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Encyclopedia > Rifle

A rifle is a firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder, with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the barrel walls. The raised areas of the rifling grooves are called "lands," which make contact with the projectile (for small arms usage, called a bullet), imparting spin around an axis corresponding to the orientation of the weapon. When the projectile leaves the barrel, the conservation of angular momentum improves accuracy and range, in the same way that a properly thrown American football or rugby ball behaves. The word "rifle" originally referred to the grooving, and a rifle was called a "rifled gun." Rifles are used in warfare, hunting and shooting sports. Rifle may refer to: Rifle, a firearm with a stock and a barrel that has a spiral groove or grooves (rifling) cut into its interior Category:Rifles, many different types of rifles A Rifle regiment (light infantry) to rifle means to search Rifle, Colorado, a city in Garfield County, Colorado... Firearms redirects here. ... This article is about firearms projectiles. ... This gyroscope remains upright while spinning due to its angular momentum. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... The shooting sports include those competitive sports involving tests of proficiency (accuracy and speed) using various types of guns such as firearms and airguns (see Archery for more information on shooting sports that make use of bows and arrows). ...


Typically, a bullet is propelled by the contained deflagration of an explosive compound (originally black powder, later cordite, and now nitrocellulose), although other means such as compressed air are used in air rifles, which are popular for vermin control, hunting small game, and casual shooting ("plinking"). A log in a fire place. ... Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom from the late 19th Century to replace gunpowder as a military propellant for large weapons, such as tank guns, artillery and naval guns. ... Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... Air guns are weapons that propel a bullet using compressed air or another gas, possibly liquefied. ... A crop duster applies low-insecticide bait that is targeted against Western corn rootworms Pest control refers to the regulation or management of another species defined as a pest, usually because it is believed to be detrimental to a persons health, the ecology or the economy Pest control is... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In many armed forces units it is thought wrong to use the word "gun" to mean a rifle. Furthermore, in many works of fiction a rifle refers to any weapon that has a stock and is shouldered before firing, even if this weapon is not rifled or doesn't fire solid projectiles. For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... Folding stock of a SIG 550 rifle A stock or buttstock or shoulder stock is present in many firearms and some crossbows, and performs three functions - to facilitate easy and steady holding and aiming of the weapon prior to and during firing (which may be further assisted by a sling...

Contents

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 187 pixelsFull resolution (2909 × 679 pixels, file size: 567 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) See also Category:Guns A gun is a weapon that fires a projectile through the use of an explosive. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 187 pixelsFull resolution (2909 × 679 pixels, file size: 567 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) See also Category:Guns A gun is a weapon that fires a projectile through the use of an explosive. ... Lee-Enfield No4 Mk1 with bayonet, scabbard attached The Lee-Enfield was the British armys standard bolt action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle from 1895 until 1956. ... Image File history File links Springfield_1903_rifle. ... Image File history File links Springfield_1903_rifle. ... The Springfield M1903, formally the United States Rifle, Caliber . ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The G3 series is a battle rifle, manufactured by Heckler und Koch since 1958. ...

Overview

Microgroove rifled barrel with a right hand twist of a .35 caliber Remington.
Microgroove rifled barrel with a right hand twist of a .35 caliber Remington.

Originally, rifles were sharpshooter weapons, while the regular infantry made use of the greater firepower of massed muskets, which fired round musket balls of calibers up to 19 mm (0.75 inch). Benjamin Robins, an English mathematician, realized that an elongated bullet would retain the mass and kinetic force of a musket ball, but would slice through the air with much greater ease.[1] The innovative work of Robins and others would take until the end of the 18th century to gain acceptance. Image File history File links Marlin_35_rem_2. ... Image File history File links Marlin_35_rem_2. ... Calibre redirects here. ... Remington Arms is a major American manufacturer of rifles, shotguns, other firearms, revolvers and ammunition. ... A US Marine marksman. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... A musket ball was an early form of ammunition used for loading muskets. ... Benjamin Robins (1707–July 29, 1751), English man of science and engineer. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


By the mid-19th century, however, manufacturing had advanced sufficiently that the musket was replaced by a range of rifles—generally single-shot, breech-loading—designed for aimed, discretionary fire by individual soldiers. Then, as now, rifles had a stock, either fixed or folding, to be braced against the shoulder when firing. Early military rifles, such as the Baker rifle were shorter than the day's muskets, and usually the weapon of a marksman. Until the early 20th century rifles tended to be very long—an 1890 Martini-Henry was almost 2 m (6 ft) in length with a fixed bayonet. The demand for more compact weapons for cavalrymen led to the carbine, or shortened rifle. The Infantry Rifle, known since the Victorian era as the Baker rifle, was, in addition to the Hompesch rifle used by the 5th Battalion/60th Regiment of Foot, the flintlock rifle used by the Rifle regiments of the British Army during the Napoleonic Wars. ... A US Marine marksman. ... The Martini-Henry (also known as the Peabody-Martini-Henry) was a breech-loading lever-actuated rifle adopted by the British, combining an action worked on by Friedrich von Martini (based on the Peabody rifle developed by Henry Peabody), with the rifled barrel designed by Scotsman Alexander Henry. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... A carbine is a firearm similar to, but generally shorter and less powerful than, a rifle or musket of a given period. ...


History

Origins

Muskets were smoothbore, large caliber weapons using ball-shaped ammunition fired at relatively low velocity. Due to the high cost and great difficulty of precision manufacturing, and the need to load readily from the muzzle, the musket ball was a loose fit in the barrel. Consequently on firing the ball bounced off the sides of the barrel when fired and the final direction on leaving the muzzle was unpredictable. Smoothbore refers to a firearm which does not have a rifled barrel. ...


The performance of early muskets was sufficient for the styles of warfare at the time, whereby soldiers tended to stand in long, stationary lines and fire at the opposing forces. Aiming and accuracy were not necessary to hit an opponent.


The origins of rifling are difficult to trace, but some of the earliest practical experiments seem to have occurred in Europe during the fifteenth century. Archers had long realized that a twist added to the tail feathers of their arrows gave them greater accuracy. Early muskets produced large quantities of smoke and soot, which had to be cleaned from the action and bore of the musket frequently; either the action of repeated bore scrubbing, or a deliberate attempt to create "soot grooves" might also have led to a perceived increase in accuracy, although no-one knows for sure. True rifling dates from the mid-15th century, although the precision required for its effective manufacture kept it out of the hands of infantrymen for another three and a half centuries, when it largely replaced the unrifled musket as the primary infantry weapon. In the transitional nineteenth century, the term "rifled musket" was used to indicate the novel weapon. During the Napoleonic Wars the British army created several experimental units known as "Rifles", armed with the Baker rifle. These Rifle Regiments were deployed as skirmishers during the Peninsular war in Spain and Portugal, and were more effective than skirmishers armed with muskets due to their accuracy and long range. Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... The Infantry Rifle, known since the Victorian era as the Baker rifle, was, in addition to the Hompesch rifle used by the 5th Battalion/60th Regiment of Foot, the flintlock rifle used by the Rifle regiments of the British Army during the Napoleonic Wars. ...


First designs

Some early rifled guns were created with special barrels that had a twisted polygonal shape. Specially-made bullets were designed to match the shape so the bullet would grip the rifle bore and take a spin that way. These were generally limited to large caliber weapons and the ammunition still did not fit tightly in the barrel. Many experimental designs used different shapes and degrees of spiraling. Although uncommon, polygonal rifling is still used in some weapons today with one example being the Glock line of pistols (which fire standard bullets). Unfortunately, many early attempts resulted in dangerous backfiring, which could lead to destruction of the weapon and serious injury to the person firing. Conventional eight groove rifling on the left, and octagonal polygonal rifling on the right. ... Glock is an Austrian weapons manufacturer (named after the founder Gaston Glock) founded in 1963 in Deutsch-Wagram, near Vienna, Austria. ...


19th century

Gradually, rifles appeared with cylindrical barrels cut with helical grooves, the surfaces between the grooves being called "lands". The innovation shortly preceded the mass adoption of breech-loading weapons, as it was not practical to push an overbore bullet down through a rifled barrel, only to then (try to) fire it back out. The dirt and grime from prior shots was pushed down ahead of a tight bullet or ball (which may have been a loose fit in the clean barrel before the first shot), and, of course, loading was far more difficult, as the lead had to be deformed to go down in the first place, reducing the accuracy due to deformation. Several systems were tried to deal with the problem, usually by resorting to an under-bore bullet that expanded upon firing. A breech-loading weapon, usually a gun or cannon, is one where the bullet or shell is inserted, loaded, into the gun at the rear of the barrel, the breech; the opposite of muzzle-loading. ...


The original muzzle-loading rifle, with a closely fitting ball to take the rifling grooves, was loaded with difficulty, particularly when foul, and for this reason was not generally used for military purposes. Even with the advent of rifling the bullet itself didn't change, but was wrapped in a greased, cloth patch to grip the rifling grooves. Rifling of a Canon de 75 modèle 1897 A 35 caliber Remington, with a microgroove rifled barrel with a right hand twist. ...


The first half of the nineteenth century saw a distinct change in the shape and function of the bullet. In 1826 Delirque, a French infantry officer, invented a breech with abrupt shoulders on which a spherical bullet was rammed down until it caught the rifling grooves. Delirque's method, however, deformed the bullet and was inaccurate. Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize...


Minié

One of the most famous was the Minié system, which relied on a conical bullet (known as a Minié ball) with a hollow at the base of the bullet that caused the base of the round to expand from the pressure of the exploding charge and grip the rifling as the round was fired. Minié system rifles, notably the U.S. Springfield and the British Enfield of the early 1860s, featured prominently in the U.S. Civil War, due to the enhanced power and accuracy. The better seal gave more power, as less gas escaped past the bullet, which combined with the fact that for the same bore (caliber) diameter a long bullet was heavier than a round ball. Enhanced accuracy came from the expansion to grip the rifling, which spun the bullet more consistently. 1855 minie ball design from Harpers Ferry, West Virginia The Minié ball (or minie ball) is a type of muzzle-loading rifle bullet named after co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié. It came to prominence in the Crimean War and American Civil War. ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... Bore may refer to: A wave in a river caused by an incoming tide - see tidal bore The diameter of a pipe or tube, or the caliber of a gun The diameter of a cylinder and piston in a piston engine (See also: Stroke) A person who is boring The... Calibre redirects here. ...


Another important area of development was the way that cartridges were stored and used in the weapon. The Spencer repeating rifle was a breech-loading manually operated lever action rifle, that was adopted by the United States. Over 20,000 were used during the Civil War. It marked the first adoption of a removable magazine-fed infantry rifle by any country. The design was completed by Christopher Spencer in 1860.[citation needed] It used copper rimfire cartridges stored in a removable seven round tube magazine, enabling the rounds to be fired one after another. When the magazine was empty, it could be exchanged for another. The Spencer repeating rifle was a manually operated lever-action, repeating rifle fed from a tube magazine with cartridges. ... A lever-action is a type of firearm which uses a lever located around the trigger guard area (often including the trigger guard itself) to load fresh cartridges into the chamber of the barrel when the lever is cranked. The most famous of such lever-action firearms are the Martini... Gravure of a 30-round STANAG 4179 magazine, originally designed for the AR-15/M16 series of rifles. ... Christopher Spencer (b. ... Rimfire ammunition, from left to right, .22 Short, .22 Long Rifle, .22 WMR, .17 HM2, .17 HMR A rimfire is a type of firearm cartridge. ...


As the bullet enters the barrel, it inserts itself into the rifling, a process that gradually wears down the barrel, and also causes the barrel to heat up more rapidly. Therefore, some machine-guns are equipped with quick-change barrels that can be swapped every few thousand rounds, or in earlier designs, were water-cooled. Unlike older carbon steel barrels, which were limited to around 1,000 shots before the extreme heat caused accuracy to fade, modern stainless steel barrels for target rifles are much more resistant to wear, allowing many thousands of rounds to be fired before accuracy drops. (Many shotguns and small arms have chrome-lined barrels to reduce wear and enhance corrosion resistance. This is rare on rifles designed for extreme accuracy, as the plating process is difficult and liable to reduce the effect of the rifling.) Modern ammunition has hardened leadcore with a softer outer cladding or jacket, typically of an alloy of copper and nickel - cupro-nickel. Some ammunition is even coated with molybdenum-disulfide to further reduce internal friction - the so-called 'moly-coated' bullet.[citation needed] A . ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... Bright chrome is often used as a decorative feature on consumer products such as cars. ... Cupronickel is an alloy of copper, nickel and stengthening impurities. ...


Bullet design

Over the 19th century, bullet design also evolved, the bullets becoming gradually smaller and lighter. By 1910 the standard blunt-nosed bullet had been replaced with the pointed, 'spitzer' bullet, an innovation that increased range and penetration. Cartridge design evolved from simple paper tubes containing black powder and shot, to sealed brass cases with integral primers for ignition, while black powder itself was replaced with cordite, and then other nitro-cellulose-based smokeless powder mixtures, propelling bullets to higher velocities than before.[2] Rimmed, centerfire . ... Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... The percussion cap or primer was the crucial invention that enabled firearms to fire in any weather. ... Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ...


The increased velocity meant that new problems arrived, and so bullets went from being soft lead to harder lead, then to copper jacketed, in order to better engage the spiraled grooves without "stripping" them in the same way that a screw or bolt thread would be stripped if subjected to extreme forces. An example of FMJ bullets in their usual shapes: pointed (spitzer) for the rifle and round for the pistol. ...


20th century

As mentioned above, rifles were initially single-shot, muzzle-loading weapons. During the 18th century, breech-loading weapons were designed, which allowed the rifleman to reload while under cover, but defects in manufacturing and the difficulty in forming a reliable gas-tight seal prevented widespread adoption. During the 19th century, multi-shot repeating rifles using lever, pump or linear bolt actions became standard, further increasing the rate of fire and minimizing the fuss involved in loading a firearm. The problem of proper seal creation had been solved with the use of brass cartridge cases, which expanded in an elastic fashion at the point of firing and effectively sealed the breech while the pressure remained high, then relaxed back enough to allow for easy removal. By the end of the 19th century, the leading bolt-action design was that of Paul Mauser, whose action—wedded to a reliable design possessing a five-shot magazine—became a world standard through two world wars and beyond. The Mauser rifle was paralleled by Britain's ten-shot Lee-Enfield and America's 1903 Springfield Rifle models (the latter pictured above). The American M1903 closely copied Mauser's original design. A repeating rifle is a single barreled rifle containing multiple rounds of ammunition. ... A lever-action is a type of firearm which uses a lever located around the trigger guard area (often including the trigger guard itself) to load fresh cartridges into the chamber of the barrel when the lever is cranked. The most famous of such lever-action firearms is the Winchester... A pump-action rifle or shotgun is one in which the fore-end of the stock can be pumped back and forth in order to eject and chamber a round of ammunition. ... A bolt-action firearm is one that is manually operated (i. ... Elasticity is a branch of physics which studies the properties of elastic materials. ... Paul von Meisner, born June 27, 1838 in Oberndorf am Neckar, died May 29, 1914 in Oberndorf am Neckar, was a German industrialist and weapon designer. ... Mauser is the common name of German arms manufacturer Mauser-Werke Oberndorf Waffensysteme GmbH, as well as the line of bolt action rifles they built for the German armed forces. ... Lee-Enfield No4 Mk1 with bayonet, scabbard attached The Lee-Enfield was the British armys standard bolt action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle from 1895 until 1956. ... The Springfield M1903, formally the United States Rifle, Caliber . ...


The advent of massed, rapid firepower and of the machine gun and the rifled artillery piece was so quick as to outstrip the development of any way to attack a trench defended by riflemen and machine gunners. The carnage of World War I was perhaps the greatest vindication and vilification of the rifle as a military weapon. By World War II, military thought was turning elsewhere, towards more compact weapons. A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... {{subst:empty template|}} {{Copyviocore |url= |month = {{subst:CURRENTMONTHNAME}} |day = {{subst:CURRENTDAY}} |year = {{subst:CURRENTYEAR}} |time = {{subst:CURRENTTIME}} |timestamp = {{subst:CURRENTTIMESTAMP}}}} Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


WWII

Experience in World War I led German military researchers to conclude that long-range aimed fire was less significant at typical battle ranges of 300 m. As mechanisms became smaller, lighter and more reliable, semi-automatic rifles, including the M1 Garand, appeared. World War II saw the first mass-fielding of such rifles, which culminated in the Sturmgewehr 44, the first assault rifle and one of the most significant developments of 20th century small-arms. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A semi-automatic rifle is a type of rifle that fires a single bullet each time the trigger is pulled, without the need to manually operate a bolt, lever or other firing or loading mechanism. ... The M1 Garand (more formally the United States Rifle, Caliber . ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Sturmgewehr 44 (StG44) was an assault rifle developed in Nazi Germany during World War II and was the first of its kind to see major deployment. ... The AK-47 is the worlds most common assault rifle. ...


By contrast, civilian rifle design has not significantly advanced since the early part of the 20th century. Modern hunting rifles have fiberglass and carbon fiber stocks and more advanced recoil pads, but are fundamentally the same as infantry rifles from 1910. Many modern sniper rifles can trace their ancestry back for well over a century, and the Russian 7.62 x 54 mm cartridge, as used in the front-line Dragunov Sniper Rifle (SVD), dates from 1891. An early naval cannon design, allowing the gun to roll backwards a small distance when firing The recoil when firing a gun is the backward momentum of a gun, which is equal to the forward momentum of the bullet or shell, due to conservation of momentum. ... The M40, United States Marine Corps standard-issue sniper rifle. ...


History of use

Muskets were used for comparatively rapid, unaimed volley fire, and the average conscripted soldier could be easily trained to use them. The (muzzle-loaded) rifle was originally a sharpshooter's weapon used for targets of opportunity and deliberate aimed fire. During the Napoleonic Wars, the British 95th Regiment (Green Jackets) and 60th Regiment (Royal American) used the rifle to great effect during skirmishing. Because of a slower loading time than a musket, they were not adopted by the whole army. The adoption of cartridges and breech-loading in the 19th century was concurrent with the general adoption of rifles. In the early part of the 20th century, soldiers were trained to shoot accurately over long ranges with high-powered cartridges. World War I Lee-Enfields rifles (among others) were equipped with long-range 'volley sights' for massed firing at ranges of up to 1.6 km (1.0 mile). Individual shots were unlikely to hit, but a platoon firing repeatedly could produce a 'beaten ground' effect similar to light artillery or machine guns; but experience in WWI showed that long-range fire was best left to the machine gun. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... A breech-loading weapon, usually a gun or cannon, is one where the bullet or shell is inserted, loaded, into the gun at the rear of the barrel, the breech; the opposite of muzzle-loading. ...


During and after WWII it became accepted that most infantry engagements occur at ranges of less than 300 m; the range and power of the large rifles was "overkill"; and the weapons were heavier than the ideal. This led to Germany's development of the 7.92 x 33 mm Kurz (short) round, the Karabiner 98, the MKb-42, and ultimately, the assault rifle. Today, an infantryman's rifle is optimised for ranges of 300 m or less, and soldiers are trained to deliver individual rounds or bursts of fire within these distances. The application of accurate, long-range fire is the domain of the sniper in warfare, and of enthusiastic target shooters in peacetime. The modern sniper rifle is usually capable of accuracy better than 0.3 mrad (1 arcminute). 7. ... Sturmgewehr 44 (StG44) was an assault rifle developed in Nazi Germany during World War II and was the first of its kind to see major deployment. ... For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ... A minute of arc, arcminute, or MOA is a unit of angular measurement, equal to one sixtieth (1/60) of one degree. ...


In recent decades, large-caliber anti-materiel rifles, typically firing 12.7 mm and 20 mm caliber cartridges, have been developed. The US Barrett M82A1 is probably the best-known such rifle. These weapons are typically used to strike critical, vulnerable targets such as computerized command and control vehicles, radio trucks, radar antennae, vehicle engine blocks and the jet engines of enemy aircraft. Anti-materiel rifles can be used against human targets, but the much higher weight of rifle and ammunition, and the massive recoil and muzzle blast, usually make them less than practical for such use. The Barrett M82 is credited with a maximum effective range of 1800 m (1.1 mile); and it was with a .50BMG caliber McMillan TAC-50 rifle that Canadian Master Corporal Rob Furlong made the longest recorded confirmed sniper kill in history, when he shot a Taliban insurgent at a range of 2,430 meters (1.51 miles) in Afghanistan during Operation Anaconda in 2002.[3] An anti-materiel rifle is a rifle that is designed for use against military equipment (Matériel) rather than against other combatants (anti-personnel). Generally speaking, they are large-caliber rifles chambered for a powerful cartridge. ... For the assault rifle, see Valmet M82. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... The McMillan TAC-50 sniper rifle is produced in the USA by the McMillan Bros. ... Rob Furlong is a former Corporal in the Canadian Armed Forces who holds the record for the longest sniper kill in combat. ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... Combatants  United States,  Canada,  United Kingdom,  New Zealand,  Australia,  Denmark,  France,  Norway,  Germany Taliban insurgents, al-Qaeda Commanders Major General Franklin Hagenbeck Unknown Strength 2,000 500–1,500 Casualties 8 U.S. servicemen killed, 82 wounded, 7 Afghan soldiers killed 500–800 [1] A map showing the pre-operation...


Modern civilian use

Modern Hunting Rifle
Modern Hunting Rifle

Currently, rifles are the most common firearm in general use for hunting purposes (with the exception of bird hunting where shotguns are favored). Use in competition is also very common, and includes Olympic events. Semi-automatic rifles derived from military rifle designs such as the AR-15 or AK-47 have also become very popular in the United States for target shooting and sporting purposes. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 188 pixel Image in higher resolution (2267 × 533 pixel, file size: 185 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Modern Hunting Rifle Heym Keilerbüchse Imagery: Joachim Baecker 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 188 pixel Image in higher resolution (2267 × 533 pixel, file size: 185 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Modern Hunting Rifle Heym Keilerbüchse Imagery: Joachim Baecker 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file... Remington pump-action shotgun held by a Florida Highway Patrol cadet shotgun, see: Shotgun (disambiguation). ... The AR-15 is a lightweight, air-cooled, magazine fed, autoloading, centerfire rifle. ... The AK-47 is almost certainly the most widely used and distributed military firearm in human history. ...

See also

The origins of the modern British military rifles are within its predecessor the Brown Bess musket. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... For other uses, see Shotgun (disambiguation). ... An Antique Firearm is, loosely speaking, a firearm designed and manufactured prior to the beginning of the 20th century- the Boer War is often used as a cut-off event, although the exact definition of what constitutes an Antique Firearm varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. ... A rifle range is an area specially constructed for target rifle shooting. ... (For discussions on politics concerning firearms and gun safety, see Gun politics. ... A rifle grenade is a form of grenade that utilizes a rifle as a launch mechanism to increase the effective range of the grenade. ... Left to Right: .17 HM2, .17 HMR, .22LR, .22 WMR, .17 SMc, 5mm/35 SMc, .22 Hornet, .223 Remington, .223 WSSM, .243 Winchester, .243 Winchester Improved (Ackley), .25-06, .270 Winchester, .308, .30-06, .45-70 Govt, .50-90 Sharps From left to right: .50 BMG, 300 Win Mag, .308... Rifling of a Canon de 75 modèle 1897 A 35 caliber Remington, with a microgroove rifled barrel with a right hand twist. ... The service rifle (also known as standard-issue rifle) of a given army or armed force is that which it issues as standard to its soldiers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An early XM8 mockup after the break up; became part of OICW Increment 1 A working XM25 prototype is tested in 2005; this was part of OICW Increment 2 OICW prototype; similar to the planned OICW Increment 3 Early Springfield Armory SPIW prototype (Circa 1964) Final Springfield Armory SPIW prototype...

Kinds of rifles

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Rifles

Air guns are weapons that propel a bullet using compressed air or another gas, possibly liquefied. ... The Spencer repeating rifle was a manually operated falling block, repeating rifle fed from a tube magazine with cartridges. ... Heckler & Koch G41 automatic rifles are legal in asutralia an america with lisence An automatic rifle is a term generally used to describe a self-loading rifle capable of firing either semi or fully-automatically from a magazine or belt of ammunition. ... The AK-47 is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... // AK-47 AK-74 APK Beryl wz. ... An anti-materiel rifle is a rifle that is designed for use against military equipment (Matériel) rather than against other combatants (anti-personnel). Generally speaking, they are large-caliber rifles chambered for a powerful cartridge. ... The FN FAL battle rifle The term battle rifle can have different meanings. ... A bolt-action firearm is one that is manually operated (i. ... A carbine is a firearm similar to, but generally shorter and less powerful than, a rifle or musket of a given period. ... A double rifle is a type of rifle with two barrels instead of one. ... The Lloyd Rifle was the 1950s brainchild of English deer-stalker, rifleman, metallurgist and engineer David Llewellyn Lloyd (d. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... A repeating rifle is a single barreled rifle containing multiple rounds of ammunition. ... M67 recoilless rifle. ... The M40, United States Marine Corps standard-issue sniper rifle. ... Regular sniper rifles. ... The term Long Rifle (or alternately Kentucky Rifle) refers to a type of rifle used in early America by both military and civilians. ... A lever-action is a type of firearm which uses a lever located around the trigger guard area (often including the trigger guard itself) to load fresh cartridges into the chamber of the barrel when the lever is cranked. The most famous of such lever-action firearms is the Winchester...

References

  1. ^ "The How and Why of Long Shots and Straight Shots" (April 1860). Cornhill Magazine. 
  2. ^ Rifled Breach Loader. Globalsecurity.org.
  3. ^ Friscolanti, Michael (2006-05-15). "We were abandoned". Maclean's: p18-25. Rogers Publishing. 

The Cornhill Magazine was a Victorian magazine and literary journal named after Cornhill a street in London. ... GlobalSecurity. ... A cover of the Canadian magazine Macleans. ... Rogers Communications Inc. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

External links

  • Hunting Rifles Reviews - A site where you can find reviews for all major types of hunting rifles including specifications, general info, pictures and many more.
  • Rifle Database - Video and Review

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rifle Scope for your best rifle scope site of scopes (1099 words)
Rifle Scope 's are used for hunting to increase the view of an object.
Originally, rifles were sharpshooter weapons, while the regular infantry made use of the greater firepower of massed muskets, which fired round balls of calibers up to 0.75 inch (19 mm).
Until the early 20thcentury rifles tended to be very long-a Martini-Henry of 1890 was almost six feet (1.8 m) in length, with a fixed bayonet.
Rifle - LoveToKnow 1911 (10930 words)
Gas-operated rifles, like the Hotchkiss and Colt machine guns, have fixed barrels and are worked by a portion of the powder-gases which is allowed to escape from the barrel through a small hole near the muzzle, thence entering a cylinder and working a piston in connexion with the breech mechanism.
In both rifles, on the left side of the stock, is a long-distance sight (graduated to 2800 yds.), which consists of an aperture sight near the bolt and a dial and movable pointer near the hand-guard.
Rifles of r2-bore gauge, firing a spherical ball, were subsequently made, with broad and shallow grooves making one turn in ro ft. The bullet, of the same diameter as the bore, was loaded with a thin patch that took the grooving.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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