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Encyclopedia > Rift Valley fever
Rift Valley fever
Classifications and external resources
TEM micrograph of tissue infected with Rift Valley fever virus
ICD-10 A92.4
ICD-9 066.3
?
Rift Valley Fever Virus
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Family: Bunyaviridae
Genus: Phlebovirus
Species: Rift Valley Fever Virus

Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis (affects primarily domestic livestock, but can be passed to humans) causing fever. It is spread by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The disease is caused by the RVF virus, a member of the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae). The disease was first reported among livestock in Kenya around 1915, but the virus was not isolated until 1931. RVF outbreaks occur across sub-Saharan Africa, with outbreaks occurring elsewhere infrequently (but sometimes severely - in Egypt in 1977-78, several million people were infected and thousands died during a violent epidemic; in September 2000 an outbreak was confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen). Image File history File links Rift_Valley_fever_tissue. ... Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an imaging technique whereby a beam of electrons is focused onto a specimen causing an enlarged version to appear on a fluorescent screen or layer of photographic film (see electron microscope), or can be detected by a CCD camera. ... A micrograph is a photograph or similar image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Hantavirus Nairovirus Orthobunyavirus Phlebovirus Tospovirus Bunyaviridae is a family of viruses. ... Phlebovirus (Phleboviridae) is one of five genre of the family Bunyaviridae. ... Zoonosis (pronounced as zoo-on-no-sis) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... This article is about the year 2000. ...


In humans the virus can cause several different syndromes. Usually sufferers have either no symptoms or only a mild illness with fever, headache, myalgia and liver abnormalities. In a small percentage of cases (< 2%) the illness can progress to hemorrhagic fever syndrome, meningo-encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), or affecting the eye. Patients who become ill usually experience fever, generalized weakness, back pain, dizziness, and weight loss at the onset of the illness. Typically, patients recover within 2-7 days after onset. A headache (medically known as cephalalgia, sometimes spelled as cephalgia) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... The liver is an organ in some animals, including mammals (and therefore humans), birds, and reptiles. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ...

Distribution of Rift Valley Fever in Africa. Blue, countries with endemic disease and substantial outbreaks of RVF; green, countries known to have some cases, periodic isolation of virus, or serologic evidence of RVF.
Distribution of Rift Valley Fever in Africa. Blue, countries with endemic disease and substantial outbreaks of RVF; green, countries known to have some cases, periodic isolation of virus, or serologic evidence of RVF.

Approximately 1% of human sufferers die of the disease. Amongst livestock the fatality level is significantly higher. In pregnant livestock infected with RVF there is the abortion of virtually 100% of fetuses. An epizootic (animal disease epidemic) of RVF is usually first indicated by a wave of unexplained abortions. Image File history File links Rift_valley_fever_distribution. ... Image File history File links Rift_valley_fever_distribution. ...

Contents

Animal vaccination

Several animal vaccines have been made to protect against RVF infection. The first one to be developed was a live vaccine. When administered to mice, the results were promising, this vaccine provided immunity for 3 years. However a problem was encountered: administration to pregnant ewes on many occasions led to abortion. From there on in, attenuated vaccines have been developed. Although they are protective, and do not cause adverse effects, this was only achieved after multiple inoculations. The fact that multiple doses were required could prove problematic especially in areas where RVF is endemic. A bottle and a syringe containing the influenza vaccine. ... Look up live in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Immunity is medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... Attenuation is the decrease of the amount, force, magnitude, or value of something. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ...


2006/07 outbreak in Kenya & Somalia

 This article documents a current event.
Information may change rapidly as the event progresses.

In November 2006, a Rift Valley fever outbreak occurred in Kenya. The victims are from the North Eastern Province and Coast Province of Kenya, which have received heavy rain in recent months, causing floods and creating breeding grounds for mosquitoes which spread the virus of the fever from infected livestock to humans. Image File history File links Current_event_marker. ... . North Eastern is one of Kenyas administrative provinces. ... Coast Province is a province of Kenya. ... This article is about the insect; for the WWII aircraft see De Havilland Mosquito. ...


As of 7 January 2007, about 75 people have died and another 183 infected. [1] The outbreak has forced the closure of livestock markets in the North Eastern Province, affecting the economy of the region.[2] January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ...


The outbreak was subsequently reported to have moved into Maragua district of Central Province of Kenya.[3] Maragua is town in the Central Province of Kenya. ... Kenyas Central Province covers the area around Mt. ...


On 20 January 2007 the outbreak was reported to have crossed into Somalia from Kenya and killed 14 people in the Lower Jubba region.[4] January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... Jubbada Hoose is a region (gobolka) in southern Somalia. ...


As of 23rd january 2007 cases had started to crop at the kenyan capital nairobi. An estimated large number of businesses were supposedly suffering large losses as customers were shunning the common meat joints for the popular Nyama Choma (Roast meat), as it was believed to be spreading the fever.


References

  1. ^ "At least 75 people die of Rift Valley Fever in Kenya", International Herald Tribune, 7 Jaunary 2007.
  2. ^ "Kenya: Schools Disrupted As Deadly Fever Hits Incomes", IRIN, 11 January 2007.
  3. ^ "Nairobi at risk of RVF infection", The Standard (Kenya), 22 January 2007.
  4. ^ "14 die after Rift Valley Fever breaks out in southern Somalia", Shabelle Media Network, Somalia, 20 January 2007.

As of 23rd january 2007 cases had started to crop at the kenyan capital nairobi. An estimated large number of businesses were supposedly suffering large losses as customers were shunning the common meat joints for the popular Nyama Choma (Roast meat), as it was believed to be spreading the fever. Integrated Regional Information Networks, commonly known as IRIN, is a project of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) tasked with providing information relevant to those responding to and affected by complex emergencies, such a conflict-induced forced migration, and natural disasters, such as hurricanes and... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... The Standard is a leading newspaper in Kenya, and Kenyas oldest newspaper. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ...

External links

  • Official CDC RVF Information Page
  • WHO Rift Valley fever

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rift Valley Fever Facts (834 words)
Rift Valley fever is a fever-causing viral disease that affects livestock and humans in Africa.
Rift valley fever is a fever-causing disease that affects livestock (including cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goats) and humans in Africa.
Rift Valley fever is spread mainly by infected mosquitoes and appears most often during years of heavy rainfall.
Department of Agriculture | Rift Valley Fever (1696 words)
Rift Valley fever results from infection by the Rift Valley fever virus, an RNA virus in the genus Phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae).
Rift Valley fever is transmitted by mosquitoes and is usually amplified in ruminant hosts.
Infection with the Rift Valley fever virus usually results in an asymptomatic infection or a relatively mild illness with fever and liver abnormalities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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