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Encyclopedia > Rigveda
Part of a series on
Hindu scriptures
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Vedas
Rigveda · Yajurveda
Samaveda · Atharvaveda
Vedic divisions
Samhita · Brahmana
Aranyaka  · Upanishad
Upanishad
Aitareya · Brihadaranyaka
Isha · Taittiriya · Chandogya
Kena · Mundaka
Mandukya · Prashna
Shvetashvatara
Vedanga
Shiksha · Chandas
Vyakarana · Nirukta
Jyotisha · Kalpa
Itihasa
Mahabharata · Ramayana
Other scriptures
Smriti · Śruti
Bhagavad Gita · Purana
Agama · Darshana
Pancharatra · Tantra
Sutra · Stotra ·Dharmashastra
Divya Prabandha
Tevaram · Akhilathirattu
Ramacharitamanas
Shikshapatri · Vachanamrut
Bibliography
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Rig veda is the oldest text in the world.The Rigveda (Sanskrit ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise, verse"[1] and veda "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods (devas). It is counted among the four Hindu canonical sacred texts (śruti) known as the Vedas. Based on philological and linguistic evidences, the Rigveda was composed roughly between 1700–1100 BCE (the early Vedic period) in the Sapta Sindhu region (a land of seven great rivers) which is now believed to be the region around Punjab, putting it among the world's oldest religious texts in continued use, as well as among the oldest texts of any Indo-European language. Template:Hindu scriptures - Vedic Scriptures Hindu scripture, which is known as Shastra is predominantly written in Sanskrit. ... Image File history File links Aum. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Yajurveda (Sanskrit , a tatpurusha compound of sacrifice + knowledge) is one of the four Hindu Vedas. ... The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, a tatpurusha compound of ritual chant + knowledge ), is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, , a tatpurusha compound of , a type of priest, and meaning knowledge) is a sacred text of Hinduism, and one of the four Vedas, often called the fourth Veda. According to tradition, the Atharvaveda was mainly composed by two groups of rishis known as the Bhrigus and the... The Samhita (Sanskrit: joined or collected) is the basic text of each of the Vedas, comprising collections of hymns and ritual texts. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... The Aranyakas (Sanskrit आरण्यक ) are part of the Hindu Å›ruti; these religious scriptures are written in early Classical Sanskrit, and form part of either the Brahmanas or Upanishads. ... The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniá¹£ad) are part of the Vedas and form the Hindu scriptures which primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... The Aitareya Upanishad is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... The Upanishad is believed to be one of the older, primary (mukhya) Upanishads. ... The Isha Upanishad () or Ishopanishad (), also known as the Ishavasya Upanishad (), is a Sanskrit poem (or sequence of mantras) from the Upanishads and is considered Åšruti by followers of a number of diverse traditions within Hinduism. ... The Taittiriya Upanishad is one of the Upanishads associated to the taittiriya samhita of the Black Yajurveda. ... The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the main ten Upanishads of Hinduism. ... The Kena Upanishad (), is one of the older, primary Upanishads commented upon by Shankara. ... Mundaka Upanishad is an Upanishad of the Atharva Veda. ... MāndÅ«kya Upanishad is one of the shortest Upanishads, that form of the revealed, so called metaphysical, parts of the Vedic texts, the Vedas. ... i hate prashna ... The Shvetashvatara Upanishad is one of the 33 Upanishads of Krishna Yajurveda or Black Yajurveda . ... The Vedanga (IAST , member of the Veda) are six auxiliary disciplines for the understanding and tradition of the Vedas. ... For the Yiddish slang word, see Shiksa. ... The verses of the Vedas have a variety of different meters. ... The Sanskrit grammatical tradition of , is one of the six Vedanga disciplines. ... Nirukta is Vedic glossary of difficult words. ... Jyotisha (, in Hindi and English usage Jyotish; sometimes called Hindu astrology, Indian astrology, and/or Vedic astrology) is the Hindu system of astrology, one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, and regarded as one of the oldest schools of ancient astrology to have had an independent origin, affecting all other... Kalpa is one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, treating ritual. ... Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Bibliography of Hindu scriptures - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, that which is remembered) refers to a specific canon of Hindu religious scripture. ... The Å›ruti (Sanskrit thing heard, sound) is the smallest interval of the tuning system of Indian classical music. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... For the Buddhist texts called the Agamas, see Nikaya. ... The Sanskrit word darshana means view or viewpoint. ... Pañcaratra is an pre-Puranic form of Hinduism, which equated Narayana with Vishnu. ... The Tantra (Looms or Weavings), refer to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... SÅ«tra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... Stotras are Hindu prayers that praise aspects of God, such as Devi, Siva, or Vishnu. ... The Dharmashastra is a volume of Hindu legal texts, covering moral, ethical and social laws. ... The Nalayira Divya Prabandha is a divine [1] collection of 4,000 verses (Naalayira in Tamil means four thousand) composed sometime around the 8th and 12th century AD, by the 12 Alvars (also aazhvaars), the Tamil mystic poets, and was compiled in its present form by Nathamuni during the 9th... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Thevaram (Verses). ... Akilathirattu Ammanai அகிலத்திரட்டு அம்மானை (Tamil: akilam (world) + thirattu (collection) + ammanai (ballad)), also called Thiru Edu (venerable book), is the main religious book of the Southern Indian Ayyavazhi faith, officially an offshoot of Hinduism. ... ÅšrÄ« Rāmcaritmānas (Hindi: रामचरितमानस) is an epic poem composed by the great 16th-century Indian poet, Goswami Tulsidas (c. ... The Shikshapatri is a text of two hundred and twelve verses, and was written by Shree Swaminarayan, a reforming Hindu from the Vaishnava tradition, who lived in Gujarat from 1781-1830 and who was recognised by his followers as a deity during his lifetime. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bibliography of Hindu scriptures - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... A Tatpurusha is a type of compound in Sanskrit grammar. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... See also hymn - a program to decrypt iTunes music files. ... There are 1028 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities. ... It has been suggested that Deva (tribe) be merged into this article or section. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Å›ruti (Sanskrit thing heard, sound) is the smallest interval of the tuning system of Indian classical music. ... Veda redirects here. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... The Vedic period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the history of India when the sacred Vedic Sanskrit texts such as the Vedas were composed. ... The Sapta Sindhu are the seven sacred rivers in Hindu mythology. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... // Most religions have religious texts they view as sacred. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ...


There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities between the Rigveda and the early Iranian Avesta, deriving from the Proto-Indo-Iranian times, often associated with the early Andronovo culture of ca. 2000 BC.[2] See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Proto-Indo-Iranian, the Indo-European language spoken by the Indo-Iranians in the late 3rd millennium BC was a Satem language still not removed very far from the Proto-Indo-European language, and in turn only removed by a few centuries from the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda. ... Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. ...


Today, this text is revered by Hindus around the world. Its verses are recited at prayers, religious functions and other auspicious occasions. This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Text

The Rigveda consists [3] of 1,028 hymns (or 1,017 discounting the valakhīlya hymns 8.49–8.59) in Vedic Sanskrit, many of which are intended for various sacrificial rituals. This long collection of short hymns is mostly devoted to the praise of the gods. It is organized in 10 books, known as Mandalas. Each mandala consists of hymns, called sūkta (su-ukta, literally, "well recited, eulogy"), which in turn consist individual verses called ṛc, plural ṛcas. The Mandalas are by no means of equal length or age: The "family books", mandalas 2-7, are considered the oldest part of the Rigveda, being the shortest books, arranged by length, accounting for 38% of the text. RV 8 and RV 9, likely comprising hymns of mixed age, account for 15% and 9%, respectively. RV 1 and RV 10, finally, are both the latest and the longest books, accounting for 37% of the text. The eighth Mandala of the Rigveda has 103 hymns. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... For the film, see Mandala (film). ... Eu- (Greek εὖ-, the combining form of the adjective ευς good) is a prefix meaning good, well. From PIE *hsu-, it is cognate to Sanskrit su-, Avestan hu-, with the same meaning. ... Vāk or Vāc (stem , nominative ) is the Sanskrit word for speech, voice, talk, or language, from a verbal root speak, tell, utter. Personified, Vāk is a goddess, most frequently she is identified with Bharati or Sarasvati, the goddess of speech. ... The eighth Mandala of the Rigveda has 103 hymns. ... The ninth Mandala of the Rigveda, also called the Soma Mandala has 114 hymns, entirely[1] devoted to , Purifying Soma, the sacred potion of the Vedic religion. ... The first Mandala (book) of the Rigveda has 191 hymns. ... The tenth Mandala of the Rigveda has 191 hymns, to Agni and other gods. ...


Preservation

The text in its surviving form was redacted in the Iron Age (c. 9th to 7th century BCE). The fixed text was preserved for more than a millennium by oral tradition alone and was probably not put in writing until the Gupta period.[4] It is preserved by two major shakhas ("branches", i. e. schools or recensions), Śākala and Bāṣkala. Considering its great age, the text is spectacularly well preserved and uncorrupted, the two recensions being practically identical, so that scholarly editions can mostly do without a critical apparatus. Associated to Śākala is the Aitareya-Brahmana. The Bāṣkala includes the Khilani and has the Kausitaki-Brahmana associated to it. The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture, also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455). ... Shakha (IAST ), literally branch or limb, is the Sanskrit term for a recension or version of Vedic texts according to a particular school. ... The Aitareya Brahmana is the Brahmana associated with the Rigveda in the Shakala school. ... The Khilani are are a collection of 98 apocryphal hymns of the Rigveda, recorded in the Bashakala, but not in the Shakala school. ... The Kaushitaki Brahmana is the Brahmana associated with the Rigveda in the Bashkala shakha. ...


This compilation or redaction included the arrangement in books as well as orthoepic changes, such as regularization of sandhi (called by Oldenberg orthoepische Diaskeunase). It took place centuries after the composition of the earliest hymns, about co-eval to the redaction of the other Vedas. Orthoepy means the correct use of words, from the Greek orth- + -epos, correct + word, speech. ... Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ...


From the time of its redaction, the text has been handed down in two versions: The Samhitapatha has all Sanskrit rules of sandhi applied and is the text used for recitation. The Padapatha has each word isolated in its pausa form and is used for memorization. The Padapatha is, as it were, a commentary to the Samhitapatha, but the two seem to be about co-eval. The original text as reconstructed on metrical grounds (viz. "original" in the sense that it aims to recover the hymns as recorded by the Rishis) lies somewhere between the two, but closer to the Samhitapatha. Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries. ... A pada ( foot) in Sanskrit poetic meter (chandas) is a quarter of a full verse (the foot of a quadruped being one out of four), e. ... A rishi (Sanskrit ऋषि: ) is a Hindu saint or sage. ...


Organization

The most common numbering scheme is by book, hymn and verse (and pada (foot) a, b, c ..., if required). E. g. the first pada is A pada ( foot) in Sanskrit poetic meter (chandas) is a quarter of a full verse (the foot of a quadruped being one out of four), e. ... In verse, a foot is the basic unit of meter used to describe rhythm. ...

  • 1.1.1a agním īḷe puróhitaṃ "Agni I laud, the high priest"

and the final pada is

  • 10.191.4d yáthāḥ vaḥ súsahā́sati "for your being in good company"

Each Book (Maṇḍala) is divided into Anuvākas which some modern publishers often omit (each Anuvākas contains many hymns or suktas).An alternative scheme is into Aṣṭaka (eighths), Adhāyaya (chapter) and Varga (class). Some publishers give both classifications in a single edition.


Hermann Grassmann had numbered the hymns 1 through to 1028, putting the vālakhilya at the end. It has become common practice now-a-days to regard all 11 vālakhilya hymns as integral part of the Rgveda, but Śākal śhākhā recognises only 1017 hymns, putting vālakhilya in the category of khila : mantras of khila hymns were called khailika and not ṛcas (Khila meant distinct 'part' of Rgveda separate from regular hymns; all regular hymns make up the akhila or the whole recognised in a śhākhā,although khila hymns have sanctified roles in rituals from ancient times), while the Bāṣakala śākhā includes 8 of these vālakhilya hymns among regular hymns, making a total of 1025 regular hymns for this śhākhā [5]. The entire 1028 hymns of the Rigveda, in the 1877 edition of Aufrecht, contain a total of 10,552 verses, or 39,831 padas. The Shatapatha Brahmana gives the number of syllables to be 432,000[6], while the metrical text of van Nooten and Holland (1994) has a total of 395,563 syllables (or an average of 9.93 syllables per pada); counting the number of syllables is not straightforward because of issues with sandhi. Most verses are jagati (padas of 12 syllables), trishtubh (padas of 11 syllables), viraj (padas of 10 syllables) or gayatri or anushtubh (padas of 8 syllables). Hermann Günther Grassmann (April 15, 1809, Stettin – September 26, 1877, Stettin) was a German polymath, renowned in his day as a linguist and now admired as a mathematician. ... Shatapatha Brahmana (Brahmana of one-hundred paths) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual. ... The verses of the Vedas have a variety of different meters. ... The verses of the Vedas have a variety of different meters. ... Gayatri (Sanskrit: , IAST: ) is the feminine form of gāyatra, a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. ... The verses of the Vedas have a variety of different meters. ...


Contents

See also: Rigvedic deities

The chief gods of the Rigveda are Indra, a heroic god who is praised for having slain his enemy Vrtra, Agni, the sacrificial fire, and Soma, the sacred potion, or the plant it is made from. Other prominent gods are Mitra-Varuna and Ushas (the dawn). Also invoked are Savitr, Vishnu, Rudra, Pushan, Brihaspati, Brahmanaspati, as well as deified natural phenomena such as Dyaus Pita (the sky), Prithivi (the earth), Surya (the sun), Vayu (the wind), Apas (the waters), Parjanya (the rain), Vac (the word), many rivers (notably the Sapta Sindhu, and the Sarasvati River). Groups of deities are the Ashvins, the Maruts, the Adityas, the Rbhus, the Vishvadevas (the all-gods). It contains various further minor gods, persons, concepts, phenomena and items, and fragmentary references to possible historical events, notably the struggle between the early Vedic people (known as Vedic Aryans, a subgroup of the Indo-Aryans) and their enemies, the Dasa. There are 1028 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism, Vritra (Sanskrit वृत्र Vṛtra, the enveloper) was a serpent or dragon, the personification of drought and enemy of Indra. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... This article is about the Vedic plant and ritual. ... This article is about the Vedic deity Mitra. ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ... Ushas (उषः úṣas-), Sanskrit for dawn, is the chief goddess (sometimes imagined as several goddesses, Dawns) exalted in the Rigveda. ... In Hinduism, Savitri (also Savitr, Savitar) is a solar deity and one of the Adityas. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... Rudra (Sanskrit: रुद्रः) (Howler) is a Rigvedic God of the storm, the hunt, death, Nature and the Wind. ... Pushan, also known as Puchan, is the Hindu god of meeting. ... In Hinduism, Brihaspati is the god of magic and prayer. ... In Hinduism, Brihaspati is the god of magic and prayer. ... In the Vedic religion is Akasha, the Sky Father, husband of Prithvi and father of Agni and Indra (RV 4. ... In Hinduism, Prithvi (pṛthvī) is an Earth Mother or Prithvi Mata, wife of Dyaus Pita, mother of Indra and Agni. ... In Hinduism, Surya (Devanagari: सूर्य, sÅ«rya) is the chief solar deity,one of the Adityas, son of Kasyapa and one of his wife Aditi[1] ,in Nordics Tyr he is said to be the son of Dyaus Pitar. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In Hinduism, Vayu (Sanskrit वायु (properly transliterated as Vāyu), also known as Vāta वात, Pavana पवन, or Pr... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Ap () is the Vedic Sanskrit term for water, in Classical Sanskrit... Monsoon in the Vindhya range. ... VAC is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: volts of alternating current. ... Rivers play a prominent part in the hymns of the Rigveda, and consequently in early Vedic religion. ... The Sapta Sindhu are the seven sacred rivers in Hindu mythology. ... The Sarasvati River is an ancient river that is mentioned in Hindu texts. ... The Ashvins ( possessor of horses, horse tamer, cavalier, dual ) are divine twin horsemen in the Rigveda, sons of Saranya, a goddess of the clouds and wife of either Surya in his form as Vivasvat. ... In Hinduism the Maruts, also known as the Marutgana and the Rudras, are storm deities and sons of Rudra and Diti and attendants of Indra. ... In Hinduism, the Adityas are a group of solar deities, sons of Aditi and Kasyapa. ... In Hinduism, the Rbhus (singular Rbhu) are the gods of crafts, artisans, horses and also solar deities. ... The word Visvadevas means Lords of the Universe or All Gods. The term is used to address the various gods as a whole. ... The Vedic civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas, the earliest known records of Indian history. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Dāsa are a tribe identified as the enemies of the Aryan tribes in the Rigveda. ...

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century
Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century
  • Mandala 1 comprises 191 hymns. Hymn 1.1 is addressed to Agni, and his name is the first word of the Rigveda. The remaining hymns are mainly addressed to Agni and Indra. Hymns 1.154 to 1.156 are addressed to Vishnu.
  • Mandala 2 comprises 43 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. It is chiefly attributed to the Rishi gṛtsamda śaunohotra.
  • Mandala 3 comprises 62 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. The verse 3.62.10 has great importance in Hinduism as the Gayatri Mantra. Most hymns in this book are attributed to viśvāmitra gāthinaḥ.
  • Mandala 4 consists of 58 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. Most hymns in this book are attributed to vāmadeva gautama.
  • Mandala 5 comprises 87 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra, the Visvadevas (gods of the world), the Maruts, the twin-deity Mitra-Varuna and the Asvins. Two hymns each are dedicated to Ushas (the dawn) and to Savitr. Most hymns in this book are attributed to the atri family.
  • Mandala 6 comprises 75 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. Most hymns in this book are attributed to the bārhaspatya family of Angirasas.
  • Mandala 7 comprises 104 hymns, to Agni, Indra, the Visvadevas, the Maruts, Mitra-Varuna, the Asvins, Ushas, Indra-Varuna, Varuna, Vayu (the wind), two each to Sarasvati (ancient river/goddess of learning) and Vishnu, and to others. Most hymns in this book are attributed to vasiṣṭha maitravaurṇi.
  • Mandala 8 comprises 103 hymns to different gods. Hymns 8.49 to 8.59 are the apocryphal valakhīlya. Most hymns in this book are attributed to the kāṇva family.
  • Mandala 9 comprises 114 hymns, entirely devoted to Soma Pavamana, the plant of the sacred potion of the Vedic religion.
  • Mandala 10 comprises 191 hymns, to Agni and other gods. It contains the Nadistuti sukta which is in praise of rivers and is important for the reconstruction of the geography of the Vedic civilization and the Purusha sukta which has significance in Hindu tradition. It also contains the Nasadiya sukta (10.129), probably the most celebrated hymns in the west, which deals with creation.

Download high resolution version (1161x1125, 419 KB)Rigveda MS in Sanskrit on paper, India, early 19th c. ... Download high resolution version (1161x1125, 419 KB)Rigveda MS in Sanskrit on paper, India, early 19th c. ... A pada ( foot) in Sanskrit poetic meter (chandas) is a quarter of a full verse (the foot of a quadruped being one out of four), e. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... The first Mandala of the Rig Veda has 191 hymns. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... The second Mandala of the Rig Veda has 43 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra chiefly attributed to the Rishi . ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... The third Mandala of the Rig Veda has 62 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Gayatri (gāyatrī) is the feminine form of gāyatra, a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. ... The fourth Mandala of the Rig Veda has 58 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... The fifth Mandala of the Rig Veda has 87 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra, the Visvadevas, the Maruts, the twin-deity Mitra-Varuna and the Asvins. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... The word Visvadevas means Lords of the universe or All Gods. The term is used to address the various gods as a whole. ... In Hinduism the Maruts, also known as the Marutgana and the Rudras, are storm deities and sons of Rudra and Diti and attendants of Indra. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... In Hinduism, the Asvins are the twin sons of Saranya with either Surya or Vivasvat. ... Ushas (उषः úṣas-), Sanskrit for dawn, is the chief goddess (sometimes imagined as several goddesses, Dawns) exalted in the Rigveda. ... In Hinduism, Savitri (also Savitr, Savitar) is a solar deity and one of the Adityas. ... The sixth Mandala of the Rig Veda has 75 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism, the Angiris (or Angiras) are a group of angels responsible for watching over humans performing sacrifices. ... The seventh Mandala of the Rig Veda has 104 hymns, to Agni, Indra, the Visvadevas, the Maruts, Mitra-Varuna, the Asvins, Ushas, Indra-Varuna, Varuna, Vayu (the wind), two each to Sarasvati and Vishnu, and to others. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... The word Visvadevas means Lords of the universe or All Gods. The term is used to address the various gods as a whole. ... In Hinduism the Maruts, also known as the Marutgana and the Rudras, are storm deities and sons of Rudra and Diti and attendants of Indra. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... In Hinduism, the Asvins are the twin sons of Saranya with either Surya or Vivasvat. ... Ushas (उषः úṣas-), Sanskrit for dawn, is the chief goddess (sometimes imagined as several goddesses, Dawns) exalted in the Rigveda. ... This article is about the god. ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In Hinduism, Vayu (Sanskrit वायु (properly transliterated as Vāyu), also known as Vāta वात, Pavana पवन, or Pr... This article is about Saraswati, the Hindu goddess. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... The eight Mandala of the Rig Veda has 103 hymns to various gods. ... The ninth Mandala of the Rig Veda has 114 hymns, entirely devoted to Soma Pavamana, the plant of the sacred potion of the Vedic religion. ... This article is about the Vedic plant and ritual. ... The tenth Mandala of the Rigveda has 191 hymns, to Agni and other gods. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (MahābhÅ«ta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... The Nadistuti sukta (praise of the rivers) is hymn 10. ... The first two verses of the Purusha sukta, with Sayanas commentary. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Rishis

See also Anukramani.

Each hymn of the Rigveda is traditionally attributed to a specific rishi, and the "family books" (2-7) are said to have been composed ("heard") by one family of rishis each. The main families, listed by the number of verses ascribed to them are: An (also ) is an index of Vedic hymns, recording poetic meter, content, and traditions of authorship. ... A rishi (Sanskrit ऋषि: ) is a Hindu saint or sage. ...

1. ... The sixth Mandala of the Rig Veda has 75 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. ... Kanva () is a renowned rishi, author of several hymns of the Rigveda, called a son of Ghora and one of the Angirasas. ... The eight Mandala of the Rig Veda has 103 hymns to various gods. ... Vasishtha, in Hindu mythology was chief of the seven venerated sages (or Saptarishi) and the Rajaguru of the Suryavamsha or Solar Dynasty. ... The seventh Mandala of the Rig Veda has 104 hymns, to Agni, Indra, the Visvadevas, the Maruts, Mitra-Varuna, the Asvins, Ushas, Indra-Varuna, Varuna, Vayu (the wind), two each to Sarasvati and Vishnu, and to others. ... Brahmarishi Visvamitra or Vishvamitra (Sanskrit: , IAST: ) is one of the most venerated rishi or sages of since ancient times in India. ... The third Mandala of the Rig Veda has 62 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. ... In Hinduism, Atri (Sanskrit: अत्रि) is a legendary bard and scholar, and a son of Brahma. ... The fifth Mandala of the Rig Veda has 87 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra, the Visvadevas, the Maruts, the twin-deity Mitra-Varuna and the Asvins. ... The Bhrigus, also known as Bhargavas, are a clan of sages descending form the ancient fire-priest Bhrigu. ... In the Puranas, Kashyapa (Sanskrit कश्यप kaśyapa) (meaning tortoise) is an ancient sage (one of the rishis), father of the Devas, Asuras, Nagas and all of humanity. ... The ninth Mandala of the Rig Veda has 114 hymns, entirely devoted to Soma Pavamana, the plant of the sacred potion of the Vedic religion. ... The Grhya Sutras domestic sutras are a category of Sanskrit texts in the tradition of the Brahmanas, commenting on Vedic ritual. ... The second Mandala of the Rig Veda has 43 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra chiefly attributed to the Rishi . ... In Hinduism, Agastya (अगस्त्य in devanagari, pronounced as /ə gəs tyə/; also transliterated as Agathiar அகத்தியர் in Tamil, ಅಗಸ್ತ್ಯ in Kannada, Agasthiar, Agastyar and in other ways) is a legendary Vedic sage or rishi. ... The Bhāratas are an Aryan tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, especially in Mandala 3 attributed to the Bharata sage Vishvamitra. ...

Manuscripts

There are 30 manuscripts of Rigveda at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, collected in the 19th century by Georg Bühler, Franz Kielhorn and others, originating from different parts of India, including Kashmir, Gujarat, the then Rajaputana, Central Provinces etc. They were transferred to Deccan College, Pune, in the late 19th century. They are in the Sharada and Devanagari scripts, written on birch bark and paper. The oldest of them is dated to 1464. The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, abbreviated BORI, is located in Pune at the junction of Law College Road and Bhandarkar Road. ... Georg Bühler Professor Johann Georg Bühler (July 19, 1837—April 8, 1898) was an eminent scholar of ancient Indian languages and law. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Rajsthan was known as Rajputana before its formation in 1949. ... A British Raj province comprising British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India. ... Deccan College, Pune Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute is a post-graduate institute of Archeology and Linguistics in Pune, India. ... , Pune (IPA: , Marathi: पुणे) is a city located in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. ... Kashmiri Shaivaite manuscript (17th or 18th century) The Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts, developed from ca. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Events February - Christian I of Denmark and Norway who was also serving as King of Sweden is declared deposed from the later throne. ...


Of these 30 manuscripts, 9 contain the samhita text, 5 have the padapatha in addition. 13 contain Sayana's commentary. At least 5 manuscripts (MS. no. 1/A1879-80, 1/A1881-82, 331/1883-84 and 5/Viś I) have preserved the complete text of the Rigveda. MS no. 5/1875-76, written on birch bark in bold Sharada, was used by Max Müller for his edition of the Rigveda with Sayana’s commentary. A pada ( foot) in Sanskrit poetic meter (chandas) is a quarter of a full verse (the foot of a quadruped being one out of four), e. ... Max Müller as a young man Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ...


Max Müller used 24 manuscripts, while the Pune Edition used over five dozen manuscripts, but the editors of Pune Edition could not procure many manuscripts used by Max Müller and by Bombay Edition, as well as from some other sources ; hence the total number of extant manuscripts must surpass perhaps eighty at least [7] Max Müller as a young man Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Max Müller as a young man Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ...


Hindu tradition

According to Indian tradition, the Rigvedic hymns were collected by Paila under the guidance of Vyāsa, who formed the Rigveda Samhita as we know it. According to the Śatapatha Brāhmana, the number of syllables in the Rigveda is 432,000, equalling the number of muhurtas (1 day = 30 muhurtas) in forty years. This statement stresses the underlying philosophy of the Vedic books that there is a connection (bandhu) between the astronomical, the physiological, and the spiritual. Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Shatapatha Brahmana (Brahmana of one-hundred paths) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The authors of the Brāhmana literature described and interpreted the Rigvedic ritual. Yaska was an early commentator of the Rigveda. In the 14th century, Sāyana wrote an exhaustive commentary on it. Other Bhāṣyas (commentaries) that have been preserved up to present times are those by Mādhava, Skaṃdasvāmin and Veṃkatamādhava. The Brahmanas (Brahmin Books) are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures focus on sacrifice -- particularly that of horses and soma. ... Yaska Acharya is a celebrated Sanskrit scholar and grammarian of ancient India. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Sayana (सायण) was the great 14th century commentator on the Vedas. ... Madhava is another name for Vishnu and appears as the 72nd, 167th and 735th names in the Vishnu sahasranama. ...


Dating and historical reconstruction

Geography of the Rigveda, with river names; the extent of the Swat and Cemetery H cultures are also indicated.
Geography of the Rigveda, with river names; the extent of the Swat and Cemetery H cultures are also indicated.

The Rigveda is far more archaic than any other Indo-Aryan text. For this reason, it was in the center of attention of western scholarship from the times of Max Müller. The Rigveda records an early stage of Vedic religion, still closely tied to the pre-Zoroastrian Persian religion. It is thought that Zoroastrianism and Vedic Hinduism evolved from an earlier common religious Indo-Iranian culture. Image File history File links Rigvedic_geography. ... Image File history File links Rigvedic_geography. ... Rivers play a prominent part in the hymns of the Rigveda, and consequently in early Vedic religion. ... Geography of the Rigveda, with river names; the extent of the Swat and Cemetary H cultures are indicated. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... Max Müller Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ...


The Rigveda's core is accepted to date to the late Bronze Age, making it the only example of Bronze Age literature with an unbroken tradition. Its composition is usually dated to roughly between 1700–1100 BC.[8] The text in the following centuries underwent pronunciation revisions and standardization (samhitapatha, padapatha). This redaction would have been completed around the 7th century BC.[9] The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The History of literature begins with the history of writing, in Bronze Age Mesopotamia, although the oldest literary texts that have come down to us date to a full millennium after the invention of writing, to the late 3rd millennium BC. The earliest literary author known by name is Enheduanna... The Samhita (Sanskrit: joined or collected) is the basic text of each of the Vedas, comprising collections of hymns and ritual texts. ... A pada ( foot) in Sanskrit poetic meter (chandas) is a quarter of a full verse (the foot of a quadruped being one out of four), e. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of...


Writing appears in India around the 5th century BC in the form of the Brahmi script, but texts of the length of the Rigveda were likely not written down until much later, the oldest surviving manuscript dating to the 11th century. While written manuscripts were used for teaching in medieval times, they were written on bark or palm leaves, which decomposed quicker in the tropical climate, until the advent of the printing press from the 16th century. The hymns were thus preserved by oral tradition for up to a millennium from the time of their composition until the redaction of the Rigveda, and the entire Rigveda was preserved in shakhas for another 2,500 years from the time of its redaction until the editio princeps by Müller, a collective feat of preservation unparalleled in any other known society. BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... Shakha (IAST ), literally branch or limb, is the Sanskrit term for a recension or version of Vedic texts according to a particular school. ...


Puranic literature names Vidagdha as the author of the Padapatha.[10] Other scholars argue that Sthavira Shakalya of the Aitareya Aranyaka is the padakara of the RV.[11] After their composition, the texts were preserved and codified by a vast body of Vedic priesthood as the central philosophy of the Iron Age Vedic civilization. The Vedic priesthood is the collective term for the priests of the Vedic religion(similar to witch doctors of tribal africa). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Rigveda describes a mobile, nomadic culture, with horse-drawn chariots and metal (bronze) weapons. The geography described is consistent with that of the Punjab: Rivers flow north to south, the mountains are relatively remote but still reachable (Soma is a plant found in the mountains, and it has to be purchased, imported by merchants). Nevertheless, the hymns were certainly composed over a long period, with the oldest elements possibly reaching back to times close to the split of Proto-Indo-Iranian (around 2000 BC)[12] Thus there is some debate over whether the boasts of the destruction of stone forts by the Vedic Aryans and particularly by Indra refer to cities of the Indus Valley civilization or whether they hark back to clashes between the early Indo-Aryans with the BMAC in what is now northern Afghanistan and southern Turkmenistan (separated from the upper Indus by the Hindu Kush mountain range, and some 400 km distant). In any case, while it is highly likely that the bulk of the Rigvedic hymns were composed in the Punjab, even if based on earlier poetic traditions, there is no mention of either tigers or rice[13] in the Rigveda (as opposed to the later Vedas), suggesting that Vedic culture only penetrated into the plains of India after its completion. Similarly, it is assumed that there is no mention of iron although the term ayas (metal) occurs in the Rig Veda. [14] The Iron Age in northern India begins in the 12th century BC with the Black and Red Ware (BRW) culture. This is a widely accepted timeframe for the beginning codification of the Rigveda (i.e. the arrangement of the individual hymns in books, and the fixing of the samhitapatha (by applying Sandhi) and the padapatha (by dissolving Sandhi) out of the earlier metrical text), and the composition of the younger Vedas. This time probably coincides with the early Kuru kingdom, shifting the center of Vedic culture east from the Punjab into what is now Uttar Pradesh. Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Rivers play a prominent part in the hymns of the Rigveda, and consequently in early Vedic religion. ... This article is about the Vedic plant and ritual. ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) is a modern archaeologists designation for a Bronze Age Turkmenistan. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... The black and red ware culture (BRW) is an early Iron Age archaeological culture of the northern Indian Subcontinent. ... Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries. ... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ...


Some of the names of gods and goddesses found in the Rigveda are found amongst other belief systems based on Proto-Indo-European religion as well: Dyaus-Pita is cognate with Greek Zeus, Latin Jupiter (from deus-pater), and Germanic Tyr; while Mitra is cognate with Persian Mithra; also, Ushas with Greek Eos and Latin Aurora; and, less certainly, Varuna with Greek Uranos. Finally, both Latin ignis and Russian ogon, are cognate with Agni - meaning "fire" . There are 1028 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Eos, by Evelyn De Morgan (1850 - 1919), 1895 (Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC): for a Pre-Raphaelite painter, Eos was still the classical pagan equivalent of an angel Eos (dawn) was, in Greek Mythology, the Titan goddess of the dawn, who rose from her home at the edge of... Aurora, by Guercino, 1621-23 (ceiling fresco in the Casino Ludovisi, Rome), a classic example of Baroque illusionistic painting Aurora was the ancient Roman equivalent of Eos, the ancient Greek goddess of the dawn. ... Ouranos is the Greek name of the sky, latinized as Uranus. ...


N. Kazanas [15] in a polemic against the "Aryan Invasion Theory" suggests a date as early as 3100 BC, based on an identification of the early Rigvedic Sarasvati River as the Ghaggar-Hakra and on glottochronological arguments. Being a polemic against mainstream scholarship, this is in diametrical opposition to views in mainstream historical linguistics, and supports the controversial Out of India theory, which assumes a date as late as 3000 BC for the age of late Proto-Indo-European itself. Some writers based on astronomical calculations even claim dates as early as 4000 BC[16], a date well within the Indian Neolithic.[17]. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Sarasvati River is an ancient river that is mentioned in Hindu texts. ... The Ghaggar is a seasonal river in India, flowing when water is available from monsoon rains. ... Glottochronology refers to methods in historical linguistics used to estimate the time at which languages diverged, based on the assumption that the basic (core) vocabulary of a language changes at a constant average rate. ... The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The sun rising over Stonehenge at the 2005 Summer Solstice. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ...


Flora and fauna in the Rigveda

The horse (ashva) and cattle play an important role in the Rigveda. There are also references to the elephant (Hastin, Varana), camel (Ustra, especially in Mandala 8), buffalo (Mahisa), lion (Simha) and to the gaur in the Rigveda.[18] The peafowl (mayura) and the chakravaka (Anas casarca) are birds mentioned in the Rigveda. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Ashva (a Sanskrit word for a horse) is one of the significant animals finding references in several Hindu scriptures. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Hastin is a term for elephant used in Vedic texts. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... The eight Mandala of the Rig Veda has 103 hymns to various gods. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Bos gaurus H. Smith, 1827 Range map The Gaur (IPA gauɹ) (Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large, dark-coated ox of South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... Speciues Pavo cristatus Pavo muticus The term peafowl can refer to the two species of bird in the genus Pavo of the pheasant family, Phasianidae. ...


Rigveda Brahmanas

Of the Barhmanas that were handed down in the schools of the Bahvṛcas (i.e. "possessed of many verses"), as the followers of the Rigveda are called, two have come down to us, viz. those of the Aitareyins and the Kaushitakins. The Aitareya-brahmana[19] and the Kaushitaki- (or Sankhayana-) brahmana evidently have for their groundwork the same stock of traditional exegetic matter. They differ, however, considerably as regards both the arrangement of this matter and their stylistic handling of it, with the exception of the numerous legends common to both, in which the discrepancy is comparatively slight. There is also a certain amount of material peculiar to each of them. The Kaushitaka is, upon the whole, far more concise in its style and more systematic in its arrangementfeatures which would lead one to infer that it is probably the more modern work of the two. It consists of thirty chapters (adhyaya); while the Aitareya has forty, divided into eight books (or pentads, pancaka), of five chapters each. The last ten adhyayas of the latter work are, however, clearly a later addition though they must have already formed part of it at the time of Panini (ca. 5th c. BC), if, as seems probable, one of his grammatical sutras, regulating the formation of the names of Brahmanas, consisting of thirty and forty adhyayas, refers to these two works. In this last portion occurs the well-known legend (also found in the Shankhayana-sutra, but not in the Kaushitaki-brahmana) of Shunahshepa, whom his father Ajigarta sells and offers to slay, the recital of which formed part of the inauguration of kings. While the Aitareya deals almost exclusively with the Soma sacrifice, the Kaushitaka, in its first six chapters, treats of the several kinds of haviryajna, or offerings of rice, milk, ghee, &c., whereupon follows the Soma sacrifice in this way, that chapters 7-10 contain the practical ceremonial and 11-30 the recitations (shastra) of the hotar. Sayana, in the introduction to his commentary on the work, ascribes the Aitareya to the sage Mahidasa Aitareya (i.e. son of Itara), also mentioned elsewhere as a philosopher; and it seems likely enough that this person arranged the Brahmana and founded the schcol of the Aitareyins. Regarding the authorship of the sister work we have no information, except that the opinion of the sage Kaushitaki is frequently referred to in it as authoritative, and generally in opposition to the Paingya — the Brahmana, it would seem, of a rival school, the Paingins. Probably, therefore, it is just what one of the manuscripts calls it — the Brahmana of Sankhayana (composed) in accordance with the views of Kaushitaki. The Aitareya Brahmana is the Brahmana associated with the Rigveda in the Shakala school. ... The Kaushitaki Brahmana is the Brahmana associated with the Rigveda in the Bashkala shakha. ... Panini can refer to: Pāṇini, the 5th century BC Sanskrit grammarian Panini (sandwich), a type of Italian sandwich Panini (stickers), a brand of collectible stickers Giovanni Paolo Panini, an Italian artist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Rigveda Aranyakas

Each of these two Brahmanas is supplemented by a "forest book", or Aranyaka. The Aitareyaranyaka is not a uniform production. It consists of five books (aranyaka), three of which, the first and the last two, are of a liturgical nature, treating of the ceremony called mahavrata, or great vow. The last of these books, composed in sutra form, is, however, doubtless of later origin, and is, indeed, ascribed by Hindu authorities either to Shaunaka or to Ashvalayana. The second and third books, on the other hand, are purely speculative, and are also styled the Bahvrca-brahmana-upanishad. Again, the last four chapters of the second book are usually singled out as the Aitareyopanishad, ascribed, like its Brahmana (and the first book), to Mahidasa Aitareya; and the third book is also referred to as the Samhita-upanishad. As regards the Kaushitaki-aranyaka, this work consists of 15 adhyayas, the first two (treating of the mahavrata ceremony) and the 7th and 8th of which correspond to the 1st, 5th, and 3rd books of the Aitareyaranyaka, respectively, whilst the four adhyayas usually inserted between them constitute the highly interesting Kaushitaki (brahmana-) upanishad, of which we possess two different recensions. The remaining portions (9-15) of the Aranyaka treat of the vital airs, the internal Agnihotra, etc., ending with the vamsha, or succession of teachers. The Aranyakas (Sanskrit आरण्यक ) are part of the Hindu śruti; these religious scriptures are written in early Classical Sanskrit, and form part of either the Brahmanas or Upanishads. ...


Vedantic and Hindu reformist views

Since the 19th and 20th centuries, some reformers like Swami Dayananda, founder of the "Arya Samaj" and Sri Aurobindo have attempted to re-interpret the Vedas to conform to modern and established moral and spiritual norms. They moved the Vedantic perception of the Rigveda from the original ritualistic content to a more symbolic or mystical interpretation. For example, instances of animal sacrifice were not seen by them as literal slaughtering, but as transcendental processes. Swami Dayananda Saraswati (स्‍वामी दयानन्‍द सरस्‍वती) (1824 - 1883) is an important Hindu religious scholar born in Gujarat, India. ... Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... Śrī Aurobindo Śrī Aurobindo (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian nationalist, scholar, poet, Hindu mystic, Evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru. ... Vedanta , meaning literally the end section of the Vedas, is a branch of Hindu philosophy. ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... In philosophy, transcendental/transcendence, has three different but related primary meanings, all of them derived from the words literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond: one that originated in Ancient philosophy, one in Medieval philosophy and one in modern philosophy. ...


The Sarasvati river, lauded in RV 7.95 as the greatest river flowing from the mountain to the sea is sometimes equated with the Ghaggar-Hakra river, which went dry perhaps before 2600 BC or certainly before 1900 BC. Others argue that the Sarasvati was originally the Helmand in Afghanistan. These questions are tied to the debate about the Indo-Aryan migration (termed "Aryan Invasion Theory") vs. the claim that Vedic culture together with Vedic Sanskrit originated in the Indus Valley Civilisation (termed "Out of India theory"), a topic of great significance in Hindu nationalism, addressed for example by Amal Kiran and Shrikant G. Talageri. Subhash Kak has claimed that there is an astronomical code in the organization of the hymns. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, also based on astronomical alignments in the Rigveda, in his "The Orion" (1893) claimed presence of the Rigvedic culture in India in the 4th millennium BC, and in his "Arctic Home in the Vedas" (1903) even argued that the Aryans originated near the North Pole and came south during the Ice Age. The Sarasvati River is an ancient river that is mentioned in Hindu texts. ... The Hakra is the dried-out channel of a river in Pakistan that until about 2000 BC - 1500 BC was the continuation of the Ghaggar River in India. ... (Redirected from 2600 BC) (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... (Redirected from 1900 BC) (20th century BC - 19th century BC - 18th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events Hittite empire in Anatolia 1829 - 1818 BC -- Egyptian-Nubian war 1818 BC -- Egyptian Campaign in Palestine 1813 BC -- Amorite Conquest of Northern Mesopotamia 1806 BC... The Helmand River: Avestan: HaÄ“tumant rich in dams (also Helmend, Helmund, Hirmand or Tarnak) is the longest river in Afghanistan. ... Indo-Aryan migration is a hypothesis, based on linguistic evidence, regarding the expansion of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages following the breakup of Proto-Indo-Iranian and the subsequent Indo-Iranian expansion out of Central Asia (Mallory 1989). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. ... The Out of India theory (OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the original homeland of the Indo-European language family is India. ... For Veer Savarkars book Hindutva, see Hindutva. ... Amal Kiran (b. ... Shrikant G. Talageri, born in 1958, is an Indian author & a bank clerk in his day-job. He is the author of a book on the Rigveda and on the Aryan Invasion Theory. His works include THE RIGVEDA - A Historical Analysis. ... Subhash Kak (सुभाष काक) (born March 26, 1947, Srinagar, Kashmir) is Delaune Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and Professor in the Asian Studies and Cognitive Science Programs at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. ... Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


Editions

  • editio princeps: Friedrich Max Müller, The Hymns of the Rigveda, with Sayana's commentary, London, 1849-75, 6 vols., 2nd ed. 4 vols., Oxford, 1890-92.
  • Theodor Aufrecht, 2nd ed., Bonn, 1877.
  • Sontakke, N. S., ed. (1933-46,Reprint 1972-1983.), Rgveda-Samhitā: Śrimat-Sāyanāchārya virachita-bhāṣya-sametā (First ed.), Pune: Vaidika Samśodhana Maṇḍala. The Editorial Board for the First Edition included N. S. Sontakke (Managing Editor), V. K. Rājvade, M. M. Vāsudevaśāstri, and T. S. Varadarājaśarmā.
  • B. van Nooten und G. Holland, Rig Veda, a metrically restored text, Department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies, Harvard University, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 1994.

Max Müller Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Sayana (सायण) was the great 14th century commentator on the Vedas. ... Simon Theodor Aufrecht (January 7, 1822–April 3, 1907) German indologist. ...

Translations

The first published translation of any portion of the Rigveda in any Western language was into Latin, by Friedrich August Rosen (Rigvedae specimen, London 1830). Predating Müller's editio princeps of the text, Rosen was working from manuscripts brought back from India by Colebrooke. Friedrich August Rosen (born 2 September 1805 in Hannover, died 2 September 1837 in London) was a German Orientalist, brother of Georg Rosen. ... Henry Thomas Colebrooke (June 15, 1765 - March 18, 1837) was an English orientalist. ...


H. H. Wilson was the first to make a complete translation of the Rig Veda into English, published in six volumes during the period 1850-88.[20] Wilson's version was based on the commentary of Sāyaṇa. In 1977, Wilson's edition was enlarged by Nag Sharan Singh (Nag Publishers, Delhi, 2nd ed. 1990).


In 1889, Ralph T.H. Griffith published his translation as The Hymns of the Rig Veda, published in London (1889).[21] Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (1826-1906), scholar of indology, translated the vedic scriptures into English. ...


A German translation was published by Karl Friedrich Geldner, Der Rig-Veda: aus dem Sanskrit ins Deutsche Übersetzt, Harvard Oriental Studies, vols. 33–37 (Cambridge, Mass.: 1951-7).[22] Friedrich Karl Geldner (1852-1929) was a German linguist best known for his analysis and synthesis of Avestan and Vedic Sanskrit texts. ...


Geldner's tranlsation was the philologically best-informed to date, and a Russian translation based on Geldner's by Tatyana Yakovlena Elizarenkova was published by Nauka 1989-1999[23] Nauka (Russian: , lit. ...


A 2001 revised edition of Wilson's translation was published by Ravi Prakash Arya and K. L. Joshi.[24] The revised edition updates Wilson's translation by replacing obsolete English forms with more modern equivalents, giving the English translation along with the original Sanskrit text in Devanagari script, along with a critical apparatus. Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) Devanāgarī (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ...


In 2004 the United States' National Endowment for the Humanities funded Joel Brereton and Stephanie W. Jamison as project directors for a new original translation to be issued by Oxford University Press.[25] [26]


Numerous partial translations exist into various languages. Notable examples include:

  • A. A. Macdonell. Hymns from the Rigveda (Calcutta, London, 1922); A Vedic Reader for Students (Oxford, 1917).
  • French: A. Langlois, Paris 1948-51 ISBN 2-7200-1029-4
  • Hungarian: Laszlo Forizs, Rigvéda - Teremtéshimnuszok (Creation Hymns of the Rig-Veda), Budapest, 1995 ISBN 963-85349-1-5 Hymns of the Rig-Veda

Wendy Doniger issued a modern selection with a translation of 108 hymns, along with critical apparatus. A bibliography of translations of the Rig Veda appears as an Appendix that work.[27]


Notes

  1. ^ derived from the root ṛc "to praise", cf. Dhātupātha 28.19. Monier-Williams translates "a Veda of Praise or Hymn-Veda"
  2. ^ Mallory 1989 "The identification of the Andronovo culure as Indo-Iranian is commonly accepted by scholars."
  3. ^ There is some confusion with the term "Veda", which is traditionally applied to the texts associated with the samhita proper, such as Brahmanas or Upanishads. In English usage, the term Rigveda is usually used to refer to the Rigveda samhita alone, and texts like the Aitareya-Brahmana are not considered "part of the Rigveda" but rather "associated with the Rigveda" in the tradition of a certain shakha.
  4. ^ The oldest surviving manuscripts date to the 11th century
  5. ^ cf. Preface to Khila section by C.G.Kāshikar in Volume-5 of Pune Edition of RV (in references).
  6. ^ equalling 40 times 10,800, the number of bricks used for the uttaravedi: the number is motivated numerologically rather than based on an actual syllable count.
  7. ^ cf. Editorial notes in various volumes of Pune Edition, see references.
  8. ^ Oberlies (1998:155) gives an estimate of 1100 BC for the youngest hymns in book 10. Estimates for a terminus post quem of the earliest hymns are far more uncertain. Oberlies (p. 158) based on 'cumulative evidence' sets wide range of 1700–1100. The EIEC (s.v. Indo-Iranian languages, p. 306) gives 1500–1000. It is certain that the hymns post-date Indo-Iranian separation of ca. 2000 BC. It cannot be ruled out that archaic elements of the Rigveda go back to only a few generations after this time, but philological estimates tend to date the bulk of the text to the second half of the second millennium. Compare Max Müller's statement "the hymns of the Rig-Veda are said to date from 1500 B.C." ('Veda and Vedanta', 7th lecture in India: What Can It Teach Us: A Course of Lectures Delivered Before the University of Cambridge, World Treasures of the Library of Congress Beginnings by Irene U. Chambers, Michael S. Roth. some writers out of the mainstream claim to trace astronomical references in the Rigveda, dating it to as early as 4000 BC, a date corresponding to the Neolithic late Mehrgarh culture; summarized by Klaus Klostermaier in a 1998 presentation
  9. ^ Oldenberg (p. 379) places it near the end of the Brahmana period, seeing that the older Brahmanas still contain pre-normalized Rigvedic citations. The Brahmana period is later than the composition of the samhitas of the other Vedas, stretching for about the 9th to 7th centuries. This would mean that the redaction of the texts as preserved was completed in roughly the 7th century BC. The EIEC (p. 306) likewise gives a 7th century date.
  10. ^ The Shatapatha Brahmana refers to Vidagdha Shakalya without discussing anything related to the Padapatha, and no grammatical work refers to Vidagdha as a padakara. But the Brahmana Purana and the Vayu Purana say that he was the Padakara of the RV. The Shatapatha Brahmana is older than the Aitareya Aranyaka. The Aitareya Aranyaka is generally dated to the 7th century BCE (Jha 1992)
  11. ^ The Rk-pratishakhya of Shaunaka also refers to Sthavira Shakalya (Jha 1992)
  12. ^ minority opinions name dates as early as the 4th millennium BC; "The Aryan Non-Invasionist Model" by Koenraad Elst
  13. ^ There is however mention of ApUpa, Puro-das and Odana in the Rigveda, terms that, at least in later texts, refer to rice dishes, see Talageri (2000)
  14. ^ The term "ayas" (=metal) occurs in the Rigveda, usually translated as "bronze", although Chakrabarti, D.K. The Early Use of Iron in India (1992) Oxford University Press argues that it may refer to any metal. If ayas refers to iron, the Rigveda must date to the late 2nd millennium at the earliest.
  15. ^ N. Kazanas, A new date for the Rgveda Philosophy and Chronology, (2000) ed. G C Pande & D Krishna, special issue of Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research (June, 2001)
  16. ^ summarized by Klaus Klostermaier in a 1998 presentation
  17. ^ e.g. Michael Witzel, The Pleiades and the Bears viewed from inside the Vedic texts, EVJS Vol. 5 (1999), issue 2 (December) [1]; Elst, Koenraad (1999). Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate. Aditya Prakashan. ISBN 81-86471-77-4. ; Bryant, Edwin and Laurie L. Patton (2005) The Indo-Aryan Controversy, Routledge/Curzon.
  18. ^ Talageri 2000, Lal 2005
  19. ^ Edited, with an English translation, by M. Haug (2 vols., Bombay, 1863). An edition in Roman transliteration, with extracts from the commentary, has been published by Th. Aufrecht (Bonn, 1879).
  20. ^ Wilson, H. H. Ṛig-Veda-Sanhitā: A Collection of Ancient Hindu Hymns. 6 vols. (London, 1850-88); repring: Cosmo Publications (1977)
  21. ^ reprinted Delhi 1973, reprinted by Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers: 1999. Complete revised and enlarged edition. 2-volume set. ISBN: 8121500419
  22. ^ reprint: Harvard Department of Sanskrit and Indian Studies Harvard (University Press) (2003) ISBN 0-674-01226-7
  23. ^ extended from a partial translation Rigveda: Izbrannye Gimny, published in 1972.
  24. ^ Ravi Prakash Arya and K. L. Joshi. Ṛgveda Saṃhitā: Sanskrit Text, English Translation, Notes & Index of Verses. (Parimal Publications: Delhi, 2001) ISBN 81-7110-138-7 (Set of four volumes). Parimal Sanskrit Series No. 45; 2003 reprint: 81-7020-070-9
  25. ^ http://www.neh.gov/news/awards/collaborative2004.html retrieved 22 March, 2007.
  26. ^ Joel Brereton and Stephanie W. Jamison. The Rig Veda: Translation and Explanatory Notes. (Oxford University Press) ISBN: 0195179188
  27. ^ See Appendix 3, Doniger, Wendy. The Rig Veda. (Penguin Books: 1981) ISBN 0-140-44989-2

Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819-1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit , a compound of praise, verse[1] and knowledge) is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniá¹£ad) are part of the Vedas and form the Hindu scriptures which primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. ... The Aitareya Brahmana is the Brahmana associated with the Rigveda in the Shakala school. ... Shakha (IAST ), literally branch or limb, is the Sanskrit term for a recension or version of Vedic texts according to a particular school. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The Atiratra Agnicayana ( the building up of the fireplace performed over-night) or piling of the altar of Agni is an ancient ritual of Vedic religion. ... The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, was published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ... Max Müller as a young man Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... The sun rising over Stonehenge at the 2005 Summer Solstice. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... Klaus Klostermaier (born 1933 in Munich, Germany) is a researcher on Hinduism and Indian history and culture. ... The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, was published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. ... Shatapatha Brahmana (Brahmana of one-hundred paths) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual. ... The Vayu Purana is a Shaiva Purana, dedicated to Vayu (the wind), containing some 24,000 shlokas. ... The Aranyakas (Sanskrit आरण्यक ) are part of the Hindu Å›ruti; these religious scriptures are written in early Classical Sanskrit, and form part of either the Brahmanas or Upanishads. ... Shiksha (IAST ) is one of the six Vedangas, treating the traditional Hindu science of phonetics and phonology of Sanskrit. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Klaus Klostermaier (born 1933 in Munich, Germany) is a researcher on Hinduism and Indian history and culture. ... Koenraad Elst is a Belgian orientalist, writer and researcher[1]. He has authored fifteen books on topics related to Hinduism, Indian history, and Indian politics. ... Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate is a book by Koenraad Elst. ...

Bibliography

Commentary

  • Sayana (14th century)
    • ed. Müller 1849-75 (German translation);
    • ed. Müller (original commentary of Sāyana in Sanskrit based on 24 manuscripts).
    • ed. Sontakke et al, published by Vaidika Samsodhana Mandala, Pune (2nd ed. 1972) in 5 volumes.
  • Rgveda-Samhitā Srimat-sāyanāchārya virachita-bhāṣya-sametā, ed. by Sontakke et al, published by Vaidika Samśodhana Mandala,Pune-9,1972 ,in 5 volumes (It is original commentary of Sāyana in Sanskrit based on over 60 manuscripts).
  • Sri Aurobindo: Hymns of the Mystic Fire (Commentary on the Rig Veda), Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-914955-22-5 [2]
  • Rgveda-Samhita, Text in Devanagari, English translation Notes and indices by H. H. Wilson, Ed. W.F. Webster, originally in 1888, Published Nag Publishers 1990, 11A/U.A. Jawaharnagar,Delhi-7.

Philology Sayana (सायण) was the great 14th century commentator on the Vedas. ... Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ Sri Ôrobindo, Sanskrit: श्री अरविन्द SrÄ« Aravinda) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian/Hindu nationalist, scholar, poet, mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru [1]. After a short political career in which he became one of the leaders of the early movement for the freedom of India...

  • Vashishtha Narayan Jha, A Linguistic Analysis of the Rgveda-Padapatha Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi (1992).
  • Thomas Oberlies, Die Religion des Rgveda, Wien 1998.
  • Oldenberg, Hermann: Hymnen des Rigveda. 1. Teil: Metrische und textgeschichtliche Prolegomena. Berlin 1888; Wiesbaden 1982.
  • Die Religion des Veda. Berlin 1894; Stuttgart 1917; Stuttgart 1927; Darmstadt 1977
  • Vedic Hymns, The Sacred Books of the East vo, l. 46 ed. Friedrich Max Müller, Oxford 1897

Historical Hermann Oldenberg (1854-1920) was a German scholar of Indology, and Professor at Kiel (1898) and Göttingen (1908). ... Max Müller Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ...

  • Lal, B.B. 2005. The Homeland of the Aryans. Evidence of Rigvedic Flora and Fauna & Archaeology, New Delhi, Aryan Books International.
  • Talageri, Shrikant: The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis, 2000. ISBN 81-7742-010-0

Archaeoastronomy Shrikant G. Talageri, born in 1958, is an Indian author & a bank clerk in his day-job. He is the author of a book on the Rigveda and on the Aryan Invasion Theory. His works include THE RIGVEDA - A Historical Analysis. ...

Subhash Kak (सुभाष काक) (born March 26, 1947, Srinagar, Kashmir) is Delaune Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and Professor in the Asian Studies and Cognitive Science Programs at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. ... The Astronomical Code of the Rigveda is a book by Subhash Kak (Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi, 2000) that presents long-forgotten regularities in the organization of the Rigveda, connecting the structure to certain numbers in the astronomy-based ritual of the five-layered brick altars of the Vedic times. ... Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ...

See also

Veda redirects here. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
  • Rigveda - Nominations submitted by India in 2006-2007 for inclusion in the Memory of the World Register. (.doc format)
Text
  • mp3 audio download (gatewayforindia.com)[North Indian style, i.e., without meter or same meter, yeha swara]
Translation
  • Ralph Griffith, The Rig Veda 1895, full text, (online at sacred-texts.com)
Interpretation
  • Rig Veda (Sri Aurobindo Kapali Sastry Institute)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rigveda - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2505 words)
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a tatpurusha compound of ṛc "praise, verse" and veda "knowledge") is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns counted among the four Hindu religious texts known as the Vedas.
The Rigveda was likely composed around 1500–1300 BC and written around 900 BC, making it the oldest texts of any Indo-Iranian language, one of the world's oldest religious texts, and the oldest of a religious tradition with unbroken continuity.
The Rigveda's core is accepted to date to the late Bronze Age, making it the only example of Bronze Age literature with an unbroken tradition: All other texts of similar or greater age, such as the Egyptian "Book of the Dead" are known from archaeological excavations and linguistic reconstructions only.
NationMaster.com - Encyclopedia: Rigveda (1265 words)
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a tatpurusha compound of ṛc "praise, verse" and veda "knowledge") is a collection of hymns (ṛc, plural ṛcas) counted among the four Hindu religious texts known as the Vedas, and contains the oldest texts preserved in any Indo-Iranian language.
The chief gods of the Rigveda are Agni, the sacrificial fire, Indra, a heroic god that is praised for having slain his enemy Vrtra, and Soma, the sacred potion, or the plant it is made from.
Rigveda is the oldest, largest and most important of the Vedas, containing 10thousand verses forming 1017 poems in 20 groups.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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