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Encyclopedia > Rila
Rila as seen from the space
Rila as seen from the space
Rila as seen from Kostenets
Rila as seen from Kostenets
Malyovitsa (right), Little Malyovitsa (left) and the Eaglet (middle)
Malyovitsa (right), Little Malyovitsa (left) and the Eaglet (middle)


Rila (Bulgarian: Рила ['ri.lə]) is a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria and the highest mountain range of Bulgaria and the Balkans, with its highest peak being Musala at 2,925 m. The massif is also the sixth highest mountain in Europe (when each mountain is represented by its highest peak only), coming after the Caucasus, the Alps, Sierra Nevada, the Pyrenees and Mount Etna. The larger part of the mountain is occupied by the Rila National Park. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 791 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1952 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 791 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1952 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Kostenets is a town located in Sofia Province in southwestern Bulgaria, 70 km from Sofia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Malyovitsa seen from the resort Malyovitsa in winter Malyovitsa (Bulgarian: ) is a peak in the northwestern part of the Rila Mountains in southwestern Bulgaria. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Musala (Bulgarian: Мусала) is the highest peak in Bulgaria and the entire Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,971 m (9,747 ft). ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Situation of Sierra Nevada in the Iberian Peninsula. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Mount Etna (also known as Mongibeddu in Sicilian and Mongibello in Italian, a combination of Latin mont- meaning mountain and the local word for beautiful) is an active volcano on the east coast of Sicily, close to Messina and Catania. ... Rila as seen from Kostenets Malyovitsa, the second highest peak in the mountain The average annual precipitation in Rila is several times the average for Bulgaria The Seven Rila Lakes The source of the Maritsa under Marishki vrah Landscape from Rila close to the Seven Lakes The Rila Monastery Rila...


The name Rila is allegedly of Thracian origin and is thought to mean "well-watered mountain", owing to Rila's abundance of glacial lakes (about 200) and hot springs in the faulty areas. Some of the Balkans' longest and deepest rivers originate from Rila, including the Maritsa, the Iskar and the Mesta. The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... The Seven Rila Lakes in Rila, Bulgaria are typical representatives of lakes with glacial origin A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... The Maritsa or Evros (Bulgarian: Марица, Greek: Εβρος, Romanized as Hebrus, Turkish: Meriç) river is ca . ... The Iskar (Bulgarian: Искър; Latin Oescus) is the longest river in Bulgaria, a right tributary of the Danube. ... Mesta (Bulgarian: Места) or Nestos (Greek: Νέστος) is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. ...


Culturally, Rila is famous for the Rila Monastery, Bulgaria's largest and most important monastery founded in the 10th century by Saint John of Rila. Rila Monastery with the medieval tower The Rila Monastery (Bulgarian: Рилски манастир, Rilski manastir) is the largest and most famous Eastern Orthodox monastery in Bulgaria. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Saint John of Rila (Bulgarian: свети Иван Рилски, sveti Ivan Rilski) (876 – circa 946) was the first Bulgarian hermit and the founder of the Rila Monastery. ...

Contents

Geology

Rila is a dome-shaped horst mountain, part of the Balkans' oldest land, the Macedo-Thracian Massif. It was formed by granite and gneiss rocks and crystal schists during the Paleozoic (250,000,000 years ago), with Rila's alpine relief being formed later, 10-12,000 years ago, after the Würm glaciation, when the snow line was at 2,100 m above sea level. Above this line glaciers radically changed the existing relief, creating deep cirques, sharp pyramid-shaped peaks, rock pinnacles, various valleys, moraines and other typical glacial formations. USGS image In physical geography and geology, a horst is the raised fault block bounded by normal faults. ... Gneiss Gneiss (IPA: ) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Weichsel (in Scandinavia), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland) or Würm glaciation (in the Alps) is the most recent period of the Ice Age, and ended some 10,000 Before Present (BP). ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ... A cirque is an amphitheatre-like valley of glacial origin, formed by glacial erosion at the head of the glacier. ... Moraine at Mono Lake, California, United States Moraines clearly seen on a side glacier of the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ...


Borders and climate

Rila has an area of 2,400 km². The dome of the mountain rises over the surrounding mountain valleys, with the Borovets Saddle (1,305 m) connecting the main Musala Ridge with the Shipchan and Shumnitsa ridges that connect to the Ihtiman Sredna Gora mountains through the Gate of Trajan pass. The Yundola Saddle (1,375 m) and the Abraham Saddle (1,295 m) link Rila with the Rhodopes to the east, while the connection with Pirin is the Predel Saddle (1,140 m), the one with Verila being the Klisura Saddle (1,025 m). A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A view of Sredna Gora from the Thracian tomb near Starosel Sredna Gora (Средна Гора) is a mountain range in central Bulgaria, situated parallel with Stara Planina and extending to the river Iskar to the west and the elbow of Tundzha north of Yambol to the east. ... The Gate of Trajan, also known as Trajans Gate, is a hill pass near Sofia, Bulgaria. ... The Rhodopes (also spelled Rodopi) are a mountain range, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. ... Vihren from the south Kamenitsa Peak and the lake Tevno ezero Pirin range as seen from Kalimantsi village The Gazey peak looked from Polejan and the Upper Gazey Lake The Pirin Mountains (Bulgarian: Пирин) are a mountain range in southwestern Bulgaria, with Vihren (2,914 m high) the highest peak, situated...


The climate is typically alpine, with 2,000 mm of precipitation on Musala yearly, 80% of which of snow. The lowest average temperature ever measured in February on Musala is –11.6°C and the absolute minimum is -31.2°C. An average temperature for August is 5.4°C, the maximum being 18.7°C. For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see climate) for a region above the tree-line. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. ... The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ...

Map of Rila mountains in English
Map of Rila mountains in English

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution (3508 × 2478 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution (3508 × 2478 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Subdivision

The average annual precipitation in Rila is several times the average for Bulgaria
The average annual precipitation in Rila is several times the average for Bulgaria
The source of the Maritsa under Marishki vrah
Landscape from Rila close to the Seven Lakes
Landscape from Rila close to the Seven Lakes

Rila is subdivided into several parts depending on their geographic position. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 452 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 452 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1185 KB) The Seven Rila Lakes in Bulgaria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1185 KB) The Seven Rila Lakes in Bulgaria. ... The Seven Rila Lakes (Седем(те) Рилски езера) are a group of lakes of glacial origin, situated in the northwestern Rila Mountains in Bulgaria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 587 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1100 pixel, file size: 295 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Origin of the Maritsa river. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 587 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1100 pixel, file size: 295 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Origin of the Maritsa river. ... The Maritsa or Evros (Bulgarian: Марица, Greek: Εβρος, Romanized as Hebrus, Turkish: Meriç) river is ca . ... Rila Mountain, Bulgaria File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Rila Mountain, Bulgaria File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 784 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 784 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Rila Monastery with the medieval tower The Rila Monastery (Bulgarian: Рилски манастир, Rilski manastir) is the largest and most famous Eastern Orthodox monastery in Bulgaria. ...

  • East Rila or the Musala Ridge is the highest and vastest part. The highest peak, as well as 12 of the 18 peaks over 2,700 m are located there — Musala, Yastrebets, Irechek, Deno Mancho, etc. The Musala Lakes lie in this part of Rila, as well as Ledeno ezero ("Icy Lake"), the highest lake of the Balkans at 2,709 m. Other lakes in East Rila include the Maritsa Lakes and the Ropalitsa Lakes. The renowned mountain resort of Borovets is also located in this part of the mountain.
  • Central Rila or the Skakavets Ridge is the smallest part (1/10 of the total area), most famous for the glacial lakes — the Fish Lakes, Dzhendem Lakes, Monastery Lakes. The largest glacial lake of the Balkans, Smradlivo ezero ("Stinky Lake") with an area of 21.2 km² is located in Central Rila, as well as the peaks Kanarata, Cherna polyana, Malak Skakavets and Golyam Skakavets, Rilets. The ridge of the Skakavtsi (the peaks of Golyam Skakavets and Malak Skakavets, Pchelina and Sveti Duh) rises isolated between the Levi and Beli Iskar rivers. Another well-known ridge in the area is the one of Marinkovitsa and Vodniya chal, extending to the forest reserve of Kobilino branishte.
  • Northwest Rila takes up 25% of Rila's total area. The highest peak is Malyovitsa at 2,730 m. The Seven Rila Lakes are an important landmark in this part, as well as the many remote peaks and small lakes.
  • Southwest Rila or the Kapatnik Ridge occupies 30% of Rila and has the oldest reserve of Bulgaria. Apart from its small northern part, Southwest Rila does not have the alpine appearance of the other parts.

Borovets in winter Borovets in summer Borovets (Боровец), known as Chamkoriya (Чамкория) until the middle of the 20th century, is a popular Bulgarian mountain resort situated in Sofia Province, on the northern slopes of Rila, at an altitude of 1350 m. ... The Iskar (Bulgarian: Искър; Latin Oescus) is the longest river in Bulgaria, a right tributary of the Danube. ... Malyovitsa seen from the resort Malyovitsa in winter Malyovitsa (Bulgarian: ) is a peak in the northwestern part of the Rila Mountains in southwestern Bulgaria. ... The Seven Rila Lakes (Седем(те) Рилски езера) are a group of lakes of glacial origin, situated in the northwestern Rila Mountains in Bulgaria. ...

Peaks in Rila

  • Musala — 2925 m
  • Malka Musala — 2902 m
  • Ovcharets — 2768 m
  • Golyam Kupen — 2731 m
  • Malyovitsa — 2729 m
  • Popova kapa — 2704 m
  • Malka Malyovitsa — 2698 m
  • Lopushki vrah — 2698 m
  • Lovnitsa — 2695 m
  • Kanarata — 2691 m
  • Orlovets — 2685 m
  • Pastri slap (Aladzha slap) – 2684 m
  • Zliya zab — 2678 m
  • Eleni vrah — 2654 m
  • Kovach (Nalbant) vrah - 2640 m
  • Suha Vapa vrah - 2638 m
  • Ravni vrah (Ravni chal) — 2637 m
  • Belmeken (Kolarov) — 2627 m
  • Kamilata — 2621 m
  • Golyam Mechi vrah — 2618 m
  • Dvuglav — 2605 m
  • Golyam Mermer (Mramorets) — 2598 m
  • Dodov (Drushlevishki) vrah — 2597 m
  • Kozi vrah — 2587 m
  • Iglata — 2575 m
  • Golyam Mechit — 2568 m
  • Ushite — 2560 m
  • Ptichi vrah (Ashiklar) — 2536 m
  • Malak Mechit — 2535 m
  • Yanchov vrah — 2481 m
  • Malak Mechi vrah — 2474 m
  • Strazhnik (Kurdzhilak) — 2469 m
  • Budachki kamak — 2447 m
  • Kukov vrah — 2411 m
  • Tsarev vrah — 2376 m
  • Damga (Ivan Vazov) — 2342 m
  • Markov kamak (Gorna Kadiitsa) — 2342 m
  • Malka Popova kapa — 2180 m
  • Treshtenik — 2020 m
  • Angelov vrah
  • Malak Lopushki vrah
  • Malak Mermer

Musala (Bulgarian: Мусала) is the highest peak in Bulgaria and the entire Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,971 m (9,747 ft). ... Malyovitsa seen from the resort Malyovitsa in winter Malyovitsa (Bulgarian: ) is a peak in the northwestern part of the Rila Mountains in southwestern Bulgaria. ...

External links

Winter panorama of Northwestern Rila seen from Yastrebets
Winter panorama of Northwestern Rila seen from Yastrebets

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 304 pixelsFull resolution (2285 × 868 pixel, file size: 476 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Panorama of Northwest Rila in winter, from Yastrebets. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 304 pixelsFull resolution (2285 × 868 pixel, file size: 476 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Panorama of Northwest Rila in winter, from Yastrebets. ...


Coordinates: 42°08′N, 23°33′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Britain.tv Wikipedia - Rila (709 words)
Rila (Bulgarian: Рила ['ri.lə]) is a mountain in southwestern Bulgaria and the highest mountain of Bulgaria and the Balkans, with its highest peak being Musala at 2,925 m.
Culturally, Rila is famous for the Rila Monastery, Bulgaria's largest and most important monastery founded in the 10th century by Saint John of Rila.
Rila is a dome-shaped horst mountain, part of the Balkans' oldest land, the Macedo-Thracian Massif.
SummitPost - Rila -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering (3665 words)
Rila National Park is located in the Rila Mountains, between 41° 53’ and 42° 19’ north latitude and 23° 07’ and 23° 55’ east longitude, in the southwestern region of Bulgaria.
Among its Rila tributaries of greater importance are the Rila River, the Dzherman River, the Dupnitsa River and the Blagoevgrad Bistritsa River.
The climate of Rila is determined by its geographical situation, on the border between the continental and the transitional Mediterranean climate and the microclimate - by the altitude zones and by the soil and vegetation cover.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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