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Encyclopedia > Richard Francis Burton
Sir Richard Francis Burton

Sir Richard Burton, portrait by Frederic Leighton, National Portrait Gallery
Born March 19, 1821(1821-03-19)
Torquay, England
Died October 20, 1890 (aged 69)
Trieste, Italy
Burial place St. Mary Magdalen's Church, London, England
Nationality English
Known for Exploration, Writing, Languages, Orientalist
Spouse Isabel Burton (1861-1890)

Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton KCMG FRGS (March 19, 1821October 20, 1890) was an English explorer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, ethnologist, linguist, poet, hypnotist, fencer and diplomat. He was known for his travels and explorations within Asia and Africa as well as his extraordinary knowledge of languages and cultures. According to one count, he spoke 29 European, Asian, and African languages.[1] Notable people named Richard Burton include: Richard Burton, actor Richard Francis Burton, 19th-century explorer, scholar, and orientalist, Richard Burton (golfer) Richard Henry Burton, recipient of the Victoria Cross Richard Burton (comics), comic writer and editor Richard M. Burton, organizational theorist Richard M. Burton, M.D., PhD, physician and behaviorist... Richard Francis Burton, portrait by Frederic Leighton (1830-1896), National Portrait Gallery, London This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (December 31, 1830 - January 25, 1896) was an English painter and sculptor. ... The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery in St Martins Place, London, England, which opened to the public in 1856. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the English town. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Isabel Burton (born Isabella Arundell) (March 20, 1831 - March 21, 1896) was the wife of explorer, adventurer, and writer Sir Richard Francis Burton. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... The Royal Geographical Society with the associated Institute of British Geographers is a learned society of geography and geographers. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... See also explorations, sea explorers, astronaut, conquistador, travelogue, the History of Science and Technology and Biography. ... Look up Translator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... This article is about a military rank. ... Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, by Westerners. ... Ethnologyis a genre of cultural anthropology and| anthropological study, involving the systematic comparison of the beliefs and practices of different societies. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Hypnosis, as defined by the American Psychological Association Division of Psychological Hypnosis, is a procedure during which a health professional or researcher suggests that a client, patient, or experimental participant experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. ... This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Burton's best-known achievements include traveling in disguise to Mecca, making an unexpurgated translation of The Book of One Thousand Nights and A Night (the collection is more commonly called The Arabian Nights in English because of Andrew Lang's abridgment) and the Kama Sutra and journeying with John Hanning Speke as the first white men guided by the redoubtable Sidi Mubarak Bombay to discover (for himself and his contemporaries) the Great Lakes of Africa in search of the source of the Nile. He was a prolific author and wrote numerous books and scholarly articles about subjects including travel, fencing and ethnography. This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... For the former National Basketball Association player, see Andrew Lang (basketball). ... For other uses, see Kama Sutra (disambiguation). ... John Hanning Speke (May 4, 1827 – September 15, 1864) was an officer in the British Indian army, who made three voyages of exploration to Africa. ... The Greater Lakes and the East African coastline as seen from space. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The...


He was a captain in the army of the East India Company serving in India (and later, briefly, in the Crimean War). Following this he was engaged by the Royal Geographical Society to explore the east coast of Africa and led an expedition guided by the locals which discovered Lake Tanganyika. In later life he served as British consul in Fernando Po, Damascus and, finally, Trieste. He was a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and was awarded a knighthood (KCMG) in 1886. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... The Royal Geographical Society is a British learned society founded in 1830 with the name Geographical Society of London for the advancement of geographical science, under the patronage of King William IV. It absorbed the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa (founded by Sir Joseph... Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... Consulate redirects here. ... Bioko (spelled also Bioco) is an island off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea, formerly called Fernando Pó or Fernando Póo. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ...

Contents

Early life and education (1822–1841)

Burton was born in Torquay, Devon, at 21:30 on 19 March 1821; in his autobiography, he erroneously claimed to have been born in the family home at Barham House in Elstree in Hertfordshire[2][3]. He was baptised on 2 September 1821 at Elstree Church in Borehamwood, Hertfordshire.[4] His father, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Netterville Burton, 36th Regiment, was an Irish-born British army officer of Anglo-Irish extraction, the son of the Rev. Edward Burton, a Church of Ireland clergyman from Westmorland, England, and an Irish mother; his mother, Martha Baker, was the heiress of a wealthy Hertfordshire squire, Richard Baker. Burton had two siblings, Maria Katherine Elizabeth Burton and Edward Joseph Netterville Burton, born in 1823 and 1824, respectively.[5] This article is about the English town. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Elstree is a small village in Hertsmere borough of Hertfordshire on the A5, north of London. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , Borehamwood (sometimes referred to as Boreham Wood) is a town in southern Hertfordshire, just north of London. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland, an even older spelling is Westmerland) is an area of north west England and one of the 39 historic counties of England. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... For other uses, see Squire (disambiguation). ...


Burton's family travelled considerably during his childhood. In 1825, his family moved to Tours, France. Burton's early education was provided by various tutors employed by his parents. He first began a formal education in 1829 at a preparatory school on Richmond Green in Richmond, London run by Rev. Charles Delafosse.[6] Over the next few years, his family travelled between England, France and Italy. Burton showed an early gift for languages and quickly learned French, Italian and Latin, as well as several dialects, such as Neapolitan. During his youth, he was rumoured to have carried on an affair with a young Romani (Gypsy) woman, even learning the rudiments of her language. Some adduce this as a possible reason why he was able later in life to learn Hindi and other Indic languages almost preternaturally quickly, as Romani is related to this language family. However, these same Indian languages are members of the Indo-European family of languages, along with English, French and German. The peregrinations of his youth may have encouraged Burton to regard himself as an outsider for much of his life. As he put it, "Do what thy manhood bids thee do, from none but self expect applause..."[7] Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... Richmond Green Richmond Green in Richmond, England was a popular venue for cricket matches during the 18th Century and before. ... Richmond is a suburb and the principal settlement of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south west London, England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Neapolitan (autonym: napulitano; Italian: ) is a Romance language spoken in the city and region of Naples, Campania (Neapolitan: Nàpule, Italian: Napoli); close dialects are spoken throughout most of southern Italy, including the Gaeta and Sora districts of southern Lazio, parts of Abruzzo, Molise, Basilicata, northern Calabria, and northern and... Languages Romany, languages of native region Religion Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... -1... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... This article is about the language spoken by Roma people. ...


Burton entered Trinity College, Oxford, in the autumn of 1840. Despite his intelligence and ability, he soon antagonized his teachers and peers. During his first term, he is said to have challenged another student to a duel after the latter mocked Burton's moustache. Burton continued to gratify his love of languages by studying Arabic; he also spent his time learning falconry and fencing. In 1842, he attended a steeplechase in deliberate violation of college rules and subsequently dared to tell the college authorities that students should be allowed to attend such events. Hoping to be merely "rusticated"—that is, suspended with the possibility of reinstatement, the punishment of some less provocative students who had visited the steeplechase— he was instead permanently expelled from Trinity College. In a final jab at the environment he had come to despise, Burton reportedly trampled the College's flower beds with his horse and carriage while departing Oxford. For other institutions named Trinity College, see Trinity College. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... A duel is a formalized type of combat. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Flying a Saker Falcon A Goshawk A Hobby Falconry or hawking is an art or sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey) to hunt or pursue game for humans. ... A steeplechase race The steeplechase is a form of horse racing (primarily conducted in the United Kingdom, United States, and Ireland) and derives its name from early races in which orientation of the course was by reference to a church steeple, jumping fences and ditches and generally traversing the many... Rustication is a term used at British universities, particularly Oxford University and Cambridge University, for a disciplinary action consisting of a temporary expulsion from the university. ...


Army career (1842–1853)

In his own words "fit for nothing but to be shot at for six pence a day",[8] Burton enlisted in the army of the East India Company at the behest of his ex-college classmates who were already members. He hoped to fight in the first Afghan war but the conflict was over before he arrived in India. He was posted to the 18th Bombay Native Infantry based in Gujarat and under the command of General Sir Charles James Napier. While in India he became a proficient speaker of Hindustani, Gujarati and Marathi as well as Persian and Arabic. His studies of Hindu culture had progressed to such an extent that "my Hindu teacher officially allowed me to wear the Janeu (Brahmanical Thread)"[9] although the truth of this has been questioned since it would usually have required long study, fasting and a partial shaving of the head. Burton's interest (and active participation) in the cultures and religions of India was considered peculiar by some of his fellow soldiers who accused him of "going native" and called him "the White Nigger". Burton had many peculiar habits that set him apart from other soldiers. While in the army, he kept a large menagerie of tame monkeys in the hopes of learning their language.[10] He also earned the name "Ruffian Dick" for his "demonic ferocity as a fighter and because he had fought in single combat more enemies than perhaps any other man of his time."[11] The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Belligerents Afghanistan British Empire Commanders Dost Mohammad, Akbar Khan John Keane, William Elphinstone Casualties and losses 7,000+ killed & wounded 5,062 killed Afghan civilians = Unknown British civilians = 12,000 killed The First Anglo–Afghan War lasted from 1839 to 1842. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... General Sir Charles James Napier General Sir Charles James Napier GCB (August 10, 1782 – August 29, 1853) was a British general and Commander-in-Chief in India. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An Indian Muslim couple weds on the bank of Karnatakas Tungabhadra River. ... Menagerie is the term for a historical form of keeping wild and exotic animals in human captivity and therefore a predecessor of the modern zoological garden. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ...


He was appointed to the Sindh survey, where he learned to use the measuring equipment that would later be useful in his career as an explorer. At this time he began to travel in disguise. He adopted the alias of Mirza Abdullah and often fooled local people and fellow officers into failing to recognise him. It was at this point that he began to work as an agent for Napier and, although details of exactly what this work entailed are not known, it is known that he participated in an undercover investigation of a brothel said to be frequented by English soldiers where the prostitutes were young boys. His life-long interest in sexual practices led him to produce a detailed report which was later to cause trouble for Burton when subsequent readers of the report (which Burton had been assured would be kept secret) came to believe that Burton had, himself, participated in some of the practices described within his writing. Sindh (Sindhī: سنڌ, Urdū: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Deception is providing intentionally misleading information to others. ... A brothel, also known as a bordello or whorehouse, is an establishment specifically dedicated to prostitution, providing the prostitutes a place to meet and to have sex with the clients. ...


In March 1849 he returned to Europe on sick leave. In 1850 he wrote his first book Goa and the Blue Mountains, a guide to the Goa region. He travelled to Boulogne to visit the fencing school there and it was there where he first encountered his future wife Isabel Arundell, a young Catholic woman from a good family. For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Isabel Burton (born Isabella Arundell) (March 20, 1831 - March 21, 1896) was the wife of explorer, adventurer, and writer Sir Richard Francis Burton. ...


First explorations and journey to Mecca (1851–1853)

Burton in Arabic dress.
Burton in Arabic dress.

Motivated by his love of adventure, Burton got the approval of the Royal Geographical Society for an exploration of the area and he gained permission from the Board of Directors of the British East India Company to take leave from the army. His seven years in India gave Burton a familiarity with the customs and behaviour of Muslims and prepared him to attempt a Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca and, in this case, Medina). It was this journey, undertaken in 1853, which first made Burton famous. He had planned it whilst travelling disguised among the Muslims of Sindh, and had laboriously prepared for the ordeal by study and practice (including being circumcised to further lower the risk of being discovered). Download high resolution version (492x657, 27 KB)Richard Burton in Arabic dress. ... Download high resolution version (492x657, 27 KB)Richard Burton in Arabic dress. ... The Royal Geographical Society is a British learned society founded in 1830 with the name Geographical Society of London for the advancement of geographical science, under the patronage of King William IV. It absorbed the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa (founded by Sir Joseph... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about male circumcision. ...


Although Burton was not the first non-Muslim European to make the Hajj (Ludovico di Barthema in 1503 is believed to hold that distinction[12]), his pilgrimage is the most famous and the best documented of the time. He adopted various disguises including that of a Pashtun to account for any oddities in speech, but he still had to demonstrate an understanding of intricate Islamic ritual, and a familiarity with the minutiae of Eastern manners and etiquette. Burton's trek to Mecca was quite dangerous and his caravan was attacked by bandits (a common experience at the time). As he put it, although "...neither Koran or Sultan enjoin the death of Jew or Christian intruding within the columns that note the sanctuary limits, nothing could save a European detected by the populace, or one who after pilgrimage declared himself an unbeliever."[13] The pilgrimage entitled him to the title of Hajji and to wear green head wrap. Burton's own account of his journey is given in A Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Medinah and Meccah (1855). Dutch title page of Varthemas book Itinerario, 1654 Ludovico di Varthema (also Barthema, Vertomannus) from Bologna (c. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Some members of his entourage suspected there was more to Burton than met the eye. He came close to being discovered one night when he lifted his robe to urinate, rather than squatting as an Arab would. He thought he was unseen, but the youngest member of his group happened to see him. The lad accused him of being an imposter, but let Burton convince him to keep his doubts to himself.[14]


When Burton returned to the British Army he sat for examination as an Arab linguist - and failed.[15]


Early explorations (1854–1855)

Following his return to Cairo from Mecca, Burton sailed to India to rejoin his regiment. In March 1854, he transferred to the political department of the East India Company and went to Aden on the Arabian Peninsula in order to prepare for a new expedition, supported by the Royal Geographical Society, to explore the interior of the Somali Country and beyond, where Burton hoped to discover the large lakes he had heard about from Arab travelers. It was in Aden in September of this year that he first met Captain (then Lieutenant) John Hanning Speke who would accompany him on his most famous exploration. Burton undertook the first part of the trip alone. He made an expedition to Harar (in present day Ethiopia), which no European had entered (indeed there was a prophecy that the city would decline if a Christian was admitted inside). This leg of the expedition lasted three months, although much of the time was spent in the port of Zeila, where Burton, once again in disguise, awaited word that the road to Harar was safe. Burton not only travelled to Harar but also was introduced to the Emir and stayed in the city for ten days, officially a guest of the Emir but in reality his prisoner. The journey back was plagued by lack of supplies, and Burton wrote that he would have died of thirst had he not seen desert birds and realised they would be near water. John Hanning Speke (May 4, 1827 – September 15, 1864) was an officer in the British Indian army, who made three voyages of exploration to Africa. ... Harar (sometimes spelled Harrar, Hārer, or Harer) is an eastern city in Ethiopia, and the capital of the modern Harari ethno-political division (or kilil) of Ethiopia. ... Saylac (also Seyla`, Seelaac, Zeila, Zeyla, Zeylac, Zayla, Séyla‘, Seylac, 11. ...


Following this adventure, he prepared to set out for the interior accompanied by Lieutenant Speke, Lieutenant G. E. Herne and Lieutenant William Stroyan and a number of Africans employed as bearers. However, before the expedition was able to leave camp, his party was attacked by a group of Somali tribesmen (the officers estimated the number of attackers at 200). In the ensuing fight, Stroyan was killed and Speke was captured and wounded in eleven places before he managed to escape. Burton was impaled with a javelin, the point entering one cheek and exiting the other. This wound left a notable scar that can be easily seen on portraits and photographs. He was forced to make his escape with the weapon still transfixing his head. However, the failure of this expedition was viewed harshly by the authorities, and a two-year investigation was set up to determine to what extent Burton was culpable for this disaster. While he was largely cleared of any blame, this did not help his career. He describes the harrowing attack in First Footsteps in East Africa (1856).


In 1855, Burton rejoined the army and travelled to the Crimea hoping to see active service in the Crimean War. He served on the staff of Beatson's Horse a corps of Bashi-bazouks, local fighters under the command of General Beatson, in the Dardanelles. The corps was disbanded following a "mutiny" after they refused to obey orders and Burton's name was mentioned (to his detriment) in the subsequent inquiry. Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... A bashi-bazouk (in Turkish başıbozuk, meaning disorganized, leaderless) was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army. ... The Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Minor. ...


Exploring the lakes of central Africa (1856–1860)

Routes taken by the expeditions of Burton and Speke (1857–1858) and Speke and Grant (1863).
Routes taken by the expeditions of Burton and Speke (1857–1858) and Speke and Grant (1863).

In 1856 the Royal Geographical Society funded another expedition in which Burton set off from Zanzibar to explore an "inland sea" which was known to exist. His mission was to study local tribes and to find out what exports might be possible from the region. It was hoped that the expedition might lead to the discovery of the source of the River Nile, although this was not an explicit aim. Burton had been told that only a fool would say his expedition aimed to find the source of the Nile because anything short of that would be regarded as a failure. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (804x486, 35 KB) Summary Routes taken by expeditions of Burton and Speke and Grant and Speke. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (804x486, 35 KB) Summary Routes taken by expeditions of Burton and Speke and Grant and Speke. ... John Hanning Speke (May 4, 1827 – September 15, 1864) was an officer in the British Indian army, who made three voyages of exploration to Africa. ... John Hanning Speke (May 4, 1827 – September 15, 1864) was an officer in the British Indian army, who made three voyages of exploration to Africa. ... James Augustus Grant (April 11, 1827 — February 11, 1892) was a Scottish explorer of eastern equatorial Africa. ... The Royal Geographical Society is a British learned society founded in 1830 with the name Geographical Society of London for the advancement of geographical science, under the patronage of King William IV. It absorbed the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa (founded by Sir Joseph... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... For alternative meanings of Nile, see Nile (disambiguation) The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The Nile (Arabic: النيل an...


Before leaving for Africa, Burton became secretly engaged to Isabel Arundell. Her family, particularly her mother, would not allow a marriage since Burton was not a Catholic and was not wealthy, although in time the relationship would become tolerated. Isabel Burton (born Isabella Arundell) (March 20, 1831 - March 21, 1896) was the wife of explorer, adventurer, and writer Sir Richard Francis Burton. ...


Speke again accompanied him and on the 27 June 1857 they set out from the east coast of Africa heading west in search of the lake or lakes. They were helped greatly by their experienced local guide, Sidi Mubarak (also known as "Bombay"), who was familiar with some of the customs and languages of the region. From the start the outward journey was beset with problems such as recruiting reliable bearers and the defalcation of equipment and supplies by deserting expedition members. Both men were beset by a variety of tropical diseases on the journey. Speke was rendered blind for some of the journey and deaf in one ear (due to an infection caused by attempts to remove a beetle). Burton was unable to walk for some of the journey and had to be carried by the bearers. is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The expedition arrived at Lake Tanganyika in February 1858. Burton was awestruck by the sight of the magnificent lake, but Speke, who had been temporarily blinded by a disease, was unable to see the body of water. By this point much of their surveying equipment was lost, ruined, or stolen, and they were unable to complete surveys of the area as well as they wished. Burton was again taken ill on the return journey and Speke continued exploring without him, making a journey to the north and eventually locating the great Lake Victoria, or Victoria Nyanza. Lacking supplies and proper instruments Speke was unable to survey the area properly but was privately convinced that it was the long sought source of the Nile. Burton's description of the journey is given in Lake Regions of Equatorial Africa (1860). Speke gave his own account in The Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile (1863).[16] Lake Tanganyika is a large lake in central Africa (3° 20 to 8° 48 South and from 29° 5 to 31° 15 East). ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Victoria (disambiguation). ...


Both Burton and Speke were in extremely poor health after the journey and returned home separately. As usual Burton kept very detailed notes, not just on the geography but also on the languages, customs and even sexual habits of the people he encountered. Although it was Burton's last great expedition his geographical and cultural notes were to prove invaluable for subsequent explorations by Speke and James Augustus Grant, Sir Samuel Baker, David Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley. Speke and Grant's (1863) exploration began on the east coast near Zanzibar again and went around the west side of Lake Victoria to Lake Albert and finally returning in triumph via the Nile River. However, crucially, they had lost track of the river's course between Lake Victoria and Albert. This left Burton, and others, unsatisfied that the source of the Nile was conclusively proven. James Augustus Grant (April 11, 1827 — February 11, 1892) was a Scottish explorer of eastern equatorial Africa. ... Sir Samuel White Baker (8 June 1821-30 December 1893) was an English explorer. ... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ... Sir Henry Morton Stanley, also known in the Congo as Bula Matari (Breaker of Rocks or, alternatively, Sledge Hammer) , born John Rowlands (January 28, 1841 – May 10, 1904), was a journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. ... For other uses, see Lake Albert (disambiguation). ...


Burton and Speke

Lake Tanganyika photographed from orbit. Burton was the first European to see the lake.
Lake Tanganyika photographed from orbit. Burton was the first European to see the lake.

Burton and Speke's exploration to Tanganyika and Victoria was, arguably, his most celebrated exploration but what followed was a prolonged public quarrel between the two men, which severely damaged Burton's reputation. From surviving letters it seems that Speke already mistrusted and disliked Burton before the start of their second expedition. There are several reasons why they became estranged. It seems obvious that the two men were very different in character, with Speke being more in tune with the prevailing morality of Victorian England and imperialistic attitude to other cultures. There was obviously a great element of professional rivalry. Some biographers have suggested that friends of Speke (particularly Laurence Oliphant) stirred up trouble between the two. It also seems that Speke resented Burton's position as expedition leader and claimed that this leadership was nominal only and that Burton was an invalid for most of the second expedition. There were problems with debts run up by the expedition that were left unpaid when they left Africa. Speke claimed that Burton had sole responsibility for these debts. Finally, there was the issue of the source of the Nile, perhaps the greatest prize of its day to explorers. It is now known that Lake Victoria is a source, but at the time the issue was controversial. Speke's expedition there was undertaken without Burton (who was incapacitated by several illnesses at the time) and his survey of the area was, by necessity, rudimentary, leaving the issue unresolved. Burton (and indeed many eminent explorers such as Livingstone) were very sceptical that the lake was the genuine source. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (639x639, 142 KB) Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania, Zaire and Zambia - June 1985 image description here File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (639x639, 142 KB) Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania, Zaire and Zambia - June 1985 image description here File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living at the time of Queen Victoria (reigned 1837 - 1901) in particular, and to the moral climate of Great Britain throughout the 19th century in... Laurence Oliphant (1829 - December 23, 1888), British author, son of Anthony Oliphant (1793-1859), was born at Cape Town. ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Victoria (disambiguation). ... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ...


After the expedition, the two men travelled home to England separately with Speke arriving in London first. Despite an agreement between them that they would give their first public speech together, Speke gave a lecture at the Royal Geographical Society in which he made the claim that his discovery, Lake Victoria, was the source of the Nile. When Burton arrived in London he found Speke being lionised, and felt his own role was being considered as that of sickly companion. Furthermore, Speke was organising other expeditions to the region and clearly had no plans to include Burton. The Royal Geographical Society is a British learned society founded in 1830 with the name Geographical Society of London for the advancement of geographical science, under the patronage of King William IV. It absorbed the Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa (founded by Sir Joseph...


In the subsequent months, Speke did much to attempt to harm Burton's reputation, even going so far as to claim that Burton had tried to poison him during the expedition. Meanwhile Burton spoke out against Speke's claim to have discovered the source of the Nile, saying that the evidence was inconclusive and the measurements made by Speke were inaccurate. It is notable that in Speke's expedition with Grant he made Grant sign a statement saying, amongst other things, "I renounce all my rights to publishing... my own account [of the expedition] until approved of by Captain Speke or the R. G. S. (Royal Geographical Society)".[17]


Speke and Grant undertook a second expedition to prove that Lake Victoria was the true source of the Nile, but again, problems with surveying and measurement meant not everybody was satisfied the issue had been resolved. On 16 September 1864 Burton and Speke were due to debate the issue of the source of the Nile in front of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at that body's annual meeting in Bath. Burton was regarded as the superior public speaker and scholar and was likely to get the better of such a debate. However, the previous day Speke died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound while hunting on a relative's nearby estate. There were no direct witnesses to the shooting, and it has been widely speculated that he might have committed suicide; however, the coroner declared it to be a hunting accident. Burton was at the debate hall in Bath waiting to give his presentation when the news of Speke's death arrived and, considerably shaken, he elected not to give his planned talk. is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Diplomatic service, scholarship, and death (1861–1890)

Richard and Isabel Burton's tomb at Mortlake, Surrey.
Richard and Isabel Burton's tomb at Mortlake, Surrey.
Close up of inscription on the tomb.
Close up of inscription on the tomb.

In January 1861, Richard and Isabel married in a quiet Catholic ceremony although he did not adopt the Catholic faith at this time. Shortly after this, the couple were forced to spend some time apart when he formally entered the Foreign Service as consul at Fernando Po, the modern island of Bioko in Equatorial Guinea. This was not a prestigious appointment; because the climate was considered extremely unhealthy for Europeans, Isabel could not accompany him. Burton spent much of this time exploring the coast of West Africa. Image File history File links Burtontomb1. ... Image File history File links Burtontomb1. ... Image File history File links Burtontomb2. ... Image File history File links Burtontomb2. ... Consulate redirects here. ... Bioko (spelled also Bioco) is an island off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea, formerly called Fernando Pó or Fernando Póo. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


The couple were reunited in 1865 when Burton was transferred to Santos in Brazil. Once there, Burton traveled through Brazil's central highlands, canoeing down the Sao Francisco river from its source to the falls of Paulo Afonso.[18] Motto: Patriam Charitatem et Libertatem Docui (Latin: To the homeland I taught charity and liberty) Location in the state of São Paulo and Brazil Coordinates: , Country Brazil Region Southeast State São Paulo Settled 1546 Incorporated 1839 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Tavares Papa (PMDB) Area  - City 280. ... Rio São Francisco is a river in Brazil with a length of 3,160 kilometres. ... Paulo Afonso is a city in Bahia, Brazil. ...


In 1869 he was made consul in Damascus, an ideal post for someone with Burton's knowledge of the region and customs. However, Burton made many enemies during his time there. He managed to antagonize much of the Jewish population of the area because of a dispute concerning money lending. It had been the practice for the British consulate to take action against those who defaulted on loans but Burton saw no reason to continue this practice and this caused a great deal of hostility. He and Isabel greatly enjoyed their time there and befriended Lady Jane Digby, the well-known adventurer, and Abd al-Kader al-Jazairi, a prominent leader of the Algerian revolution then living in exile. For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Lady Jane Elizabeth Digby (April 3, 1807 – August 11, 1881) was an English aristocrat who lived a life of wild adventure. ... Abd al-Kader (äbdäl-kädēr) , c. ...


However, the area was in some turmoil at the time with considerable tensions between the Christian, Jewish and Muslim populations. Burton did his best to keep the peace and resolve the situation but this sometimes led him into trouble. On one occasion, he claims to have escaped an attack by hundreds of armed horsemen and camel riders sent by Mohammed Rashid Pasha, the Governor of Syria. He wrote "I have never been so flattered in my life than to think it would take three hundred men to kill me."[19]


In addition to these incidents, there were a number of people who disliked Burton and wished him removed from such a sensitive position. Eventually, to resolve the situation, Burton was transferred to Trieste (then part of Austria-Hungary) during 1871. Burton was never particularly content with this post but it required little work and allowed him the freedom to write and travel. For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


In 1863 Burton co-founded the Anthropological Society of London with Dr. James Hunt. In Burton's own words, the main aim of the society (through the publication of the periodical Anthropologia) was "to supply travellers with an organ that would rescue their observations from the outer darkness of manuscript and print their curious information on social and sexual matters". On February 5, 1886 he was awarded a knighthood (KCMG) by Queen Victoria. The Anthropological Society of London was founded in 1863 by Richard Francis Burton and Dr. James Hunt. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ...


He wrote a number of travel books in this period that were not particularly well received. His best-known contributions to literature were those considered risqué or even pornographic at the time and which were published under the auspices of the Kama Shastra society. These books include The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana (1883) (popularly known as the Kama Sutra), The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (1885) (popularly known as The Arabian Nights), The Perfumed Garden of the Shaykh Nefzawi (1886) and The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Night (sixteen volumes 1886– 1898). For other uses, see Kama Sutra (disambiguation). ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ...


Published in this period, but composed on his return journey from Mecca, The Kasidah[20] has been cited as evidence of Burton's status as a Sufi. The poem (and Burton's notes and commentary on it) contain layers of Sufic meaning, and seem to have been designed to project Sufi teaching in the West.[21] "Do what thy manhood bids thee do/ from none but self expect applause;/ He noblest lives and noblest dies/ who makes and keeps his self-made laws" is The Kasidah's most oft-quoted passage. The Kasidah of Haji Abdu El-Yezdi is a long poem written by one Haji Abdu El-Yezdi, who is widely considered an invention by the true author, Sir Richard Francis Burton. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The Kasidah of Haji Abdu El-Yezdi is a long poem written by one Haji Abdu El-Yezdi, who is widely considered an invention by the true author, Sir Richard Francis Burton. ...


Other works of note include a collection of Hindu tales, Vikram and the Vampire (1870); and his uncompleted history of swordsmanship, The Book of the Sword (1884). He also translated The Lusiads, the Portuguese national epic by Luís de Camões, in 1880 and wrote a sympathetic biography of the poet and adventurer the next year. The book The Jew, the Gipsy and el Islam was published posthumously in 1898 and was controversial since it was virulently anti-Semitic in tone and asserted the existence of Jewish human sacrifices. (Burton's investigations into this had provoked hostility from the Jewish population in Damascus, see Damascus affair. The manuscript of the book included an appendix discussing the topic in more detail, but by the decision of his widow it was not included in the book when published). Swordsmanship refers to the skills of a swordsman, a person versed in the art of the sword. ... Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads) is considered one of the finest and most important works in Portuguese literature. ... Monument to Luís de Camões, Lisbon Luís Vaz de Camões (pron. ... For other uses, see Biography (disambiguation). ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Blood libels are the accusations that Jews use human blood in certain aspects of their religious rituals. ... The Damascus affair was an accusation of ritual murder and a blood libel against Jews in Damascus in 1840. ...


Burton died in Trieste early on the morning of 20 October 1890 of a heart attack. His wife Isabel persuaded a priest to perform the last rites, although Burton was not a Catholic and this action later caused a rift between Isabel and some of Burton's friends. It has been suggested that the death occurred very late on 19 October and that Burton was already dead by the time the last rites were administered. is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Isabel never recovered from the loss. After his death she burned many of her husband's papers, including journals and a planned new translation of The Perfumed Garden to be called The Scented Garden, for which she had been offered six thousand guineas and which she regarded as his "magnum opus." She believed she was acting to protect her husband's reputation, and imagined she was instructed to burn the manuscript of The Scented Garden by his spirit, but her actions have been widely condemned.[22]


Isabel wrote a biography in praise of her husband.[23] The couple are buried in a remarkable tomb in the shape of a Bedouin tent at Mortlake in southwest London.[24] Mortlake is a part of south west London between Sheen and Barnes and bounded by the river Thames to the north. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The Kama Shastra Society

Burton had long had an interest in sexuality and erotic literature. However, the Obscene Publications Act of 1857 had resulted in many jail sentences for publishers, with prosecutions being brought by the Society for the Suppression of Vice (Burton referred to the society and those who shared its views as Mrs Grundy). A way around this was the private circulation of books amongst the members of a society. For this reason Burton, together with Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot, created the Kama Shastra Society to print and circulate books that would be illegal to publish in public. Mrs. ... Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot (21 May 1833 – 25 May 1901) was a British Orientalist and translator. ...


One of the most celebrated of all his books is his translation of the The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (more commonly known in English as The Arabian Nights because of Andrew Lang's abridged collection) in ten volumes, (1885) with six further volumes being added later. The volumes were printed by the Kama Shashtra Society in a subscribers-only edition of one thousand with a guarantee that there would never be a larger printing of the books in this form. The stories collected were often sexual in content and were considered pornography at the time of publication. In particular, the Terminal Essay of the Nights was one of the first English language texts to dare address the practice of pederasty which he postulated was prevalent in an area of the southern latitudes named by him the "Sotadic zone." Rumors about Burton’s own sexuality were already circulating and were further incited by this work. Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... For the former National Basketball Association player, see Andrew Lang (basketball). ... This is a list of stories within Richard Francis Burtons translation of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. ... Porn redirects here. ... Pederasty or paederasty (literally boy-love, see Etymology below) refers to an intimate or erotic relationship between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family. ... The existence of a Sotadic zone was a hypothesis of Richard Francis Burton; it asserted that there existed a geographic zone in which homosexuality was particularly prevalent and tolerated, and claimed that within this zone, a homosexual orientation was much more common than outside it. ...


Perhaps Burton's best-known book is his translation of The Kama Sutra. In fact, it is not really true that he was the translator since the original manuscript was in ancient Sanskrit which he could not read. However, he collaborated with Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot on the work and provided translations from other manuscripts of later translations. The Kama Shashtra Society first printed the book in 1883 and numerous editions of the Burton translation are in print to this day. For other uses, see Kama Sutra (disambiguation). ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot (21 May 1833 – 25 May 1901) was a British Orientalist and translator. ...


His English translation from a French edition of the Arabic erotic guide The Perfumed Garden was printed as The Perfumed Garden of the Cheikh Nefzaoui: A Manual of Arabian Erotology (1886). After Richard's death Isabel burnt many of his papers, including a manuscript of a subsequent translation, The Scented Garden, containing the final chapter of the work, on pederasty. It is interesting to note that Burton all along intended for this translation to be published after his death, to provide a competence for his widow,[25] and also, as a final gesture of defiance against Victorian society. The Perfumed Garden by Sheikh Nefzaoui is a sex manual and work of erotic literature. ... Isabel Burton (born Isabella Arundell) (March 20, 1831 - March 21, 1896) was the wife of explorer, adventurer, and writer Sir Richard Francis Burton. ... Pederasty or paederasty (literally boy-love, see Etymology below) refers to an intimate or erotic relationship between an adolescent boy and an adult male outside his immediate family. ...


Scandals in the life of Richard Burton

Burton pictured later in life.
Burton pictured later in life.

Firstly, in a society where sexual repression was the norm, Burton's writing was unusually open and frank about his interest in sex and sexuality. His travel writing is often full of details about the sexual lives of the inhabitants of areas he travelled through and many of these details would have been shocking to the average Briton. Burton's interest in sexuality led him to make measurements of the lengths of the sexual organs of male inhabitants of various regions which he includes in his travel books. He also describes sexual techniques common in the regions he visited, often hinting that he had participated, hence breaking both sexual and racial taboos of his day. Many people at the time considered the Kama Shastra Society and the books it published scandalous. Image File history File links ST-Burton. ... Image File history File links ST-Burton. ... For other uses, see Religion and sexuality (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general; for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ...


Biographers disagree on whether or not Burton ever experienced homosexual sex (he never directly acknowledges it in his writing). Allegations began in his army days when General Sir Charles James Napier requested that Burton go undercover to investigate a male brothel reputed to be frequented by British soldiers. It has been suggested that Burton's detailed report on the workings of the brothel may have led some to believe he had been a customer.[26] Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... General Sir Charles James Napier General Sir Charles James Napier GCB (August 10, 1782 – August 29, 1853) was a British general and Commander-in-Chief in India. ... A brothel, also known as a bordello or whorehouse, is an establishment specifically dedicated to prostitution, providing the prostitutes a place to meet and to have sex with the clients. ...


Burton was accused by some of murdering the boy who caught him urinating in European fashion on the trip to Mecca. Burton denied this, pointing out that killing the boy would almost certainly have led to his being discovered as an imposter. Burton became so tired of denying this accusation that he took to baiting his accusers. A doctor once asked him, "How do you feel when you have killed a man?" Burton retorted, "Quite jolly, what about you?" When asked by a priest about the same incident Burton is said to have replied "Sir, I'm proud to say I have committed every sin in the Decalogue."[27] This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about religious workers. ... For other uses, see Ten Commandments (disambiguation). ...


These allegations coupled with Burton's often-irascible nature were said to have harmed his career and may explain why he was not promoted further, either in army life or in the diplomatic service. As an obituary described: "...he was ill fitted to run in official harness, and he had a Byronic love of shocking people, of telling tales against himself that had no foundation in fact."[28] Ouida reported that "Men at the FO [Foreign Office]... used to hint dark horrors about Burton, and certainly justly or unjustly he was disliked, feared and suspected... not for what he had done, but for what he was believed capable of doing..."[29] Whatever the truth of the many allegations made against him, Burton's interests and outspoken nature ensured that he was always a controversial character in his lifetime. The poet George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron is often referred to simply as Byron. ... Caricature of Ouida (Punch, August 20, 1881) Ouida (January 7, 1839 – January 25, 1908) was the pen name of the English novelist Maria Louise Ramé (although she preferred to be known as Marie Louise de la Ramée). ...


Chronology

Appearances in fiction and drama


Fiction

  • There is a brief reference to Burton in Arthur Conan Doyle's novel The Lost World, which mentions Burton by name in the text but gives no information about him; when Doyle's novel was first published, Burton's exploits were comparatively recent.
  • Philip José Farmer, a science fiction author, featured Burton as one of several protagonists in his Riverworld Saga (1966 – 1993).
  • George MacDonald Fraser also mentions Burton repeatedly in his Flashman series (1969 – 2005) of historical novels (with the narrator, Flashman, usually referring to him as "that rogue Dick Burton").
  • John Dunning includes Burton in his detective fiction The Bookman's Promise (Scribner 2004).
  • Ilija Trojanow, Der Weltensammler, a German language novel features Richard Burton (Hanser 2006) English language translation "The Collector of Worlds" (Faber and Faber 2008).
  • Robert Doherty's Area 51 novels (1997 – 2004) feature Burton as the discoverer of a secret alien race. The books include sections from Burton's writings.
  • Wilkie Collins's detective novel The Moonstone (1859) features a character, Mr. Murthwaite, apparently based on Burton. He is "the celebrated Indian traveller, Mr. Murthwaite, who, at risk of his life, had penetrated in disguise where no European had ever set foot before" (chapter X).
  • Karen Mercury's historical fiction novel The Four Quarters of the World (2006) has a hero based on Burton. After being speared through the jaw in Somaliland, he becomes the right-hand man to the Tewodros II of Abyssinia prior to the downfall of that empire.
  • Richard Burton appears in the steampunk novel Larklight by Philip Reeve, in which he is portrayed as having "gone native" and taken a Martian wife.
  • In The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen novel, Burton is implied to have been a member of a past League.

Film Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... The Lost World is the name of: the Lost World (genre) literary genre. ... Philip José Farmer (born January 26, 1918) is an American author, principally known for his science fiction and fantasy novels and short stories. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Riverworld is a fictional universe and the setting for a series of science fiction books written by Philip José Farmer. ... George MacDonald Fraser, OBE (born 2 April 1926 in Carlisle) is a British author of both historical novels and non-fiction books. ... “Flashman” redirects here. ... John Dunning (born January 9, 1942) is an American writer of detective fiction. ... Detective fiction is a branch of crime fiction that centers upon the investigation of a crime, usually murder, by a detective, either professional or amateur. ... Ilija Trojanow is a Bulgarian-German writer, translator and publisher. ... Area 51 were written by Robert Doherty, the pen name of author Bob Mayer. ... The Area 51 novels are a series of science fiction novels by American author Robert Doherty. ... Wilkie Collins William Wilkie Collins (8 January 1824 – 23 September 1889) was an English novelist, playwright, and writer of short stories. ... For other uses, see Moonstone. ... Tewodros II (also known as Theodore II) (born Kassa Hailu) (1818-1868) was an emperor of Ethiopia. ... For the comic book and the anthology, see Steampunk (comics) and Steampunk (anthology). ... Larklight is a young adult novel by author Philip Reeve. ... Philip Reeve is a bestselling British author and illustrator. ... The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen is a 2003 steampunk/adventure novel by Kevin J. Anderson. ...

  • Mountains of the Moon (1990) (starring Irish actor Patrick Bergin as Burton) related the story of the Burton-Speke exploration and the subsequent controversy over the source of the Nile. This was based on the 1984 novel Burton and Speke by William Harrison.
  • Zero Patience (1993) re-imagines Burton in a contemporary setting as a closeted gay man obsessed with researching the Patient Zero hypothesis of AIDS transmission.

Television Mountains of the Moon was a motion picture released in 1990 based upon the historical journey of Richard Francis Burton and John Hanning Speke to find the source of the Nile. ... Patrick Connolly Bergin (born February 4, 1951) is an Irish actor. ... Zero Patience is a Canadian film directed by John Greyson and released in 1993. ... This article is about sexual orientation. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... In general, the term Patient Zero refers to the central or initial patient in the population sample of an epidemiological investigation. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...

  • In The Sentinel (1996-1999) (starring Richard Burgi and Garett Maggart) a fictional monograph attributed to Richard Burton ("the explorer, not the actor") forms the background of the show's mythology.
  • Search for the Nile, 1971 BBC mini-series featured Kenneth Haigh as Burton
  • On the American television series Lost (episode 4x11, "Cabin Fever"), a photo of Burton appears in the high school locker of a teenaged John Locke.
  • In The Victorian Sex Explorer, Rupert Everett documents Burton's travels. Part of the Channel Four (UK) 'Victorian Passions' season. First Broadcast on 9th June 2008.[30]

The Sentinel was a television series that aired on UPN in the United States from 1996 to 1999. ... Spouse Lori Khan 1995-Present Richard William Burgi (born July 30, 1958 in Montclair, New Jersey) is an American film and television actor. ... Garett Maggart (born 24 May 1969) is an American actor. ... Kenneth Haigh (born March 25, 1930 in Mexborough, Yorkshire) is a British actor. ... LOST redirects here. ... John Locke, also known on the show as Jeremy Bentham, is most often referred to by his surname Locke. He is a fictional character on the ABC television series Lost played by Terry OQuinn. ...

Selected writings of Richard Francis Burton

Burton also wrote a great number of journal and magazine pieces, many of which have never been catalogued. Over 200 of these have been collected in PDF facsimile format at burtoniana.org. The Kasidah of Haji Abdu El-Yezdi is a long poem written by one Haji Abdu El-Yezdi, who is widely considered an invention by the true author, Sir Richard Francis Burton. ... Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot (21 May 1833 – 25 May 1901) was a British Orientalist and translator. ...


Biographies and other books about Burton

A number of biographies of Burton have been written. The following is a list of biographies or books inspired by Burton, concentrating on those which are recent or influential.

W. W. Norton & Company is an American book publishing company that has remained independent since its founding. ... Isabel Burton (born Isabella Arundell) (March 20, 1831 - March 21, 1896) was the wife of explorer, adventurer, and writer Sir Richard Francis Burton. ... Chapman and Hall was a British publishing house, founded in the first half of the 19th century by Edward Chapman and William Hall. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... Headquartered in the legendary Flatiron Building in New York City, St. ... W. W. Norton & Company is an American book publishing company that has remained independent since its founding. ... John Murray is a British publishing house, renowned for the roster of authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Lord Byron and Charles Darwin. ... Charles Scribners Sons is a publisher that was founded in 1846 at the Brick Church Chapel on New Yorks Park Row. ... Sir Philip Christopher Ondaatje, KBE , OC (born February 22, 1933) is a businessman and author. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... Charles Scribners Sons is a publisher that was founded in 1846 at the Brick Church Chapel on New Yorks Park Row. ... G. P. Putnams Sons was a major United States book publisher based in New York City, New York. ...

References

  1. ^ Lovell (1998), p. xvii.
  2. ^ Lovell (1998), p. 1.
  3. ^ Wright (1905), vol. 1, p. 37.
  4. ^ Page, William (1908). A History of the County of Hertford. Constable, vol. 2, pp. 349–351. 
  5. ^ Wright (1905), vol. 1, p. 38.
  6. ^ Wright (1905), vol. 1, p. 52.
  7. ^ The Kasîdah Of Hâjî Abdû El-Yezdî by Richard F. Burton (1870).
  8. ^ Falconry In The Valley of the Indus, Richard F. Burton (John Van Voorst 1852) page 93.
  9. ^ The Life of Captain Sir Richard F. Burton KCMG, FRGS, Isabel Burton (Chapman and Hall 1893), Vol. 1, page 123.
  10. ^ A Rage to Live page 58.
  11. ^ Wright (1905), vol. 1, pp. 119–120.
  12. ^ Discoverers Web: Ludovico di Varthema
  13. ^ Selected Papers on Anthropology, Travel, and Exploration by Richard Burton, edited by Norman M. Penzer (London, A. M. Philpot 1924) p. 30.
  14. ^ A Rage to Live by Mary S. Lovell, (Abacus 1998) page 142
  15. ^ ibid, page 154
  16. ^ The Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile by John Hanning Speke at www.wollamshram.ca (URL accessed 10 April 2006)
  17. ^ A Rage to Live page 341.
  18. ^ Wright (1905), vol. 1, p. 200.
  19. ^ The Life of Captain Sir Richard F. Burton KCMG, FRGS Vol. 1 page 517.
  20. ^ The Kasîdah Of Hâjî Abdû El-Yezdî by Richard F. Burton (1870).
  21. ^ The Sufis by Idries Shah (1964)
  22. ^ Wright (1906), vol. 2, pp. 252–254.
  23. ^ The Life of Captain Sir Richard F. Burton KCMG, FRGS
  24. ^ Burton Tomb Restoration Fund, www.burtonfund.org (URL accessed 10 April 2006)
  25. ^ The Romance of Lady Isabel Burton (chapter 38) by Isabel Burton (1897) (URL accessed 12 June 2006)
  26. ^ Burton, Sir Richard Kama Sutra, p. 14, Park Street Press, 1991 ISBN 0-89281-441-1
  27. ^ The Devil Drives: A Life of Sir Richard Burton by Fawn M. Brodie (W.W. Norton & Company Inc.: New York 1967) p 3.
  28. ^ Obituary in Athenaeum No. 3287, 25 October 1890 page 547.
  29. ^ Richard Burton by Ouida, article appearing in the Fortnightly Review June (1906) quoted in A Rage to Live
  30. ^ [1]Channel Four Victorian Passions/

is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Caricature of Ouida (Punch, August 20, 1881) Ouida (January 7, 1839 – January 25, 1908) was the pen name of the English novelist Maria Louise Ramé (although she preferred to be known as Marie Louise de la Ramée). ...

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Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Burton, Sir Richard Francis.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Persondata
NAME Burton, Richard Francis
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English explorer, translator, orientalist
DATE OF BIRTH 19 March 1821
PLACE OF BIRTH Torquay, Devon, England
DATE OF DEATH 20 October 1890
PLACE OF DEATH Trieste, Austria-Hungary (now in Italy)
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the English town. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...

 
 

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