular war against Venice began. During Murad's siege of Constantinople, the Byzantine Emperor's control over the Greek city-states weakened. On the request of its inhabitants, Venetian troops took control of the city of Salonika (Thessaloniki). The Ottoman army that laid siege to the city knew nothing of the transfer of power, and a number of Venetian soldiers were killed by Ottoman troops, believing them to be Greeks. Murad II had been on peaceful terms with Venice, so the Venetians deemed the act unacceptable and declared full war. Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) 45°26′N 12°19′E, the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Murad acted swiftly, besieging Constantinople and sending his armies to Salonika. The Venetians had gained reinforcements by sea but when the Ottomans stormed the city the outcome was forgone and the Venetians fled to their ships. But when the Turks entered and began plundering the city the Venetian fleet started bombarding the city from the sea-side. The Ottomans fled and the fleet was able to hold off the Ottomans until new Venetian reinforcements arrived to recapture the city. The outcome of the Battle of Salonika was a setback for Murad and Serbia and Hungary allied themselves with Venice. Pope Martin V encouraged other Christian states to join the war against the Ottomans, though only Austria ever sent any troops to the Balkans. Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Independence- Declared from the Ottoman Empire Gained autonomy 1817 Independence July 13, 1878 Area – Total – % water 88,361 km² n/a Population – Total (2002) (not including data for Kosovo and Metohia Province) – Density 7. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) 45°26′N 12°19′E, the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... Martin V, né Oddone Colonna or Odo Colonna (1368 – February 20, 1431), Pope from 1417 to 1431, was elected on St. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus Christ. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of south-eastern Europe. ...


The war in the Balkans began as the Ottoman army moved to recapture Wallachia, which the Ottomans had lost to Mircea cel Batran during the Interregnum and that now was an Hungarian vassal state. As the Ottoman army entered Wallachia, the Serbs started attacking Bulgaria and, at the same time, urged by the Pope, the Anatolian emirate Karamanid attacked the Empire from the back. Murad had to split his army. The main force went to defend Sofia and the reserves had to be called to Anatolia. The remaining troops in Wallachia were crushed by the Hungarian army that was now moving south into Bulgaria where the Serbian and Ottoman armies battled each other. The Serbs were defeated and the Ottomans turned to face the Hungarians who fled back into Wallachia when they realized they were unable to attack the Ottomans from the back. Murad fortified his borders against Serbia and Hungaria but did not try to retake Wallachia, instead he sent his armies to Anatolia where they defeated Karaman in 1428. The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of south-eastern Europe. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Flag of Karaman according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... Nickname: Motto: Official website: sofia. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... // Events October 12 - English forces under Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury besiege Orléans. ...


In 1430 a large Ottoman fleet attacked Salonika by surprise. The Venetians signed a peace treaty in 1432. The treaty gave the Ottomans the city of Salonika and the surrounding land. The war between Serbia and Hungaria and the Ottoman Empire had come to a standstill in 1441 when the Holy Roman Empire, Poland, Albania, and the emirates Candaroğlu and Karamanid (in violation of the peace treaty) intervened against the Ottomans. Niš and Sofia fell to the Christians in 1443 and the year after the Empire suffered a major defeat in the Battle of Jalowaz. July 12, 1444 Murad signed a treaty that officially gave Wallachia and the Bulgarian province of Varna to Hungary, western Bulgaria (including Sofia) to Serbia and forced Murad to abdicate in favor of his twelve-year-old son Mehmed. Later the same year the Christians violated the peace treaty and attacked anew. In November 11, 1444, Murad defeated the Polish-Hungarian army of Wladislaus III of Poland lead by Janos Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna. // Events May 23 - Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne The Ottoman Empire captures Thessalonica from the Venetians First use of optical methods in the creation of Art A map of Europe in 1430. ... Events June 1 - Battle of San Romano - Florence defeats Siena foundation of Université de Caen In the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Holland is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour; end of Hainaut... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Independence- Declared from the Ottoman Empire Gained autonomy 1817 Independence July 13, 1878 Area – Total – % water 88,361 km² n/a Population – Total (2002) (not including data for Kosovo and Metohia Province) – Density 7. ... The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság   listen?) or Hungary (Magyarország   listen?) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. ... This page is about the year 1441. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... Flag of Karaman according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... Nickname: Motto: Official website: sofia. ... Events Albanians, under Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks John Hunyadi defeats Turks at the Battle of Nis Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II. Births January 27 - Albert, Duke of Saxony (died 1500) February 23 - Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (died 1490) May 17 - Edmund... Events March 1 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Varna (Bulgarian: Варна) is the third largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, with a population of 351,552(10. ... Nickname: Motto: Official website: sofia. ... Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Independence- Declared from the Ottoman Empire Gained autonomy 1817 Independence July 13, 1878 Area – Total – % water 88,361 km² n/a Population – Total (2002) (not including data for Kosovo and Metohia Province) – Density 7. ... Mehmed II Mehmed II, Mehmet II, or Muhammed II, (also known as el-Fatih, the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmed) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was first the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Events March 1 - Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg proclaimed commander of the Albanian resistance April 16 - Truce of Tours. ... Wladislaus III on a painting by Jan Matejko Wladislaus III of Varna (Polish: WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw WarneÅ„czyk) also seen as Vladislaus, Ladislaus, Ladislas or Vladislav) (October 31, 1424 – November 10, 1444) was King of Poland from 1434 and of Hungary from 1440 until his death. ... John Hunyadi John Hunyadi (Ioannes Corvinus in Latin, Johann Hunyadi in German, Hunyadi/Hunyady János in Hungarian, Iancu (or Ioan Corvin) de Hunedoara in Romanian, Ján Huňadi in Slovak) (c. ... Combatants Hungary, Poland and others Ottoman Empire Commanders Wladislaus III Janos Hunyadi Murad II Strength 30,000 120,000 Casualties 11,000 13,000 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Varna took place on November 10, 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. ...


Murad was reinstated with the help of the Janissaries in 1446. Another peace treaty was signed in 1448 giving the Empire Wallachia and Bulgaria and a part of Albania. After the Balkan front was secured, Murad turned east and defeated Timur Lenk's son, Shah Rokh, and the emirates of Candar and Karaman in Anatolia. He died in the winter 1450-1451 in Edirne. Some have it that he was wounded in a battle against Skanderbeg's Albanian guerillas. YOUNG GREEKS AT THE MOSQUE (Jean Léon Gérôme, oil on canvas, 1865); this oil painting portrays Greek youths who converted to Islam to become the elite of the army (Turkish yeniceri, recruit) The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeni çeri, meaning new troops) comprised infantry units that... Events Mehmed II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire is forced to abdicate in favor of his father Murad II by the Janissaries. ... Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Shah Rukh ( Shah Rokh, Shahrokh ) is the name of many princes. ... A Turkish tribe in Anatolia, Karamanid first arose following the decline of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rüm in the early 13th century. ... Events March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen April 15 - Battle of Formigny. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Selimiye Mosque, built by Sinan in 1575 Edirne is a city in Thrace, the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Scanderbeg and the people, sculpture by Janaq Paço and Genc Hajdari in the National Museum, Kruje, Albania Gjergj Kastrioti (George Kastriotis) (1405 - January 17, 1468), better known as Skanderbeg, is the most prominent figure in the history of Albania. ...


Many doubted the young Mehmed II when he became sultan (again) following his father's death. Mehmed II Mehmed II, Mehmet II, or Muhammed II, (also known as el-Fatih, the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmed) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was first the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later...


Mehmed II

But by conquering and annexing the emirate of Karamanid (May-June, 1451) and by renewing the peace treaties with Venice (September 10) and Hungary (November 20) Mehmed II proved his skills both on the military and the political front and was soon accepted by the noble class of the Ottoman court. Flag of Karaman according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) 45°26′N 12°19′E, the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Mehmed II Mehmed II, Mehmet II, or Muhammed II, (also known as el-Fatih, the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmed) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was first the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later...


One of his first goals as sultan was to annex Byzantine Constantinople. When in 1451 the bankrupt Byzantines asked Mehmed to double the tribute for holding an Ottoman competitor for the throne, he used the request as a pretext for nulling all treaties with the Empire. Although, when he in 1452 proposed to attack Constantinople most of the divan, and especially the Grand Vizier, Kandarli Halil, was against it and critized the sultan for being too rash and overconfident in his abilities. Map of Constantinople. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Events October - English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight. ... Map of Constantinople. ... This article should be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ...


On April 15, 1452, Mehmed ordered the prepareness of the capture of Constantinople. The details of the capture is explaned under the fall of Constantinople page. April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... Events October - English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight. ...

For more details on this topic, see Fall of Constantinople.

Following the capture of Constantinople, Mehmet build the Topkapi Palace in 1462 and moved the capital to Istanbul (new name of Constantinople). Mehmed had himself titled "Kaiser-i-Rum", or "Roman Caesar", and modelled the state after the old Byzantine Empire, thinking of himself as the successor to the Roman throne. Later, when he invaded Otranto, his goal was to capture Rome and reunite the Roman Empire for the first time since 751. Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Mehmed II Strength 7,000 100,000 Casualties Entire garrison killed or captured Unknown, but heavy The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of the Byzantine capital by the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29... The Tower of Justice, Topkapi Palace Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), located in Istanbul (Constantinople), was the administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1465 to 1853. ... Events Settlers from Portugal begin to settle the Cape Verde islands. ... Otranto is a seaport and archiepiscopal see of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Lecce, from which it is 291 miles southeast by rail, 49 ft. ... For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Mehmed's next move was on south to Morea (Pelleponessos) where a last Greek kingdom still remained in Christian hands, and west to the Balkans. In 1456 Mehmed laid siege to Belgrade. On August 13 the Janissaries advanced into the city but were ambushed by the forces of Janos Hunyadi and forced to flee. Mehmed never succeeded in taking Belgrade. Mehmed entered Athens in 1460, until then ruled by emperor Constantine's two brothers, Thomas and Demetrios. The following year Mehmed launched a campaign into Anatolia defeating the Candaroglu Beylik in Sinope, and Armenia under Uzun Hasan before capturing the Empire of Trebizond on August 15, 1461. The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of south-eastern Europe. ... // Events July 7 - Joan of Arc acquitted (but she had already been executed). ... Mayor Nenad Bogdanović Area 359. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... John Hunyadi John Hunyadi (Ioannes Corvinus in Latin, Johann Hunyadi in German, Hunyadi/Hunyady János in Hungarian, Iancu (or Ioan Corvin) de Hunedoara in Romanian, Ján Huňadi in Slovak) (c. ... Mayor Nenad Bogdanović Area 359. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα Athína IPA ) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world. ... Candaroğlu Beylik (sometimes referred to as Candar, Candaroğulları or İsfendiyaroğulları in Turkish) is an Anatolian Turkoman emirate that ruled in Kastamonu and Sinop regions and partly in Zonguldak, Samsun and Çankırı, between 1292 - 1461, in the Black Sea region of modern day Turkey. ... Sinope was an ancient city on the Black Sea, in the region of Galatia, modern-day Sinop, Turkey. ... // Foundation The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond was a successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 immediately before the fall of Constantinople. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ...


In 1475, the Ottomans suffered their worst-ever defeat to that day, at the Battle of Vaslui, in Moldavia. Later that year, Mehmet conquered the Genoese colony on the Crimea, establishing the first Ottoman presence north of the Black Sea. Two years later he moved upon the Venetian east coast of the Adriatic, annexing the city of Piavas and some Adriatic islands in a peace treaty. In 1480, a vizier called Ahmed landed in Italy and captured the city Otranto, although the Ottomans- who had to deal with another Albanian rebellion at the time- met fierce resistance from Ferrante of Naples and the Pope and were forced to abandon Otranto. Mehmet died about a year later. Some have it that he was secretly poisoned by his Jewish doctor at the instigation of Pope Sixtus IV. Mehmed also fought against Vlad III, who was known by the nickname Dracula. Events August 29 - Treaty of Picquigny ends a brief war between France and England. ... The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul Înalt) (January 10, 1475) was fought between the Moldavian (Romanian) Prince, Ştefan cel Mare (Stephen the Great) and the Ottoman General Suleiman Pasha. ... Alternate uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields amd mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) 45°26′N 12°19′E, the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... Otranto is a seaport and archiepiscopal see of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Lecce, from which it is 291 miles southeast by rail, 49 ft. ... Ferdinand I (1423 - January 25, 1494), also called Don Ferrante, was the King of Naples from 1458 to 1494. ... Jews (Hebrew: יהודים, Yehudim) are followers of Judaism or, more generally, members of the Jewish people (also known as the Jewish nation, or the Children of Israel), an ethno-religious group descended from the ancient Israelites and converts who joined their religion. ... Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere (July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484) was Pope from 1471 to 1484. ... Bela Lugosi as Dracula; U.S. postage stamp first issued in 1997 as part of a series celebrating Famous Movie Monsters Dracula (1897) is a novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, and the name of the worlds most famous vampire character. ...



 
History of Turkey
Turkey
Pre-Ottoman Turkey (1000 - 13th century)
Seljuk Turks
(1000 - 1300)
Sultanate of Rum
(1060 - 1327)
Anatolian beyliks
(13th century)
Ottoman Empire (1299 - 1923)
Rise
(1299 - 1453)
Growth
(1453 - 1683)
Stagnation
(1683 - 1827)
Decline
(1828 - 1908)
Dissolution
(1908 - 1923)

Fall of
Constantinople
Russian Wars Tulip Era Tanzimat era
Republic of Turkey (1919 - Present)
War of Independence
(1919 - 1923)
Single-Party Period
(1923 - 1945)
Multi-Party Period
(1945 - Present)


Image File history File links OttomanCoatOfArms. ... One of the new states from the Ottoman Empire was the Republic of Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) are small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia at the end of the 13th century. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Sogut (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanlı Dynasty... This article is in need of attention. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... This article details the decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire in the 17th to 20th centuries. ... // Balkan Wars The Ottoman army in the balkans was large and appeared on the surface to be modern. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Mehmed II Strength 7,000 100,000 Casualties Entire garrison killed or captured Unknown, but heavy The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of the Byzantine capital by the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Tulip Era is an important period for the Ottoman Empire. ... The Tanzimat was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that lasted from 1839 to 1876. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Atatürk, modern Turkeys founder and first President The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. ... This page summarizes the history after the Multi-party period. ...


 
 

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