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Encyclopedia > Rigas Feraios
Rigas Feraios
Rigas Feraios

Rigas Feraios or Rigas Velestinlis (Greek: Ρήγας Βελεστινλής-Φεραίος, born Αντώνιος Κυριαζής, Antonios Kyriazis; also known as Κωνσταντίνος Ρήγας, Konstantinos or Constantine Rhigas; Serbian: Рига од Фере, Riga od Fere; 1757June 13, 1798) was a Greek revolutionary and poet, remembered as a Greek national hero, the forerunner and first victim of the uprising against the Ottoman Empire (the Greek War of Independence). Image File history File linksMetadata Rigas_Feraios_01. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Rigas_Feraios_01. ... Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs everywhere. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Egyptian troops Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis, Alexander Ypsilanti Omer Vryonis, Dramalis, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. ...

Contents

Biography

Portrait on a 10 cent Greek euro coin
Portrait on a 10 cent Greek euro coin

Image of euro coinage. ... Greek euro coins feature a unique design for every one of the eight coins. ...

Early life

He was born in a wealthy family of Aromanian ancestry[1] (a branch of which was known by the nickname Trushina),[2] in the village of Velestino, Thessaly, near ancient Pherae (from which Feraios derives). Educated at the Ampelakion School, Feraios became a teacher in the village of Kissos, and fought the local Ottoman presence. At the age of twenty, he killed an important Ottoman figure, and fled to the uplands of Mount Olympus, where he enrolled in the band of soldiers led by Spiro Zera. Aromanians (also called: Arumanians or Macedo-Romanians; in Aromanian they call themselves Arumâni, Armâni, Rămăni, Rumâni or Aromâni) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Pherae was an ancient Greek city in Thessaly. ... This article is about the mountain in Greece. ...


He later went to the monastic community of Mount Athos, where he was received by Kosmas, prior of the Vatopedi Monastery; from there to Constantinople (Istanbul), where he was a secretary to the Phanariote Alexander Ypsilanti. Arriving in Bucharest, the capital of Wallachia, Feraios returned to school, learned several languages and eventually became a clerk for the Wallachian Prince Nicholas Mavrogenes. When war broke out between the Ottomans and Imperial Russia in 1787 (see Russo-Turkish War, 1787-1792), he was charged with the inspection of the troops in Craiova. Capital Karyes Languages Koine Greek, Church Slavonic (both liturgical), as well as Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (civil) Head of State Greek Minister of For. ... Prior is a Latin adjective, meaning coming before, as earlier (as in a priori, regardless what comes next). ... The holy monastery of Vatopedi was built during the second half of the 10th century, by three monks, Athanasius, Nicholas and Antonius from Adrinople, who were the pupils of St. ... Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul, Greek: , historically known in English as Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... An image of the extravagance attributed to Phanariotes in Wallachia: Nicholas Mavrogenes riding through Bucharest in a deer-drawn carriage (late 1780s) Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Greek: Φαναριώτες, Romanian: FanarioÅ£i) were members of those prominent Greek families residing in Phanar[1] (Φανάρι, modern Fener),[2] the chief Greek quarter of... Alexander Ypsilantis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Υψηλάντης - Alexandros Ypsilantis, Romanian: Alexandru Ipsilanti; 1725-1805) was a Greek Voivode (Prince) of Wallachia from 1775 to 1782, and again from 1796 to 1797, and also Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia from 1786 to 1788. ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 228 km² Population (2005) 2,064,000[1] Density 8,443 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www1. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Below is the list of Wallachian rulers, since the first mentioned until the unification with Moldavia in 1859. ... Nicholas Mavrogenes Nicholas Mavrogenes (or Mavrogenous; Greek: Νικόλαος Μαυρογένης/Nikolaos Mavrogenis, Romanian: Nicolae Mavrogheni) (d. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792 was a futile attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to Russia in the course of the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774. ... County Dolj County Status County capital Mayor Antonie Solomon, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 81,41 km² Population (2002) 302,601 Density  inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ...


Here, he entered into close and friendly relations with an Ottoman officer named Osman Pazvantoğlu, afterwards the famous rebellious Pasha of Vidin, whose life he saved from the vengeance of Mavrogenes. He learned about the French Revolution and came to believe something similar could occur in the Balkans, resulting in self-determination for the Eastern Orthodox Ottoman population; Feraios developed support for an uprising by meeting with Greek bishops and guerrilla leaders. Osman PazvantoÄŸlu (also spelled Osman Passvan-Oglou or Pasvanoglu, Pazvan Oglu/OÄŸlu; 1758—January 27, 1807, Vidin) was an ethnic Bosniak Ottoman pasha, a governor of the Vidin district after 1794, and, eventually, a rebel against Ottoman rule. ... Pasha (or pascha, bashaw; Turkish: paÅŸa; originally from Persian padshah or padeshah meaning king or from Turkish bash head, chief [1]) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ... i heart kate young The French Revolution was a period of major political and social change in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself: as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles. ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


After the death of his patron, Feraios returned to Bucharest to serve for some time as dragoman at the French consulate. At this time he wrote the famous Greek version of La Marseillaise, the anthem of French revolutionaries, a version familiar through Lord Byron's paraphrase as "sons of the Greeks, arise". Dragoman, a word of Aramaic/Assyrian origin, designates the function of interpreter, translator and official guide in countries and polities of the Near East. ... For the uses of Consul as Chief Magistrate of a (city) state, see Consul. ... La Marseillaise (IPA: ; in English The Song of Marseille) is the national anthem of France. ... i heart kate young The French Revolution was a period of major political and social change in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to... Lord Byron, Anglo-Scottish poet George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (January 22, 1788–April 19, 1824) was an Anglo-Scottish poet and a leading figure in Romanticism. ...


In Vienna

Around 1793, Feraios went to Vienna, the capital of the Austrian Empire and home to a large Greek community, as part of an effort to ask Napoleon Bonaparte for assistance and support. While in the city, he edited a Greek-language newspaper, Ephemeris, and created and published a proposed political map of Great Greece which included Constantinople. Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


He printed pamphlets based on the principles of the French Revolution, including Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and a New Political Constitution of the Inhabitants of Rumeli, Asia Minor, the Islands of the Aegean, and the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia — these he intended to distribute in an effort to stimulate a Pan-Balkan uprising against the Ottomans. He also published many Greek translations of foreign works, and collected his poems in a manuscript (posthumously printed in Iaşi, 1814). Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... With the rise of national states and their histories, it is very hard to find reliable sources on the Ottoman concept of a nation. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... County IaÅŸi County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ...


Death

He entered into communication with Napoleon, to whom he sent a snuff-box made of the root of a laurel tree taken from the temple of Apollo, and eventually he set out with a view to meeting the general of the Army of Italy in Venice. While traveling there, Feraios was betrayed by Demetrios Oikonomos Kozanites, a Greek merchant,[3] had his papers confiscated, and was arrested at Trieste by the Austrian authorities (an ally of the Ottoman Empire, Austria was concerned the French Revolution might provoke similar upheavals in its realm). He was handed over with his accomplices to the Ottoman governor of Belgrade where he was imprisoned and tortured. Immediately on arrest he attempted suicide. The most grown Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of... The name Laurel is widely used in English, once being a moderately common name typically for girls; also as Laurie. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery and also a... The standard of the Revolutionary 1ére Demi-Brigade dInfanterie de Bataille, 1794 pattern. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest; Hungarian: Trieszt; Latin: Tergeste; Serbian: Трст or Trst) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd  ) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the willful act of killing oneself. ...

Memorial plate in front of Nebojša Tower in which Rigas Feraios was strangled
Memorial plate in front of Nebojša Tower in which Rigas Feraios was strangled

From Belgrade, he was to be sent to Constantinople to be sentenced by Sultan Selim III. While in transit, he and his five collaborators were strangled to prevent their rescue by Feraios' friend Osman Pazvantoğlu. Their bodies were thrown into the Danube River. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 233 KB) Summary Plate in front of Nebojsha tower in Belgrade fortress,about death of Rigas Feraios who was killed inside by Turks in 1798. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 233 KB) Summary Plate in front of Nebojsha tower in Belgrade fortress,about death of Rigas Feraios who was killed inside by Turks in 1798. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Sultan Selim III Selim III (December 24, 1761 – July 28/29, 1808) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1789–1807). ... Osman PazvantoÄŸlu (also spelled Osman Passvan-Oglou or Pasvanoglu, Pazvan Oglu/OÄŸlu; 1758—January 27, 1807, Vidin) was an ethnic Bosniak Ottoman pasha, a governor of the Vidin district after 1794, and, eventually, a rebel against Ottoman rule. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg...


Feraios' last words are reported as being: "I have sown a rich seed; the hour is coming when my country will reap its glorious fruits".


Ideas and legacy

Feraios, writing in the Demotic instead of in classical Greek, aroused the patriotic fervour of his contemporaries and his poems were a serious factor in the creation of modern Greece. Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


His grievances against the Ottoman occupation of Greece regarded its cruelty, the drafting of children between the ages of five and fifteen into military service (Devshirmeh or Paedomazoma), the administrative chaos and systematic oppresion (including prohibitions on teaching Greek history or language, or even riding on horseback), the confiscation of churches and their conversion to mosques. Feraios wrote enthusiastic poems and books about Greek history and many became widely popular. One of the most famous (which he often sang in public) is the Thourio in which he wrote, "It's better to have an hour as a free man than forty years as a slave" («Ως πότε παλικάρια να ζούμε στα στενά…. Καλλιώναι μίας ώρας ελεύθερη ζωή παρά σαράντα χρόνια σκλαβιά και φυλακή»). He urged Greeks to leave the Ottoman-occupied towns for the mountains, where they might experience more freedom. Devshirmeh (Turkish devÅŸirme, Greek, paedomazoma) refers to the system used by the Ottoman sultans to tax newly conquered states, and build a loyal slave army and class of administrators: the Janissaries. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


A statue of Rigas Feraios stands at the entrance to the University of Athens. There is also a statue of his in Belgrade at one end of the street that bears his name (Ulica Rige od Fere). The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greek: Εθνικόν και Καποδιστριακόν Πανεπιστήμιον Αθηνών), usually referred to simply as the University of Athens, is the oldest university in the region of the eastern Mediterranean and has been in continuous operation since its establishment in 1837. ...


Rigas Feraios was also the name of the youth wing of the Communist Party of Greece (Interior), in honour of the poet. A split of this youth wing was Rigas Feraios - Second Panhellenic. The Communist Party of Greece, Interior (Greek: Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας Εσωτερικού), usually abbreviated as KKE Interior (Greek: ΚΚΕ Εσωτερικού) was a communist political party in Greece. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Djuvara, p.358; Greece, history of, (2006), in Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 2, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-26413
  2. ^ Djuvara, p.358
  3. ^ Djuvara, p.358

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. In turn, it cites as references:
    • I. C. Bolanachi, Hommes illustres de la Gréce moderne (Paris, 1875)
    • E. M. Edmonds, Rhigas Pheraios (London, 1890)
    • Rizos Neroulos, Histoire de la révolution grecque (Paris, 1829)
  • Neagu Djuvara, Între Orient şi Occident. Ţările române la începutul epocii moderne ("Between Orient and Occident. The Romanian Lands at the beginning of the modern era"), Humanitas, Bucharest, 1995
  • Gianni A. Papadrianou, Ο Ρήγας Βελεστινλής και οι Βαλκανικοί λαοί ("Rigas Velestinlis and the Balkan peoples")
  • Woodhouse, C. M. (1995). Rhigas Velestinlis: The Proto-martyr of the Greek Revolution. Denise Harvey. ISBN 9607120094. 

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Neagu Djuvara was a Romanian diplomat, historian, and writer. ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 228 km² Population (2005) 2,064,000[1] Density 8,443 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www1. ...

External links

  • Nebojša Tower will become a historical monument

  Results from FactBites:
 
Greek War of Independence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1368 words)
But in the 18th and 19th century, as revolutionary nationalism grew across Europe (due, in part, to the influence of the French Revolution), and the power of the Ottoman Empire declined, Greek nationalism began to assert itself and drew support from Western European "philhellenes".
Born in Thessaly and educated in Constantinople, Feraios published a Greek-language newspaper Ephimeris in Vienna in the 1790s.
Rigas Velestinlis (Pheraios), aimed to overthrow Ottoman rule in an armed uprising, although Rigas was killed by the Turks before he could put his ideas into practice.
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