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Encyclopedia > Ripping

Ripping (also referred to as digital audio extraction) is the process of copying the audio or video data from one media form, such as DVD, HD DVD, Blu-ray or CD, to a hard disk. While the original media is typically digital, the extraction of analog media such as VHS video or vinyl records to a digital format can also be referred to as "ripping". To conserve storage space, the copied data is usually encoded in a compressed format such as AAC, MP3, WMA, FLAC or Ogg Vorbis for audio, or MPEG-2, MPEG-4, DivX, XviD or Ogg Theora for video. A rip saw In woodworking, a cut made parallel to the direction of the grain of the workpiece is known as a rip cut. ... Sound reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation and/or amplification of sound, often as music. ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... Blu-ray discs Blu-ray Disc is a next-generation optical disc format jointly developed by a group of leading consumer electronics and PC companies called the Blu_ray Disc Association (BDA), which succeeds the Blu_ray Disc Founders (BDF). ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... For other senses of the word code, see code (disambiguation). ... Audio compression is a form of data compression designed to reduce the size of audio files. ... MPEG-4 AAC DRM encoding as used in the iTunes Store Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... Windows Media Audio (WMA) is an audio data compression technology developed by Microsoft. ... FLAC, an acronym for Free Lossless Audio Codec, is a popular file format for audio data compression. ... Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... This article is about the video codec. ... Xvid (formerly XviD) is a video codec library following the MPEG-4 standard. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ...


The term has been adopted to refer to audio extraction/duplication, though this use of the term is less common.

Contents

Purpose

For consumers of digital content, there are a number of practical uses for ripping. Many digital camcorders now write directly to DVD. Ripping is required to extract that content onto a computer for editing, storage, duplication or backup purposes. Another is to allow the owners of CDs or DVDs to listen to or view that content in a more flexible way. For example, ripping can allow users to listen to music from a number of different albums without having to change discs and make customized playlists of the music. Ripping can also be used to allow music to be played on portable digital audio players. In economics, consumers are individuals or households that consume goods and services generated within the economy. ... An album or record album is a collection of related audio or music tracks distributed to the public. ... In its most general form, a playlist is simply a list of songs. ... Apple iPod, the best-selling hard drive-based player An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) More commonly referred to as an MP3 player, a digital audio player or DAP is a portable, handheld digital music player that stores, organizes and...


Ripper

A person who does this in a semi-professional way is normally referred to as a Ripper. Normally they are fans of a particular artist or type of creative production, so they put great effort in providing high quality rips. Eventually they become a kind of brand and they gain notoriety in the fan community. For more information on fans of football (soccer), see Football (soccer) culture. ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ...


Problems

Ripping may not capture all data on an audio CD. CD-Text may be captured, but additional CD+G data such as lyrics and graphics present on some CDs may be ignored by ripping software, preventing an identical backup and recreation of the original CD. CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book standard for audio CDs. ... A CD+G (also known as CD+Graphics) is a special audio compact disc that contains graphics data in addition to the audio data on the disc. ...


Legal problems and status

Ripping also allows content to be losslessly copied for a very low or essentially zero cost and given to those who did not purchase it, possibly substituting for sales of content. Hence it has aroused fierce opposition by the recording industry, who view it as theft.


Since the music or video is transferred to a data file, the files can be shared with other computer users over the Internet. File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ...


Although it is legal in the United States to make backup copies of software, the legality of ripping music for personal use without the permission of the copyright holder is controversial. Historically, copying media for personal use was established to be Fair Use under U.S. Copyright by the Supreme Court in the Sony Betamax doctrine. On the other hand, the RIAA, which represents many music copyright holders has maintained that copying rights have not been granted to end users and that Fair Use does not apply.[1] For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ... Holding Manufacturers of home video recording machines could not be liable for contributory copyright infringement for the potential uses by its purchasers, because the devices were sold for legitimate purposes and had substantial non-infringing uses. ... The RIAA Logo. ...


Depending on the outcome of the trial including the RIAA v. Jammie Thomas, even ripping a cd without permission from the owner of the copyright, even for personal use may be illegal. [2] Of course this may backfire since during the 80's creating a mix tape was legal, and was encouraged as part of the music experience. The RIAA may very well shoot themselves in the foot over this argument.


However, in oral arguments before the Supreme Court in MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd., Don Verrilli, representing MGM stated: Holding Producers of technology who promote the ease of infringing on copyrights can be sued for inducing copyright infringement committed by their users. ...

"And let me clarify something I think is unclear from the amicus briefs. The record companies, my clients, have said, for some time now, and it's been on their Website for some time now, that it's perfectly lawful to take a CD that you've purchased, upload it onto your computer, put it onto your iPod. There is a very, very significant lawful commercial use for that device, going forward."[3]

Selling software to circumvent copy-protection in commercial DVDs is illegal.[4]


In countries such as Spain, anyone is allowed to make a private copy of a copyrighted material for oneself and the source copy does not even have to be legal. Making copies for other people, however, is forbidden if done for profit. In the United Kingdom, making a private copy of copyrighted media without the copyright owner's consent is illegal: this includes ripping music from a CD to a computer or digital music player.[5][6] The development of radio music ripping may fuel further legal debates on the topic. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ripping. ...


Process and history

Ripping speed

The speed at which a CD or DVD can be ripped is often expressed as a multiplier, such as 12X (means 12 times faster than standard playing speed). Important in estimating ripping speeds are:

  • the media-player's speed: a CD has a maximum rotation speed and as the media players get closer and closer to that limit (e.g., a player that can read a CD at 60x the normal speed). It is also important where the laser head is. It starts reading closest to the center (lowest bitrate for a given rotation speed) and goes to the border of the CD (highest bitrate)
  • the interface between the player and the encoding device: this might be extremely fast (SCSI) to very slow (USB 1.1 or even over an Ethernet network)
  • the encoding device (in most cases a PC) will in most cases encode the digital input to a compressed format. This is a highly CPU-intensive task, so various factors such as the CPU's clock speed, architecture, and design affect encoding speed.
  • the encoding algorithm/quality: 64 kbit/s encoding might be faster/slower than 192 kbit/s[citation needed]
  • the compressed file is then written to a disk. Again this might be very fast (SCSI or FireWire) or rather slow (over 10 Mbit/s Ethernet or to a flash card)
  • Physical condition of the original media and read errors may affect ripping speed negatively by requiring repeated reads, or its accuracy, by ignoring read errors upon the user's request.
  • Some rippers, will rip multiple times and compare the result to make sure that the ripped file is accurate. This slows down the ripping but will make sure that the output is an accurate copy, and let the user know if the output has any faults.

The combination of these elements will define what the maximum ripping speed is. In telecommunications and computing, bitrate (sometimes written bit rate, data rate or as a variable Rbit) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. ... Scuzzy redirects here. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... Audio compression is a form of data compression designed to reduce the size of audio files. ... CPU redirects here. ... Scuzzy redirects here. ... The 6-pin and 4-pin FireWire Connectors The alternative ethernet-style cabling used by 1394c FireWire is Apple Inc. ... Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... A USB flash drive. ...


See also

A game rip (or gamerip) refers to a pirated version of a game that was stripped down in order to fit under scene rules. ... Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies of, for example, a filter, a communication channel, or a signal spectrum, and is typically measured in hertz. ... A CD ripper, CD grabber or CD extractor is a piece of software designed to extract raw digital audio (in format commonly called CDDA) from a compact disc to a file or other output. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ripping. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ...

References

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) (1592 words)
RIP and the myriad RIP-like protocols were based on the same set of algorithms that use distance vectors to mathematically compare routes to identify the best path to any given destination address.
RIP uses a single routing metric (hop count) to measure the distance between the source and a destination network.
RIP prevents routing loops from continuing indefinitely by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from the source to a destination.
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