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Encyclopedia > Right
Rights
Animal rights
Children's rights
Civil rights
Collective rights
Equal rights
Fathers' rights
Gay rights
Group rights
Human rights
Inalienable rights
Individual rights
Legal rights
Men's rights
Natural right
Negative & positive
Reproductive rights
Self-defense
Social rights
"Three generations"
Women's rights
Workers' rights
Youth rights
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In the jurisprudence and the law, a right is the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something, or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recognition in civil society. Rights serve as rules of interaction between people, and, as such, they place constraints and obligations upon the actions of individuals or groups (for example, if one has a right to life, this means that others do not have the liberty to kill him). A right-handed Cartesian coordinate system, illustrating the x (right-left), y (forward-backward) and z (up-down) axes relative to a human being. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... Animal liberation redirects here. ... The childrens rights movement was born in the 1800s with the orphan train. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The term collective rights refers to rights which are held and exercised by all the people collectively, or by specific subsets of the people. ... Equal Rights redirects here. ... The Fathers rights movement or Parents rights movement is part of the mens movement and/or the parents movement that emerged in the 1970s as a loose social movement providing a network of interest groups, primarily in western countries. ... For the LGBT rights article for a particular country, see LGBT rights by country. ... Group rights are rights that all members of a group have by virtue of being in that group. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The term inalienable rights (or unalienable rights) refers to a set of human rights that are in some sense fundamental, are not awarded by human power, and cannot be surrendered. ... Individual rights represent the moral rights of individuals in society prior to government. ... In modern English and European systems of jurisprudence and law, a right is the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recognition in civil society. ... This box:      Mens Rights involves the promotion of male equality, rights, and freedoms in society. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Within the philosophy of human rights, some philosophers and political scientists make a distinction between negative and positive rights. ... Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to... Social rights refer to what are usually positive rights, which ensure to all people a fair standard of treatment. ... The division of human rights into three generations was initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vasak at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Entitlement is the guarantee for access to benefits because of rights, or by agreement through law. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... The term right to life is a political term used in controversies over various issues that involve the taking of a life (or what is perceived to be a life). ...


Most modern conceptions of rights are universalist and egalitarian — in other words, equal rights are granted to all people. There are two main modern conceptions of rights: on the one hand, the idea of natural rights holds that there is a certain list of rights enshrined in nature that cannot be legitimately modified by any human power. On the other hand, the idea of legal rights holds that rights are human constructs, created by society, enforced by governments and subject to change. In comparative religion, a universalist religion is one that holds itself true for all people; it thus allows all to join, regardless of ethnicity. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... Equal Rights can be: One of several groups called the Equal Rights Party. ... For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... In modern English and European systems of jurisprudence and law, a right is the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recognition in civil society. ...


By contrast, most pre-modern conceptions of rights were hierarchical, with different people being granted different rights, and some having more rights than others. For instance, the rights of a father to be respected by his son did not indicate a duty upon the father to return that respect, and the divine right of kings to hold absolute power over their subjects did not leave room for many rights to be granted to the subjects themselves. The concept of natural right developed in the School of Salamanca in the late 16th century, and first gained widespread acceptance nearly 200 years later, during the Age of Enlightenment. A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... The School of Salamanca is the renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ...


It is not generally considered necessary that a right should be understood by the holder of that right; thus rights may be recognized on behalf of another, such as children's rights or the rights of people declared mentally incompetent to understand their rights. However, rights must be understood by someone in order to have legal existence, so the understanding of rights is a social prerequisite for the existence of rights. Therefore, educational opportunities within society have a close bearing upon the people's ability to erect adequate rights structures. The childrens rights movement was born in the 1800s with the orphan train. ...


There are two fundamental controversies surrounding the notion of rights: First, there is the question of the basis for rights (on what basis rights can be said to exist). Second, there is the question of the content of rights (what the rights of a person actually are).

Contents

Types of rights

Legal status of Persons
Concepts

Citizenship
Nationality
Naturalization
Leave to Remain
Immigration
Illegal immigration
Statelessness In law legal status refers to the concept of individuals having a particular place in society, relative to the law, as it determines the laws which affect them. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... Citizen redirects here. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ... The Leave to Remain is the legal status of a person issued by a government office of internal affairs to one who is not yet a citizen. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ... It has been suggested that Stateless person be merged into this article or section. ...

Legal designations

Citizen
Native-born citizen
Naturalized citizen
Dual-citizen
Alien
Migrant worker
Refugee
Illegal immigrant
Political prisoner
Stateless person
Administrative detainee
Citizen redirects here. ... A native-born citizen or natural-born citizen of a country is a person who is legally recognized as that countrys citizen as of the moment of birth, rather than by acquiring citizenship afterwards through naturalization. ... Naturalization is the process whereby a person becomes a national of a nation, or a citizen of a country, other than the one of his birth. ... Multiple citizenship is simultaneous citizenship in two or more countries (whether it is recognized by all countries or not). ... In U.S. law, an alien is a term Americans use for a person who owes political allegiance to another country or government and not a native or naturalized citizen of the land where they are found. ... Migrant farm worker, New York A migrant worker is someone who regularly works away from home, if they even have a home. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ... A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... A stateless person is someone with no citizenship or nationality. ... Administrative detention is a military term used in Israel to refer to political prisoners —people held as criminals while not actually being charged. ...

Social politics

Immigration law
Nationality law
Nationalism
Nativism (politics)
Immigration debate
Immigration law refers to national government policies which control the phenomenon of immigration to their country. ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Illegal immigration refers to a mass-immigration of people across national borders —in direct violation of the immigration laws of the country of destination. ...

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In modern English and European systems of jurisprudence and law, a right is the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recognition in civil society. Compare with duty, referring to behaviour that is expected or required of the citizen, and with privilege, referring to something that can be conferred and revoked.


The specific enumeration of rights accorded to citizens has historically differed greatly from one century to the next, and from one regime to the next, but nowadays is normally addressed by the constitutions of the respective nations. Generally speaking (within the English and European systems) a right corresponds with a complementary obligation that others have on the same object or realm; for instance, if someone has a right to something, simultaneously another party or parties have an obligation to do something (or to abstain from doing something) in order to respect that right or to give concrete execution to that right to be(...).


Property rights provide a good example: society recognizes that individuals have title to particular property as defined by the transaction by which they acquired the property granting the individual free use and possession of the property. In many cases, especially regarding ideological and similar rights, the obligation depends on the legal system in its entirety, or on the state, or on the generical universality of other subjects submitted to the law. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Societal rights or civil rights are bestowed to its citizenry by society and are a set of obligations that are purported as a social contract. Societal rights are a privilege of membership and the benefits are limited to its members though may be extended to temporary guests. Access to societal rights are dependent government grants and on the citizen fulfilling their obligations e.g. complying with laws and paying taxes. Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ...


The right can therefore be a faculty of doing something, of omitting or refusing to do something or of claiming something. Some interpretations express a typical form of right in the faculty of using something, and this is more often related to the right of ownership of property. The faculty (in all the above mentioned senses) can be originated by a (generical or specific) law, or by a private contract (which is sometimes exactly defined as a specific law between or among volunteer parties). A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ...


Other interpretations consider the right as a sort of freedom of something or as the object of justice. One of the definitions of justice is in fact the obligation that the legal system has toward the individual or toward the collectivity to grant respect or execution to his/her/its right, ordinarily with no need of explicit claim.


Aristotle, in the Nicomachean Ethics (book five), claims that there is a large difference between written (generalized) justice and what is actually right for the (specific) individual. For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Nicomachean Ethics Nicomachean Ethics (sometimes spelled Nichomachean), or Ta Ethika, is a work by Aristotle on virtue and moral character which plays a prominent role in defining Aristotelian ethics. ...

But what obscures the matter is that though what is equitable is just, it is not identical with, but a correction of, that which is just according to law.


The reason of this is that every law is laid down in general terms, while there are matters about which it is impossible to speak correctly in general terms. Where, then, it is necessary to speak in general terms, but impossible to do so correctly, the legislator lays down that which holds good for the majority of cases, being quite aware that it does not hold good for all.


The law, indeed, is none the less correctly laid down because of this defect; for the defect lies not in the law, nor in the lawgiver, but in the nature of the subject-matter, being necessarily involved in the very conditions of human action.

Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics (10-3) (Peters' translation)[1]

Rights can be divided into individual rights, that are held by citizens as individuals (or corporations) recognised by the legal system, and collective rights, held by an ensemble of citizens or a subgroup of citizens who have a certain characteristic in common. In some cases there can be an amount of tension between individual and collective rights. In other cases, the view of collective and individual rights held by one group can come into sharp and bitter conflict with the view of rights held by another group. For instance compare Manifest destiny with Trail of Tears. Individual rights represent the moral rights of individuals in society prior to government. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... The term collective rights refers to rights which are held and exercised by all the people collectively, or by specific subsets of the people. ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ... For the Norwegian musical group, see Trail of Tears (band); for the 2006 documentary, see The Trail of Tears: Cherokee Legacy. ...


With reference to the object of the right, a common general distinction is among:

  • Intellectual rights, which include:
  • Real rights (from the Latin word "res", thing), which include:
    • Property rights
    • Rights of use
    • Liberties
  • Personal rights, as a credit.

Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up credit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Important documents

This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... English Bill of Rights (1689). ... The English are people descended for a wide variety of roots, and who are associated, either by birth or by choice, with the culture of England (Latin: Anglia). ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... A peace dove, widely known as a symbol for peace, featuring an olive branch in the doves beak. ... “ECHR” redirects here. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ...

See also

Animal liberation redirects here. ... A bill of rights is a list or summary of rights that are considered important and essential by a group of people. ... Patent claims are usually in the form of a series of numbered expressions, or more precisely noun phrases, following the description of the invention in a patent or patent application, and define, in technical terms, the extent of the protection conferred by a patent or by a patent application. ... Droit (French for right), a legal title, claim or due; a term used in English law in the phrase droits of admiralty, certain customary rights or perquisites formerly belonging to the Lord High Admiral, but now to the crown, for public purposes and paid into the Exchequer. ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... Equal Rights can be: One of several groups called the Equal Rights Party. ... The Fathers rights movement is a loose network of interest groups, primarily in western countries, established to campaign for equal treatment by the courts in family law issues such as child custody after divorce, child support, and paternity determinations. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... Blackstones history In the 1760s William Blackstone described the Fundamental Laws of England in Commentaries on the Laws of England, Book the First - Chapter the First : Of the Absolute Rights of Individuals [1] as the absolute rights of every Englishman and traced their basis and evolution as follows: Magna... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld (1879-1918) was the author of the seminal Fundamental Legal Conceptions, As Applied in Judicial Reasoning and Other Legal Essays. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... This box:      Mens Rights involves the promotion of male equality, rights, and freedoms in society. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The Law of Obligations is one of the component private law elements of the civil law system of law (as well as of mixed legal systems, such as Scotland, South Africa, and Louisiana) and encompasses contractual obligations, quasi-contractual obligations such as enrichment without cause and extra-contractual obligations. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In law, an exclusive right is the power or right to perform an action in relation to an object or other thing which others cannnot perform. ... Within the philosophy of human rights, some philosophers and political scientists make a distinction between negative and positive rights. ... For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... In modern English and European systems of jurisprudence and law, a right is the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recognition in civil society. ... A contractual right is a claim, on other persons, that is acknowledged and perhaps reciprocated among the principals associated with that claim. ...

References

  1. ^ (1893) The Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle, Frank Hesketh Peters (trans.), 5th edition, Kegan Paul, Trench, Truebner & Co. 

External links

Look up right in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Right - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1226 words)
For instance, the rights of a father to be respected by his son did not indicate a duty upon the father to return that respect, and the divine right of kings to hold absolute power over their subjects did not leave room for many rights to be granted to the subjects themselves.
It is not generally considered necessary that a right should be understood by the holder of that right, thus rights may be agreed on behalf of another, such as children's rights or the rights of people declared mentally incompetant to understand their rights.
Rights can be divided into individual rights, that are held by citizens as individuals (or corporations) recognised by the legal system, and collective rights, held by an ensemble of citizens or a subgroup of citizens who have a certain characteristic in common.
Human rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2561 words)
These rights commonly include the right to life, the right to an adequate standard of living, freedom from torture and other mistreatment, freedom of religion and of expression, freedom of movement, the right to self-determination, the right to education, and the right to participation in cultural and political life.
The roots of the notion of human rights are seen in ancient philosophy concerning the role of the individual in the state, but principles of civil and political rights stem from liberal freedoms advocated by John Stuart Mill in On Liberty.
Rights may also be non-derogable (not limited in times of national emergency); these often include the right to life, the right to be prosecuted only according to the laws that are in existence at the time of the offense, the right to be free from slavery, and the right to be free from torture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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