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Encyclopedia > Rig Veda
Hindu texts

Shruti Hindu scripture is overwhelmingly written in Sanskrit. ... Image File history File links Aum. ... Shruti (Sanskrit श्रुति, what is heard) is a canon of Hindu scriptures. ...

Smriti The Vedas (Sanskrit:- वेद), collectively refers to a corpus of ancient Indo Aryan religious literature that are considered by adherents of Hinduism to be revealed knowledge. ... The Sama Veda (सामवेद), or Veda of Holy Songs, is third in the usual order of enumeration of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures. ... The Yajur Veda यजुर्वेद is one of the four Hindu Vedas; it contains religious texts focussing on liturgy and ritual. ... The Atharva Veda is a sacred text of Hinduism, part of the four books of the Vedas. ... The Brahmanas (Brahmin Books) are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures focus on sacrifice -- particularly that of horses and soma. ... The Aranyakas (Forest Books, Forest Treatises) are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures are sometimes argued to be part of either the Brahmanas or Upanishads. ... The Upanishad (उपनिषद्, Upaniá¹£ad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, what is fit/deserves to be remembered) refers to a specific canon of Hindu religious scripture. ...

The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛgveda from ṛc "praise" + veda "knowledge") is a collection of hymns(each hymn is called a 'Rucha'.) counted among the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas, and contains the oldest texts preserved in any Indo-Iranian language. It was first orally passed down in India & then later on finally was documented. It consists of 1,017 hymns (1,028 including the apocryphal valakhilya hymns 8.49-8.59) composed in Vedic Sanskrit, many of which are intended for various sacrifical rituals. These are contained in 10 books, known as Mandalas. This long collection of short hymns is mostly devoted to the praise of the gods. However, it also contains fragmentary references to historical events, notably the struggle between the early Vedic people (known as Vedic Aryans, a subgroup of the Indo-Aryans) and their enemies, the Dasa. The great Hindu Epics are also occasionally termed Mahakavya (Great Compositions); the terms refer to a canon of Hindu religious scripture. ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is one of the two major ancient Sanskrit epics of India, the other being the Ramayana. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... The Ramayana (Sanskrit: march or journey (ayana) of Rama) is part of the Hindu smriti, written by Valmiki. ... The Puranas (Sanskrit पुराण, purāṇá ancient, since they focus on ancient history of the universe) are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss varied topics like devotion to God in his various aspects, traditional sciences like Ayurveda, Jyotish, cosmology, concepts like dharma, karma, reincarnation and many others. ... The Puranas (Sanskrit पुराण, purāṇá ancient, since they focus on ancient history of the universe) are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss varied topics like devotion to God in his various aspects, traditional sciences like Ayurveda, Jyotish, cosmology, concepts like dharma, karma, reincarnation and many others. ... The Tantra (Looms or Weavings), refer to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... Sutra (सूत्र) in Sanskrit is derived from the verb siv-, meaning to sew (these words, including English to sew and Latinate suture, all derive from PIE *syÅ«-). It literally means a rope or thread, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms... Below is a list of sutras organized alphabetically under the broad categories of Hinduism and Buddhism. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, what is fit/deserves to be remembered) refers to a specific canon of Hindu religious scripture. ... Smriti (what is fit/deserves to be remembered) refers to a canon of Hindu religious scripture. ... Stotras are Hindu prayers that praise aspects of God, such as Devi, Siva, or Vishnu. ... The Ashtavakra Gita (Song of Ashtavakra) is an influential nondualist Hindu text traditionally said to have been written by the Sage Ashtavakra, though its authorship is not known with certainty. ... The Gita Govinda or the Song of the Shri Krishna is a work composed in the 12th century by Jayadeva Goswami. ... The most fundamental text of Hatha Yoga is the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, a Sanskrit classic written by Swami Swatamarama, a disciple of Swami Goraknath. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम्) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... See also hymn - a program to decrypt iTunes music files. ... Basic beliefs What can be said to be common to all Hindus is the belief in Dharma (duties and obligations), Samsara (Reincarnation/rebirth), Karma (actions, leading to a cause and effect relationship), and Moksha (salvation) of every soul through a variety of paths, such as Bhakti (devotion), Karma (action) and... The origins of the word religion have been debated for centuries. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... The Vedas (Sanskrit:- वेद), collectively refers to a corpus of ancient Indo Aryan religious literature that are considered by adherents of Hinduism to be revealed knowledge. ... Indo-Iranian languages (also called Aryan languages) are the eastern-most group of the living Indo-European languages. ... In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, the earliest sacred texts of India. ... Sacrifice (from a Middle English verb meaning to make sacred, from Old French, from Latin sacrificium : sacer, sacred; sacred + facere, to make) is commonly known as the practice of offering food, or the lives of animals or people to the gods, as an act of propitiation or worship. ... A ritual is a formalised, predetermined set of symbolic actions generally performed in a particular environment at a regular, recurring interval. ... The Vedic civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas, the earliest known records of Indian history. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Luftwaffe Tornado ECR Deutsche Aerospace AG Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG Founded May 19, 1989 as Deutsche Aerospace AG, bundling space and aeronautic elements of Daimler-Benz (including Dornier Luftfahrt), Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB), MTU München, and Telefunken Systemtechnik (TST) In 1992, the helicopter division was...


The chief gods of the Rig-Veda are Agni, the sacrificial fire, Indra, a heroic god that is praised for having slain his enemy Vrtra, and Soma, the sacred potion, or the plant it is made from. Other prominent gods are Mitra, Varuna and Ushas (the dawn). Also invoked are Savitar, Vishnu, Rudra, Pushan, Brihaspati, Brahmanaspati, Dyaus Pita (the sky), Prithivi (the earth), Surya (the sun), Vac (the word), Vayu (the wind), the Maruts, the Asvins, the Adityas, the Rbhus, the Vishvadevas (the all-gods) as well as various further minor gods, persons, concepts, phenomena and items. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... In Hinduism, Vritra (Sanskrit वृत्र Vṛtra, the enveloper) was a serpent or dragon, the personification of drought and enemy of Indra. ... Soma (Sanskrit), or Haoma (Avestan) (from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Sauma) was a ritual drink of importance among the early Indo-Iranians, and the later Vedic and Iranian cultures. ... Mitra or Mithra or Mithras is an important deity of Persian and Indic culture; he appears in the Vedas as one of the Adityas, a solar deity and the god of honesty, friendship, contracts and meetings. ... This article is about the god. ... Ushas (उषः úṣas-), Sanskrit for dawn, is the chief goddess (sometimes imagined as several goddesses, Dawns) exalted in the Rigveda. ... In Hinduism, Savitri (also Savitr, Savitar) is a solar deity and one of the Adityas. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Pushan, also known as Puchan, is the Hindu god of meeting. ... In Hinduism, Brihaspati is the god of magic and prayer. ... In Hinduism, Brihaspati is the god of magic and prayer. ... In vedic religion, Dyaus Pita is the Sky Father, husband of Prthivi and father of Agni and Indra (RV 4. ... In Hinduism, Prithvi (pṛthvī) is an Earth Mother or Prithvi Mata, wife of Dyaus Pita, mother of Indra and Agni. ... In Hinduism, Surya is the chief solar deity, son of Dyaush or Indra. ... VAC may refer to: volts of alternating current. ... In Hinduism, Vayu is a primary god, father of Bhima and Hanuman. ... In Hinduism In Hinduism, the Maruts, also known as the Marutgana and the Rudras, are minor storm deities, sons of Rudra and Diti, and attendants of Indra. ... In Hinduism, the Asvins are the twin sons of Saranya with either Surya or Vivasvat. ... In Hinduism, the Adityas are a group of solar deities, sons of Aditi and Kasyapa. ... In Hinduism, the Rbhus (singular Rbhu) are the gods of crafts, artisans, horses and also solar deities. ... The word Visvadevas means Lords of the Universe or All Gods. The term is used to address the various gods as a whole. ...


Some of the names of gods and goddesses found in the Rig-Veda are found amongst other Indo-European peoples as well: Dyaus is cognate with Greek Zeus, Latin Jupiter, and Germanic Tyr, while Mitra is cognate with Persian Mithra and Ushas with Greek Eos, Latin Aurora and, less certainly, Varuna with Greek Uranos. Finally, Agni is cognate with Latin ignis and Russian ogon', both meaning "fire". Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... In vedic religion, Dyaus Pita is the Sky Father, husband of Prthivi and father of Agni and Indra (RV 4. ... Statue of Zeus Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th-century engraving. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... Týr is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Mitra or Mithra or Mithras is an important deity of Persian and Indic culture; he appears in the Vedas as one of the Adityas, a solar deity and the god of honesty, friendship, contracts and meetings. ... Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ... Ushas (उषः úṣas-), Sanskrit for dawn, is the chief goddess (sometimes imagined as several goddesses, Dawns) exalted in the Rigveda. ... Eos, by Evelyn de Morgan (1850 - 1919), 1895 (Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC): for a Pre-Raphaelite painter, Eos was still the classical pagan equivalent of an angel Eos (dawn) was, in Greek mythology, the Titan Goddess of the dawn, who rose from her home at the edge of... Aurora is the Latin word for dawn. It can refer to: Aurora was the ancient Roman equivalent of Eos, the ancient Greek goddess of the dawn. ... This article is about the god. ... Ouranos is the Greek name of the sky, latinized as Uranus. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Contents


Text

Hermann Grassmann has numbered the hymns 1 through to 1028, putting the valakhilya at the end. The more common numbering scheme is by book, hymn and verse (and pada (foot) a, b, c ..., if required). E. g. the first pada is Hermann Günther Grassmann (April 15, 1809 – September 26, 1877) was a German mathematician, physicist, linguist, scholar, and neohumanist. ... In verse, a foot is the basic unit of meter used to describe rhythm. ...

  • 1.1.1a agním īḷe puróhitaṃ "Agni I laud, the high priest"

and the final pada is

  • 10.191.4d yáthāḥ vaḥ súsahā́sati "for your being in good company"

From the time of its compilation, the text has been handed down in two versions: The Samhitapatha has all Sanskrit rules of Sandhi applied and is the text used for recitation. The Padapatha has each word isolated in its pausa form and is used for memorization. The Padapatha is, as it were, a commentary to the Samhitapatha, but the two seem to be about co-eval. The 'original' text as reconstructed on metrical grounds lies somewhere between the two, but closer to the Samhitapatha ('original' in the sense that it aims to recover the hymns in the form of their composition by the poets, known as Rishis). Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries. ... In Hinduism, a Rishi () is a sage and/or seer who heard (cf. ...


The Rig-Veda was translated into English by Ralph T.H. Griffith in 1896. Other (partial) translations by Maurice Bloomfield and William Dwight Whitney. Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (1826-1906), scholar of indology, translated the vedic scriptures into English. ... 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Maurice Bloomfield February 23, 1855 - June 12, 1928, American Sanskrit scholar, was born on the 23rd of February 1855, in Bielitz, in what was at that time Austrian Silesia (today it is in Poland). ... William Dwight Whitney (1827-1894) was an American linguist, philologist, and lexicographer who edited The Century Dictionary. ...


Linguistic (as well as content-related) evidence suggests that books 2-7 are older than the remaining books. Books 1 and 10 are considered the most recent.

Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century
Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century
  • Book 1
191 hymns. Hymn 1.1 is addressed to Agni, arranged so that the name of this god is the first word of the Rig-Veda. The remaining hymns are mainly addressed to Agni and Indra. Hymns 1.154 to 1.156 are addressed to (the later Hindu god) Vishnu.
  • Book 2
43 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra chiefly attributed to the Rishi gṛtsamda shaunohotra.
  • Book 3
62 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra. The verse 3.62.10 gained great importance in Hinduism as the Gayatri Mantra.

Most hymns in this book are attributed to vishvāmitra gāthinaḥ Download high resolution version (1161x1125, 419 KB)Rigveda MS in Sanskrit on paper, India, early 19th c. ... Download high resolution version (1161x1125, 419 KB)Rigveda MS in Sanskrit on paper, India, early 19th c. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... A Hindu (also spelt Hindoo) is an adherent of philosophies and scriptures of Hindu religion. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Basic beliefs What can be said to be common to all Hindus is the belief in Dharma (duties and obligations), Samsara (Reincarnation/rebirth), Karma (actions, leading to a cause and effect relationship), and Moksha (salvation) of every soul through a variety of paths, such as Bhakti (devotion), Karma (action) and... Gayatri (gāyatrī) is the feminine form of gāyatra, a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. ...

  • Book 4
58 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra.

Most hymns in this book are attributed to vāmadeva gautama This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...

  • Book 5
87 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra, the Visvadevas, the Maruts, the twin-deity Mitra-Varuna and the Asvins. Two hymns each are dedicated to Ushas (the dawn) and to Savitar.

Most hymns in this book are attributed to the atri family This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The word Visvadevas means Lords of the universe or All Gods. The term is used to address the various gods as a whole. ... In Hinduism In Hinduism, the Maruts, also known as the Marutgana and the Rudras, are minor storm deities, sons of Rudra and Diti, and attendants of Indra. ... In Hinduism, the Asvins are the twin sons of Saranya with either Surya or Vivasvat. ... Ushas (उषः úṣas-), Sanskrit for dawn, is the chief goddess (sometimes imagined as several goddesses, Dawns) exalted in the Rigveda. ... In Hinduism, Savitri (also Savitr, Savitar) is a solar deity and one of the Adityas. ...

  • Book 6
75 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra.

Most hymns in this book are attributed to the bārhaspatya family of Añgirasas. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...

  • Book 7
104 hymns, to Agni, Indra, the Visvadevas, the Maruts, Mitra-Varuna, the Asvins, Ushas, Indra-Varuna, Varuna, Vayu (the wind), two each to Sarasvati and Vishnu, and to others.

Most hymns in this book are attributed to vasiṣṭha maitravaurṇi This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The word Visvadevas means Lords of the universe or All Gods. The term is used to address the various gods as a whole. ... In Hinduism In Hinduism, the Maruts, also known as the Marutgana and the Rudras, are minor storm deities, sons of Rudra and Diti, and attendants of Indra. ... In Hinduism, the Asvins are the twin sons of Saranya with either Surya or Vivasvat. ... Ushas (उषः úṣas-), Sanskrit for dawn, is the chief goddess (sometimes imagined as several goddesses, Dawns) exalted in the Rigveda. ... This article is about the god. ... In Hinduism, Vayu is a primary god, father of Bhima and Hanuman. ... This article is about Saraswati, the Hindu goddess. ... For other uses of the name Vishnu, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ...

  • Book 8
103 hymns, mixed gods. Hymns 8.49 to 8.59 are the apocryphal valakhilya, the majority of them are devoted to Indra.

Most hymns in this book are attributed to the kāṇva family This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...

  • Book 9
114 hymns, entirely devoted to Soma Pavamana, the plant of the sacred potion of the Vedic religion.
  • Book 10
191 hymns, to Agni and other gods. In the west, probably the most celebrated hymns are 10.129 and 10.130 dealing with creation, especially 10.129.7:
He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all or did not form it, / Whose eye controls this world in highest heaven, he verily knows it, or perhaps he knows not. (Griffith)
These hymns exhibit a level of philosophical speculation very atypical of the Rig-Veda, which for the most part is occupied with ritualistic invocation.

The Rig-Veda is preserved by two major shakhas ('branches', i. e. schools or recensions), Shakala and Bashakala. Considering its great age, the text is spectacularly well preserved and uncorrupted, so that scholarly editions can mostly do without a critical apparatus. Soma (Sanskrit), or Haoma (Avestan) (from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Sauma) was a ritual drink of importance among the early Indo-Iranians, and the later Vedic and Iranian cultures. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (1826-1906), scholar of indology, translated the vedic scriptures into English. ...


Associated to Shakala is the Aitareya-Brahmana. The Bashakala includes the Khilani and has the Kausitaki-Brahmana associated to it. The Aitareya Brahmana is the Brahmana associated with the Rigveda in the Shakala school. ... The Khilani are are a collection of 98 apocryphal hymns of the Rigveda, recorded in the Bashakala, but not in the Shakala school. ...


Internal evidence

The Rigveda is far more archaic than any other Indo-Aryan text preserved. For this reason, it has been the in the center of attention of western scholarship from the times of Max Müller. The Rigveda records an early stage of Vedic religion, still closely tied to the pre-Zoroastrian Persian religion. It is thought that Zoroastrianism and Vedic Hinduism evolved from an earlier common religious Indo-Iranian culture. Max Müller Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ...


Scholars usually date the Rig-Veda to the 2nd millennium BC both linguistically and on grounds of its references to late bronze age culture. The Rigveda describes a mobile, nomadic culture, with horse-drawn chariots and metal (bronze) weapons. The geography described is consistent with that of the Punjab (Gandhara): Rivers flow north to south, the mountains are relatively remote but still reachable (Soma is a plant found in the mountains, and it has to be purchased, imported by merchants). (3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – other millennia) // Events To grasp the spirit of the 2nd millennium BC, we must divide it in two parts, for there is a period of change around its middle so important that it creates two separate sub-millennia. First half (2000... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... Chariot was the name of a WW2 naval weapon, the British manned torpedo. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers; also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra, Chandahara, and Persian Gandara) is the name of an ancient country in eastern Afghanistan and north-west province of Pakistan. ... Soma (Sanskrit), or Haoma (Avestan) (from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Sauma) was a ritual drink of importance among the early Indo-Iranians, and the later Vedic and Iranian cultures. ...


The text is commonly held to have been completed between 1500 BC and 1200 BC, or the early period of the Gandhara Grave culture. After their composition, the texts were preserved and codified by a vast body of Vedic priesthood as the central philosophy of the Iron Age Vedic civilization. (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... Gandhara grave culture emerges from ca. ... The Vedic priesthood is the collective term for the priests of the Vedic religion. ... The Vedic civilisation is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas, the earliest known records of Indian history. ...


Nevertheless the hymns were certainly composed over a long period, with the oldest elements possibly reaching back into Indo-Iranian times, or the early 2nd millennium BC. Thus there is some debate over whether the boasts of the destruction of stone forts by the Vedic Aryans and particularly by Indra refer to cities of the Indus Valley civilization or whether they hark back to clashes between the early Indo-Aryans with the BMAC (Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex) culture centuries earlier, in what is now northern Afghanistan and southern Turkmenistan (separated from the upper Indus by the Hindu Kush mountain range, and some 400 km distant). In any case, while it is highly likely that the bulk of the Rigveda was composed in the Punjab, even if based on earlier poetic traditions, there is no mention of either tigers or rice in the Rigveda (as opposed to the later Vedas), suggesting that Vedic culture only penetrated into the plains of India after its completion. Similarly, there is no mention of iron. The Iron Age in northern India begins in the 12th century BC with the Black and Red Ware (BRW) culture. This is a widely accepted timeframe for the beginning codification of the Rigveda (i.e. the arrangement of the individual hymns in books, and the fixing of the samhitapatha (by applying Sandhi) and the padapatha (by dissolving Sandhi) out of the earlier metrical text), and the composition of the younger Vedas. This time probably coincides with the early Kuru kingdom, shifting the center of Vedic culture east from the Punjab into what is now Uttar Pradesh. Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Hakra-Ghaggar river and their tributaries. ... Roma family in Smyrne, Turkey, photographed in 1904. ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) is a modern archaeologists designation for a Bronze Age Turkmenistan. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Tigers (Panthera tigris) are mammals of the Felidae family and one of four big cats in the Panthera genus. ... Binomial name Oryza sativa L. Rice (Oryza sativa) is a species of grass in the genus Oryza, native to tropical and subtropical southeastern Asia, where it grows in wetlands. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... The black and red ware culture (BRW) is an early Iron Age archaeological culture of the northern Indian Subcontinent. ... Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries. ... The position of the Kuru kingdom in Iron Age Vedic India. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: उत्तर प्रदेश, Urdu: اتر پردیش), also popularly known by its acronym UP, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ...


Some, mostly Indian, writers have used alleged astronomical references in the Rig-Veda to date it to as early as the 4th millennium BC. Mainstream scholarship widely rejects these interpretations as pseudoscientific (e.g. Witzel, 1999). Astrology: the study of the positions of the celestial objects relative to the Earth and how these positions affect happenings on the lives of cultures, nations and the natural environment. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) // Events Sumerian city of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC); Sumerian hegemony in Mesopotamia, with the invention of writing, base-60 mathematics, astronomy and astrology, civil law, complex hydrology, the sailboat, the wheel, and the potters wheel, 4000... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ...


Hindu tradition

According to Indian tradition, the Rig-Vedic hymns were collected by Paila under the guidance of Vyāsa, who formed the Rig-Veda Samhita as we know it. According to the Shatapatha Brahmana, the number of syllables in the Rigveda is 432,000, equalling the number of muhurtas (1 day = 30 muhurtas) in forty years. This statement stresses the underlying philosophy of the Vedic books that there is a connection (bandhu) between the astronomical, the physiological, and the spiritual. Rishi Ved Vyasa Vyasa (Vyāsa in IAST transliteration) an incarnation of supreme - Lord Vishnu, is an important figure in the Hindu religion and its literature. ... Shatapatha Brahmana (Brahmana of one-hundred paths) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ...


The authors of the Brāhmana literature described and interpreted the Rigvedic ritual. Yaska was an early commentator of the Rig-Veda. In the 14th century, Sāyana wrote an exhaustive commentary on it. Other Bhāshyas (Hindu commmentaries) that have been preserved up to present times are those by Madhava, Skandasvamin and Venkatamadhava. The Brahmanas (Brahmin Books) are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures focus on sacrifice -- particularly that of horses and soma. ... Yaska Acharya is a celebrated Sanskrit scholar and grammarian of ancient India. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right}. It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to... Sayana (सायण) was the great 14th century commentator on the Vedas. ... Madhava is another name for Vishnu and appears as the 72nd, 167th and 735th names in the Vishnu sahasranama. ...


More recent Indian views

Generally speaking, the Indian perception of the Rig-Veda has moved away from the original ritualistic content to a more symbolic or mystical interpretation. For example, instances of animal sacrifice are not seen as literal slaughtering but as transcendental processes. The Rigvedic view is seen to consider the universe to be infinite in size, dividing knowledge into two categories: lower (related to objects, beset with paradoxes) and higher (related to the perceiving subject, free of paradoxes). Swami Dayananda, who started the Arya Samaj and Sri Aurobindo have emphasized a spiritual (adhyatimic) interpretation of the book. Sacrifice is the practice of offering food, or the lives of animals or people to the gods, as an act of propitiation or worship. ... Transcendental in philosophical contexts In philosophy, transcendental experiences are experiences of an exclusively human nature that are other-worldly or beyond the human realm of understanding. ... Swami Dayananda Saraswati (स्‍वामी दयानन्‍द सरस्‍वती) (1824 - 1883) is an important Hindu religious scholar born in Gujarat, India. ... Arya Samaj (Aryan Society or Society of Nobles) is a Hindu reform movement in India that was founded by Swami Dayananda in 1875. ... Śrī Aurobindo Śrī Aurobindo (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian nationalist, scholar, poet, Hindu mystic, Evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru. ...


The Sarasvati river, lauded in the hymns as the greatest river flowing from the mountain to the sea is sometimes equated with the Ghaggar-Hakra river, which went dry perhaps before 2600 BC or certainly before 1900 BC. Others argue that the Sarasvati was originally the Helmand in Afghanistan. These questions are tied to the debate about the Indo-Aryan migration (termed "Aryan Invasion Theory") vs. the claim that Vedic culture together with Vedic Sanskrit originated in the Indus Valley Civilisation, a topic of great significance in Hindu nationalism, addressed for example by Amal Kiran and Shrikant G. Talageri. Subhash Kak has claimed that there is an astronomical code in the organization of the hymns. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, based on alleged astronomical alignments in the Rig-Veda, even went as far as to claim that the Aryans originated on the North Pole (Arctic Home in the Vedas, 1903). D. B. Kasar compares the Indus script to Germanic runes and claims that IVC inscriptions contain Rigvedic hymns. The Sarasvati River is an ancient river that is mentioned in Hindu texts. ... The Hakra is the dried-out channel of a river in Pakistan that until about 2000 BC - 1500 BC was the continuation of the Ghaggar River in India. ... (Redirected from 2600 BC) (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... (Redirected from 1900 BC) (20th century BC - 19th century BC - 18th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events Hittite empire in Anatolia 1829 - 1818 BC -- Egyptian-Nubian war 1818 BC -- Egyptian Campaign in Palestine 1813 BC -- Amorite Conquest of Northern Mesopotamia 1806 BC... The Helmand River is the longest river in Afghanistan. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Aryan invasion theory, often abbreviated to AIT, is a term used to refer to the theory evolved by 19th Century European linguists to explain the similarity between Sanskrit and European languages, supposing the invasion or migration of peoples who originated outside of India. ... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Vedic Sarasvati River in present-day Pakistan. ... Hindutva (Hinduness, a word coined by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his 1923 pamphlet entitled Hindutva: Who is a Hindu? ) is used to describe movements advocating Hindu nationalism. ... Amal Kiran (b. ... Shrikant G. Talageri, born in 1958, is an Indian author. ... Subhash Kak (born March 26, 1947, Srinagar, Kashmir) is Delaune Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and Professor in the Asian Studies and Cognitive Science Programs at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. ... Lokmanya Tilak Bal Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... The North Pole is the northernmost point on any planet. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Indus script refers to short strings of symbols associated with the Harappan civilization of ancient India (most of the Indus sites are distributed in present day North West India and Pakistan) dating to circa 2600–1900 BC. They are most commonly associated with flat, rectangular stone tablets called... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


References

  • Michael Witzel, The Pleiades and the Bears viewed from inside the Vedic texts, EVJS Vol. 5 (1999), issue 2 (December) [1].

Notes

  • Nilotpal Sinha, December, 7, 2005.

I found the line as: "Bal Gangadhar Tilak, based on alleged astronomical alignments in the Rig-Veda, even went as far as to claim that the Aryans originated on the North Pole." But, you got a linguistic misunderstanding about the North Pole. Tilak had used the term Sumeru. Unfortunately, in very common dialectics, Sumeru means the North Pole. Though, in the same dialectics, Sumeru also means Sumer [Ref.: Rigveda Samhita, Vol 1, Introduction by Dr. H. Banerjee (Haraf Prakashani, Calcutta, 2000), p. 40], i.e., he had claimed that the Aryans originated on the Sumerian civilization. This is a wellknown misunderstanding in Indian language.


Bibliography

Commentary

  • Sri Aurobindo: Hymns of the Mystic Fire (Commentary on the Rig Veda), Lotus Press, Twin Lakes, Wisconsin ISBN 0-914955-22-5 [2]
  • Sayana: Sayana Bhasya, Commentary on the Rig Veda

Western philology Sri Aurobindo Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian nationalist, scholar, poet, Hindu mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru. ... Sayana (सायण) was the great 14th century commentator on the Vedas. ...

Historical Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (1826-1906), scholar of indology, translated the vedic scriptures into English. ... Hermann Oldenberg (1854-1920), Buddhist scholar and Professor at Kiel (1898) and Göttingen (1908). ...

  • Frawley David: The Rig Veda and the History of India, 2001.(Aditya Prakashan), ISBN 81-7742-039-9
  • Talageri, Shrikant: The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis, ISBN 81-7742-010-0

Archaeoastronomy etc. David Frawley (Sanskrit: वामदेव शास्‍त्री) (born 1950) is one of the few Westerners to be recognized by a major Hindu sect in India as a Vedacharya or teacher of the ancient wisdom. ... Shrikant G. Talageri, born in 1958, is an Indian author. ...

Subhash Kak (born March 26, 1947, Srinagar, Kashmir) is Delaune Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and Professor in the Asian Studies and Cognitive Science Programs at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. ... Lokmanya Tilak Bal Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ...

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The Rig Veda

Text Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of primary source texts, along with translations of source-texts into any language and other supporting materials. ...


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