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Encyclopedia > Richard Trevithick
Richard Trevithick

Richard Trevithick, by John Linnell (1792-1882)
Born April 13, 1771
Cornwall
Died April 22, 1833
Kent
Nationality British
Ethnicity Cornish
Fields inventor, mining engineer
Known for steam locomotive

Richard Trevithick (born April 13, 1771 in Cornwall - died April 22, 1833 in Kent) was a British inventor, mining engineer and builder of the first working railway steam locomotive. Gravel pits of Kensington, 1811-1812. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom concerning British citizenship and other categories of British nationality. ... Joe Cornish, British TV presenter. ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ...

Contents

Childhood and early life

Richard was born at Tregajorran (in the parish of Illogan), between Camborne and Redruth, in the heart of one of the rich mineral mining areas of Cornwall. He was the youngest and the only boy in a family of 6 children. He was very tall and athletic and concentrated more on sport than schoolwork. He was sent to the village elementary school at Camborne and evidently did not take much advantage of the education provided, with the exception of arithmetic, for which he had an aptitude. One of his school masters described him as 'a disobedient, slow, obstinate, spoiled boy, frequently absent and very inattentive'.[1] Illogan is a village and civil parish in the Kerrier district of Cornwall, United Kingdom, not far from Redruth and Camborne. ... , Not to be confused with Cambourne in Cambridgeshire. ... Map sources for Redruth at grid reference SW700420 Redruth (Cornish: Rysrudh) is a town in the south-west of Cornwall, Britain. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835 Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. ...


Trevithick was the son of a mine 'captain' named Richard Trevithick (1735-1797) and a miner's daughter Ann Teague (?-1810), and as a child, he would watch steam engines pump water from the deep tin and copper mines common in Cornwall. For a time he was a neighbour to William Murdoch, the steam carriage pioneer, and would have been influenced by his experiments with steam powered road locomotion.[2] Until that time, such steam engines were of the condensing or atmospheric type, originally invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, and which also became known as low pressure engines. James Watt, on behalf of his partnership with Matthew Boulton, Boulton & Watt, held a number of patents for improving the efficiency of Newcomen’s engine, including the ‘separate condenser patent’ which proved to be the most contentious. // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... William Murdoch. ... For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... Thomas Newcomen (baptised 24 February 1664; died 5 August 1729) was an ironmonger by trade, and a Baptist lay preacher by calling. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... Matthew Boulton. ... The firm of Boulton & Watt, was initially a partnership between Matthew Boulton and James Watt, formed in 1775 to make steam engines at their Soho Foundry in Smethwick, near Birmingham, England. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Steam locomotive condensing apparatus Differs in purpose from the usual closed cycle steam engine condenser, in that its function is primarily either to recover water, or to avoid excessive emissions to the atmosphere, rather than maintaining a vacuum to improve both efficiency and power. ...


Trevithick's first job, at the age of 19, was at the East Stray Park Mine. He was very enthusiastic and quickly gained the status as a consultant, unusual for a person at such a young age. He was popular with the miners because of the respect they had for his father. He worked on building and modifying steam engines to avoid the royalties due to Watt on the separate condenser patent. Another of his projects was the plunger pole pump, a type of pump used with a beam engine and used widely in Cornwall's tin mines, in which he reversed the plunger to change it into a water-power engine. A consultant (from the Latin consultare meaning to discuss from which we also derive words such as consul and counsel) is a professional who provides expert advice in a particular area of expertise such as accountancy, the environment, technology, the law, human resources, marketing, medicine, finance, public affairs, communication, engineering...


Family

In 1797, Trevithick married Jane Harvey of Hayle. Jane was a daughter of John Harvey (ironfounder), formerly a blacksmith from Carnwall Green who formed the local foundry Harveys of Hayle. The company became famous world-wide for building huge stationary 'beam' engines for pumping water, usually from mines, based on Newcomen’s and Watt’s engines. , Hayle (Cornish: ) is a small town, civil parish and cargo port in the Penwith district of Cornwall, England, UK. The parish was created in 1888 from part of the now defunct Phillack parish, with which it was later combined in 1935, and incorporated part of St Erth in 1937. ... A foundry is a factory which produces castings of metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. ... The remains of a beam engine at Wanlockhead A beam engine is a design of stationary steam engine. ...


Their children were Richard Trevithick (1798-1872); Anne Ellis (1800-1876); Elizabeth Banfield (1803-1870); John Harvey Trevithick (1807-1877); Francis Trevithick (1812-1877); and Frederick Henry Trevithick (1816-1881)


The high pressure engine

Trevithick's No. 14 engine, built by Hazledine and Co., Bridgnorth, about 1804, and illustrated after being rescued circa 1885; from Scientific American Supplement, Vol. XIX, No. 470, Jan. 3, 1885.
Trevithick's No. 14 engine, built by Hazledine and Co., Bridgnorth, about 1804, and illustrated after being rescued circa 1885; from Scientific American Supplement, Vol. XIX, No. 470, Jan. 3, 1885.

As he became more experienced, he realised that improvements in boiler technology now permitted the safe production of high pressure steam, and that this could be made to move a piston in a steam engine on its own account, instead of using a pressure of close to one atmosphere in a condensing engine. Download high resolution version (1200x778, 239 KB)Richard Trevithicks high-pressure steam engine, from Scientific American Supplement, Vol. ... Download high resolution version (1200x778, 239 KB)Richard Trevithicks high-pressure steam engine, from Scientific American Supplement, Vol. ... A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ...


He was not the first to think of so-called "strong steam". William Murdoch had developed and demonstrated a model steam carriage, starting in 1784, and demonstrated it to Trevithick at his request in 1794. In fact, Trevithick lived next door to Murdoch in 1798 and 1799. William Murdoch. ... William Murdoch. ...


However, Trevithick was the first to make high pressure steam work, in 1799. Not only would a high pressure steam engine eliminate the condenser but it would allow the use of a smaller cylinder, thus saving space and weight. He reasoned that his engine could now be more compact, lighter and small enough to carry its own weight even with a carriage attached. (Note this did not use the expansion of the steam, so-called "expansive working" came later).


He started building his first models of high pressure (meaning a few atmospheres) steam engines, initially a stationary one and then one attached to a road carriage. Exhaust steam was vented via a vertical pipe or chimney straight into the atmosphere, thus avoiding a condenser and any possible infringements of Watt's patent. The linear motion was directly converted into circular motion via a crank instead of using an inefficient beam. Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... Look up Chimney in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Linear (disambiguation). ... A crank is a bent portion of an axle, or shaft, or an arm keyed at right angles to the end of a shaft, by which motion is imparted to or received from it; also used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating into circular motion. ...


The Puffing Devil

Camborne Hill street name and plaque commemorating Trevithick's steam carriage demonstration in 1801
Camborne Hill street name and plaque commemorating Trevithick's steam carriage demonstration in 1801

Trevithick built a full-size steam road locomotive in 1801 on a site near the present day Fore Street at Camborne, which was also known as Camborne Hill. He named the carriage 'Puffing Devil' and, on Christmas Eve that year, he demonstrated it by successfully carrying several men up Camborne Hill and then continuing on to the nearby village of Beacon with his cousin and associate, Andrew Vivian, steering. This event is believed by many to be the first demonstration of transportation by (steam) auto-motive power and it later inspired the popular Cornish folk song "Camborne Hill". However, others suggest that Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot may have an earlier claim with his steam wagon of 1770, or even that a steam powered car built in 1672 by Ferdinand Verbiest was the first steam-powered vehicle.[3][4] During further tests, Trevithick's locomotive broke down 3 days later, after passing over a gully in the road. The vehicle was left under some shelter with the fire still burning whilst the operators retired to a nearby public house for a meal of roast goose and drinks. Meanwhile the water boiled off, the engine overheated and the whole machine burnt out, completely destroying it. Trevithick however did not consider this episode a serious setback but more a case of operator error. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 736 KB) Summary Fore Street, Camborne, Cornwall, United Kingdom, also known as Camborne Hill, along which en:Richard Trevithick was the first to demonstrate automotive (high pressure steam) power on Christmas Eve, 1801. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 736 KB) Summary Fore Street, Camborne, Cornwall, United Kingdom, also known as Camborne Hill, along which en:Richard Trevithick was the first to demonstrate automotive (high pressure steam) power on Christmas Eve, 1801. ... The Christmas Eve (1904-05), watercolor painting by the Swedish painter Carl Larsson (1853-1919) Christmas Eve, the evening of December 24th, the preceding day or vigil before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the Christmas season. ... Beacon is a small village near Honiton in the county of Devon. ... Andrew Vivian (1759-1842), Cornish mechanical engineer, inventor, and mine captain of the famous Dolcoath Silver Mine in Cornwall. ... Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot (26 February 1725 – 2 October 1804) was a French inventor who is claimed by the French government to have built the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile. ... Father Ferdinand Verbiest (October 9, 1623-January 28, 1688) was a Belgian Jesuit missionary in China. ... Pub redirects here. ... Geese redirects here. ...


In 1802 Trevithick took out a patent for his high pressure steam engine.[5]


Anxious to prove his ideas, he built a stationary engine at the Coalbrookdale Company's works in Shropshire in 1802, forcing water to a measured height to measure the work done. The engine ran at forty piston strokes a minute, with an unprecedented boiler pressure of 145 psi. The company then built a rail locomotive for him, but little is known about it, including whether or not it actually ran. To date the only known information about it comes from a drawing preserved at the Science Museum, London, and a letter written by Trevithick to his friend, Davies Giddy. This is the drawing used as the basis of all images and replicas of the later Penydarren locomotive, as no plans for that locomotive have survived. Coalbrookdale is a settlement in a side valley of the Ironbridge Gorge in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... Work (abbreviated W) is the energy transferred in applying force over a distance. ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in²) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ... Science Museum The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, Kensington, London, is part of the National Museum of Science and Industry. ... The Davies-Gilbert family is one of Britains most prestigious families. ... Penydarren was the fourth of the great ironworks established at Merthyr Tydfil. ...


The London Steam Carriage

The London Steam Carriage, by Trevithick and Vivian, demonstrated in London in 1803.
The London Steam Carriage, by Trevithick and Vivian, demonstrated in London in 1803.

The Puffing Devil was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods, so in fact would have been of little practical use. In 1803 he built another steam-powered road vehicle called the London Steam Carriage, which attracted much attention from the public and press when he drove it that year in London from Holborn to Paddington and back. However, it was particularly uncomfortable for passengers and proved more expensive to run than a conventional horse-drawn carriage and so was abandoned. Download high resolution version (1024x705, 127 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x705, 127 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Holborn (pronounced ho-bun or ho-burn) is a place in London, named after a tributary to the river Fleet that flowed through the area, the Hole-bourne (the stream in the hollow). ... For other places with the same name, see Paddington (disambiguation). ...


The tragedy at Greenwich

Also in 1803, one of Trevithick's stationary pumping engines in use at Greenwich exploded, killing 4 men. Although Trevithick considered the explosion was caused by another case of careless operation rather than design error, the incident was exploited relentlessly by his competitors and promoters of the low-pressure engine, Watt and Boulton, who highlighted the perceived risks of using high pressure steam. Trevithick's response was to incorporate two safety valves into future designs, only one of which could be adjusted by the operator.[6] The adjustable valve comprised a disk covering a small hole at the top of the boiler above the water level in the steam chest. The force exerted by the steam pressure was equalised by an opposite force created by a weight attached to a pivoted lever. The position of the weight on the lever was adjustable thus allowing the operator to set the maximum steam pressure. The second valve was in fact a lead plug critically positioned in the boiler just below the minimum safe water level. Under normal operation the water temperature could not exceed that of boiling water and therefore kept the lead below its melting point. In the event of the water running low, once it had exposed the lead plug the cooling effect of the water was lost and the temperature could rise sufficiently to melt the lead. This would release steam into the atmosphere, reduce the boiler pressure and provide an audible alarm in sufficient time for the operator to damp down the fire and let the boiler cool naturally before any permanent damage could occur This article is about Greenwich in England. ... Explode redirects here. ... Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ... // These water valves are operated by handles. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... For other uses, see Weight (disambiguation). ... For the Portuguese town and parish, see Lever, Portugal. ... A modern fusible plug showing the core of low melting-point metal. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Alarm (disambiguation). ...


The world's first railway locomotive

Line drawing of the locomotive
Line drawing of the locomotive
Trevithick's 1804 locomotive. This full-scale replica of the world's first steam-powered railway locomotive is in Telford Central Station, Telford, Shropshire.

In 1802 Trevithick built one of his high pressure steam engines to drive an automatic hammer at the Pen-y-Darren iron works near Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales. With the assistance of Rees Jones, an employee of the iron works and under the supervision of Samuel Homfray, the proprietor, he mounted the engine on wheels and turned it into a locomotive. In 1803 Trevithick sold the patents for his locomotives to Samuel Homfray. Locomotive made by Richard Trevithick and Andrew Vivian (1801) File links The following pages link to this file: Andrew Vivian ... Locomotive made by Richard Trevithick and Andrew Vivian (1801) File links The following pages link to this file: Andrew Vivian ... Image File history File links On the plaques is the following text: This model was refurbished by the combined efforts of: THE FRIENDS OF TREVITHICK CENTRAL TRAINS EASTERN GENERATION ABB-PCL ENGINEERING KUE ENGINEERING Presented to Central Trains by Frank Trevithick-Okuno on 17th April 1998. ... Image File history File links On the plaques is the following text: This model was refurbished by the combined efforts of: THE FRIENDS OF TREVITHICK CENTRAL TRAINS EASTERN GENERATION ABB-PCL ENGINEERING KUE ENGINEERING Presented to Central Trains by Frank Trevithick-Okuno on 17th April 1998. ... , This article is about the town of Telford, Shropshire. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see Hammer (disambiguation). ... Merthyr Tydfil (Welsh: ) is a town and county borough in Wales, with a population of about 55,000. ... This article is about the country. ...


Homfray was so impressed with Trevithick's locomotive that he made a bet with another ironmaster, Richard Crawshay, for 500 guineas that Trevithick's steam locomotive could haul 10 tons of iron along the Merthyr Tydfil Tramroad from Penydarren to Abercynon, a distance of 9.75 miles (16 km). Amid great interest from the public, on 21 February 1804 it successfully carried 10 tons of iron, 5 wagons and 70 men the full distance in 4 hours and 5 minutes, an average speed of nearly 5 mph (8.0 km/h).[7] As well as Homfray, Crawshay and the passengers, other witnesses included Mr. Giddy, a respected patron of Trevithick and an 'engineer from the Government'.[8] The engineer from the Government was probably a safety inspector and particularly interested in the boiler's ability to withstand high steam pressures. Gamble redirects here. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Merthyr Tydfil (Welsh: ) is a town and county borough in Wales, with a population of about 55,000. ... Tramways are lightly laid railways, sometimes worked without locomotives. ... Penydarren was the fourth of the great ironworks established at Merthyr Tydfil. ... Thorn Hotel, Abercynon Abercynon is a small village in the Cynon Valley, in Rhondda Cynon Taff, Wales. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The locomotive itself was of a very primitive design. It comprised a boiler mounted upon a four wheel frame. At one end, a single cylinder with very long stroke was mounted partly in the boiler, and a piston rod crosshead ran out along a slidebar, an arrangement that looked like a giant trombone. As there was only one power stroke, this was coupled to a large flywheel mounted on one side. The rotational inertia of the flywheel would even out the movement that was transmitted to a central cog-wheel that was, in turn connected to the driving wheels. It again used a high pressure cylinder without a condenser, the exhaust steam being used to assist the draught via the firebox, increasing efficiency even more. These fundamental improvements in steam engine designs by Trevithick did not change for the whole of the steam era. A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. ... Cylinder with piston in a steam engine A cylinder in the central working part of a reciprocating engine, the space in which a piston travels. ... In a piston engine, a piston rod joins a piston to a connecting rod. ... A crosshead bearing (or simply crosshead) is used in large reciprocating engines, whether internal combustion engines or steam engines. ... A stroke is a single action of certain engines. ... Spoked flywheel Flywheel from stationary engine. ... Increasing the mass increases the rotational inertia of an object. ... Spur gears found on a piece of farm equipment A gear is a wheel with teeth around its circumference, the purpose of the teeth being to mesh with similar teeth on another mechanical device -- possibly another gear wheel -- so that force can be transmitted between the two devices in a...

Reverse of £2 coin commemorating Trevithick's locomotive.
Reverse of £2 coin commemorating Trevithick's locomotive.

The bet was won. Despite many people's doubts, it had been shown that, provided that the gradient was sufficiently shallow, it was possible to successfully haul heavy carriages along a "smooth" iron road using the adhesive weight alone of a suitably heavy and powerful steam locomotive. Trevithick's was probably the first to do so;[9] however some of the short cast iron plates of the tramroad broke under the locomotive as they were intended only to support the lighter axle load of horse-drawn wagons and so the tramroad returned to horse power after the initial test run. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (640x640, 323 KB) Summary Photograph of reverse side of £2 coin, which commemorates Trevithicks locomotive. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (640x640, 323 KB) Summary Photograph of reverse side of £2 coin, which commemorates Trevithicks locomotive. ... // Obverse of the commemorative £2 coin The British commemorative two pound (£2) coin was minted from the same composition as the £1 coin, i. ... For other uses, see Gradient (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ... A reconstructed section of flangeway track A plateway is an early kind of railway or tramway or wagonway that started to appear in the century prior to 1830. ...


Homfray was pleased enough. He had won his bet and the engine was placed on blocks and reverted to its original stationary job of driving the hammers. Hearing of the success in Wales, Christopher Blackett, proprietor of the Wylam colliery near Newcastle wrote to Trevithick asking for locomotive designs. These were sent to John Whitfield at Gateshead, Trevithick's agent, who built what was to be Trevithick's second locomotive. Blackett was using wooden rails for his tramway and, once again, Trevithick's machine was to prove too heavy for its track.[10] A stationary engine is an engine that does not move. ... Wylam (IPA pronunciation: ) is a small village approximately 10 miles (16 kilometers) west of Newcastle upon Tyne. ...


In London

Tunnelling under the Thames

In 1805 Robert Vazie, another Cornish engineer, was selected by the Thames Archway Company to drive a tunnel under the River Thames at Rotherhithe. Vazie encountered serious problems with water influx and got no further than sinking the end shafts when the directors called in Trevithick for consultation. The directors agreed to pay Trevithick £1000 if he could successfully complete the tunnel, a length of 1220 feet (366 m). In August 1807 Trevithick began driving a small tunnel 5 feet (1.5 m) high tapering from 2 feet 6 inches (0.75 m) at the top to 3 feet (0.9 m) at the bottom. By 23 December after it had progressed 950 feet (285 m) progress was delayed after a sudden inrush of water and only one month later, at 1040 feet (312 m), a more serious inrush occurred. The tunnel was flooded and Trevithick, being the last to leave, was nearly drowned. Progress stalled and a few of the directors attempted to discredit Trevithick but the quality of his work was eventually upheld by two colliery engineers from the North of England. Despite suggesting various building techniques to complete the project, including a submerged cast iron tube, Trevithick's links with the company ceased and the project was never actually completed. The first successful tunnel under the Thames would be started by Sir Marc Isambard Brunel in 1823, three quarters of a mile upstream, assisted by his son Isambard Kingdom Brunel (who also nearly died in a tunnel collapse). Marc Brunel finally completed it in 1843, the delays being due to problems with funding. However, Trevithick's suggestion of a submerged tube approach was successfully implemented for the first time across the Detroit River in Michigan with the construction of the Michigan Central Railway Tunnel, under the engineering supervision of the The New York Central Railway's engineering vice president, William J. Wilgus. Construction began in 1903 and was completed in 1910. The Detroit–Windsor Tunnel which was completed in 1930 for automotive traffic, and the tunnel under the Hong Kong harbour were also submerged tube designs. A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... , Rotherhithe is a district of south-east London in the London Borough of Southwark. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming in the United States of America. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... Tubing refers to a flexible hose or pipe used in plumbing, irrigation, and other industries. ... Marc Isambard Brunel, engraving by G. Metzeroth, circa 1880 Sir Marc Isambard Brunel, FRS (April 25, 1769 – December 12, 1849) was a French-born engineer who settled in the United Kingdom. ... Isambard Kingdom Brunel, FRS (9 April 1806 – 15 September 1859) (IPA: ), was a British engineer. ... Landsat satellite photo, showing Lake Saint Clair, as well as St. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Michigan Central Railway Tunnel is a railroad tunnel under the Detroit River connecting Detroit, Michigan, USA with Windsor, Ontario, Canada. ... The Detroit–Windsor Tunnel is a highway tunnel connecting Detroit, Michigan in the United States, with Windsor, Ontario in Canada. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ...


"Catch Me Who Can"

Trevithick's steam circus
Trevithick's steam circus

In 1808 Trevithick publicised his steam railway locomotive expertise by building a new locomotive called 'Catch me who can', built for him by John Hazledine and John Urpeth Rastrick at Bridgnorth (beside the River Severn), similar to that used at Penydarren and named by Mr. Giddy's daughter. This was probably Trevithick's third railway locomotive after those used at Penydarren ironworks and the Wylam colliery. He ran it on a circular track south of the present day Euston Station in London, whose site in Bloomsbury has recently been identified archaeologically as that occupied by the Chadwick Building, part of University College London.[11] Admission to the "steam circus" was one shilling including a ride and it was intended to show that rail travel was faster than by horse. This venture also suffered from weak tracks and the interest from the public was limited. Trevithick was disappointed by the response and designed no more railway locomotives. It was not until 1812 that twin cylinder steam locomotives, built by Matthew Murray in Holbeck, successfully started replacing horses for hauling coal wagons on the edge railed Middleton Railway from Middleton colliery to Leeds, West Yorkshire. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... , Bridgnorth is a town in Shropshire, England, along the Severn Valley. ... “Severn” redirects here. ... Euston station, also known as London Euston, is a major railway station to the north of central London and in the London Borough of Camden. ... Bloomsbury may refer to: Bloomsbury, London, an area in the centre of the city the Bloomsbury group, an English literary group active around from around 1905 to the start of World War II. the Bloomsbury Gang, a political grouping centred on the local landowner, John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The Main Building of University College London, including the Octagon (building), Quad, Cloisters and the Wilkins building. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... This article is about coinage. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Matthew Murray was a steam engine and machine tool manufacturer, who designed and built the first commercially viable steam locomotive, the twin cylinder The Salamanca in 1812. ... Holbeck is a district of Leeds, West Yorkshire, through which passes the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. ... // Wagonways are the horses, equipment, and tracks used for hauling wagons which preceded steam powered railways. ... The Middleton Steam Railway is the worlds oldest working railway. ... Middleton is a Leeds district 6 km (4 miles) south of Leeds City Centre. ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation) and Leeds City (disambiguation). ... Coat of Arms of South Yorkshire West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county within the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, that has a population of 2. ...


Trevithick went on to research other projects to exploit his high pressure steam engines: boring brass for cannon manufacture, stone crushing, rolling mills, forge hammers, blast furnace blowers as well as the traditional mining applications. He also built a barge powered by paddle wheels and several dredgers. Brazen redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological substance. ... A factory (previously manufactory) is a large industrial building where goods or products are manufactured. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship or boat propelled by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. ... // For other uses, see Dredge (disambiguation). ...


Trevithick saw opportunities in London and persuaded his wife and 4 children reluctantly to join him in 1808 for two and a half years lodging first in Rotherhithe and then in Limehouse. , Limehouse Town Hall Limehouse is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ...


Nautical projects

In 1808 Trevithick entered a partnership with Robert Dickinson, a West India merchant. Dickinson supported several of Trevithick's patents. The first of these was the 'Nautical Labourer'; a steam tug with a floating crane propelled by paddle wheels. However it did not meet the fire regulations for the docks and the Society of Coal Whippers, worried about losing their livelihood, even threatened the life of Trevithick. TUG is a three-letter acronym which can stand for: Graz University of Technology in Graz, Austria the TeX Users Group The Ultimate Group, an entertainment production company, founded by Chris Stokes Tie Up Games (a form of bondage) For the word tug, see Tug (disambiguation). ... A modern crawler type derrick crane with outriggers. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ...


Another patent was for the installation of iron tanks in ships for storage of cargo and water instead of in wooden casks. A small works was set up at Limehouse to manufacture them, employing 3 men. The tanks were also used to raise sunken wrecks by placing them under the wreck and creating buoyancy by pumping them full of air. In 1810 a wreck near Margate was raised in this way but there was a dispute over payment and Trevithick was driven to cut the lashings loose and let it sink again. A barrel is a hollow cylindrical container, usually made of wood staves and bound with iron bands. ... , Limehouse Town Hall Limehouse is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ... This list of shipwrecks is of those sunken ships whose remains have been located. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... Margate is a town in Thanet, Kent, England (population about 60,000). ...


In 1809 Trevithick worked on various ideas on improvements for ships: iron floating docks, iron ships, telescopic iron masts, improved ship structures, iron buoys and using heat from the ships boilers for cooking. A seal on a buoy in San Diego Harbor A buoy is a stationary floating device that can have various purposes: sea mark - aids pilotage by marking a maritime channel, hazard and administrative area to allow boats and ships to navigate safely. ...


Failure

In May 1810 he caught typhoid and nearly died. By September he had recovered sufficiently to travel back to Cornwall by ship and in February 1811 he and Dickinson were declared bankrupt. They were not discharged until 1814, Trevithick having paid off most of the partnership debts from his own funds. This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their creditors. ...


Back in Cornwall

The Cornish boiler and the Cornish engine

In about 1812 Trevithick designed the ‘Cornish boiler’. These were horizontal, cylindrical boilers with internal sealed fire tubes passing horizontally through the middle. Hot exhaust gasses from the fire passed through the tubes thus increasing the surface area heating the water and improving efficiency. These types were installed in the Boulton and Watt pumping engines at Dolcoath and more than doubled their efficiency. Harriets Pumping Engine house, part of Dolcoath Mine, built in 1860 Dolcoath mine was a tin and copper mine in Camborne in West Cornwall, with its name coming from the Cornish for Old Ground, and was affectionately know as The Queen of Cornish Mines. ...


Again in 1812 he installed a new 'high pressure' experimental steam engine also with condensing at Wheal Prosper. This became known as the 'Cornish engine' and was the most efficient in the world at that time. Other Cornish engineers contributed to its development but Trevithick's work was predominant. In the same year he installed another high pressure engine, though non-condensing, in a threshing machine on a farm at Probus, Cornwall. It was very successful and proved to be cheaper to run than the horses it replaced. It ran for 70 years and was then exhibited at the Science Museum. Threshing is the process of beating cereal plants in order to separate the seeds or grains from the straw. ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... Probus civil parish and village in the Carrick district of Cornwall, in the United Kingdom. ...


The recoil engine

In one of Trevithick’s more unusual projects, he attempted to build a 'recoil engine' based on the famous model built by Hero of Alexandria in about AD 50. This comprised a boiler feeding a hollow axle to route the steam to a catherine wheel with 2 fine bore steam jets on its circumference, the first 15 feet (4.6 m) in diameter and a later model 24 feet (7.3 m) in diameter. To get any usable torque, steam had to issue from the nozzles at very high velocity and in large volumes and it proved not to operate with adequate efficiency. Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (Greek: Ήρων ο Αλεξανδρεύς) (c. ... AD redirects here. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ... Bore, when used in the context of piston engines, is a measurement of the diameter of the holes bored into the engine block for use as cylinders. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... For other senses of this word, see torque (disambiguation). ... This article is about velocity in physics. ...


South America

Draining the Peruvian silver mines

In 1811 draining water from the rich silver mines of Cerro de Pasco in Peru at an altitude of 14,000 feet (4267 m) posed serious problems for the man in charge, Francisco Uville. The low pressure condensing engines by Boulton and Watt developed so little power as to be useless at this altitude, and they could not be dismantled into sufficiently small pieces to be transported there along mule tracks. Uville was sent to England to investigate using Trevithick's high pressure steam engine. He bought one for 20 guineas, transported it back and found it to work quite satisfactorily. In 1813 Uville set sail again for England and, having fallen ill on the way, broke his journey via Jamaica. When he had recovered he boarded the Falmouth packet ship 'Fox' coincidentally with one of Trevithick's cousins on board the same vessel. Trevithick's home was just a few miles from Falmouth so Uville was able to meet him and tell him about the project. This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... Falmouth (Cornish: Aberfal) is a seaport on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, UK. It is both a town and a civil parish. ... A packet ship is a vessel employed to carry Post Office mail packets to and from British colonies and outposts. ...


Trevithick leaves for South America

On 20 October 1816 Trevithick left Penzance on the whaler ship Asp accompanied by a lawyer Page and a boilermaker bound for Peru. He was received by Uville with honour initially but relations soon broke down and Trevithick left in disgust at the accusations directed at him. He travelled widely in Peru acting as a consultant on mining methods. The government granted him certain mining rights and he found mining areas, but did not have the funds to develop them, with the exception of a copper and silver mine at Caxatambo. After a time serving in the army of Simon Bolivar he returned to Caxatambo but due to the unsettled state of the country and presence of the Spanish army he was forced to leave the area and abandon £5000 worth of ore ready to ship. Uville died in 1818 and Trevithick soon returned to Cerro de Pasco to continue mining. However the war of liberation denied him several objectives. Meanwhile, back in England, he was accused of neglecting his wife Jane and family in Cornwall. is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Penzance Harbour and surrounding area as seen from the air Penzance (Cornish: Pensans) is a civil parish and port town in the Penwith district of Cornwall, England, UK. Granted various Royal Charters from 1512 onwards and incorporated in 1614,[2] it has a population of 21,168[1] people and... A whaler (or whale catcher) is a specialized kind of ship, designed for catching whales. ... Cajatambo, Peru, is the capital of the Cajatambo province in the Lima Region of Peru. ...


Crossing the isthmus of Nicaragua on foot

After leaving Cerro de Pasco, he passed through Ecuador on his way to Bogotá in Colombia. The party comprised Trevithick, Gerard, two schoolboys on their way to school in Highgate and seven natives, three of whom returned home after guiding them through the first part of their journey. The journey was treacherous - one of the party was drowned in a raging torrent and Trevithick was nearly killed on at least two occasions. In the first he was saved from drowning by Gerard, and in the second he was nearly devoured by an alligator following a dispute with a local man whom he had in some way offended. In Cartagena Trevithick met Robert Stephenson who was on his way home from Colombia. It had been many years since they last met when Stephenson was just a baby. Stephenson gave Trevithick £50 to help his passage home. He arrived at Falmouth in October 1827 with few possessions other than the clothes he was wearing. Cerro de Pasco (population 70,000) is a city in central Peru. ... For other uses, see Bogotá (disambiguation). ... This article is on the London suburb. ... For other uses, see Alligator (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Cartagena (disambiguation). ... Statue of Robert Stephenson at Euston Station, London Robert Stephenson FRS (October 16, 1803–October 12, 1859) was an English civil engineer. ...


Trevithick's return to England

Trevithick's later projects

Taking encouragement from earlier inventors who had achieved some successes with similar endeavours, Trevithick petitioned Parliament for a grant but he was unsuccessful.


In 1829 he built a closed cycle steam engine followed by a vertical tubular boiler.


In 1830 he invented an early form of storage room heater. It comprised a small fire tube boiler with a detachable flue which could be heated either outside or indoors with the flue connected to a chimney. Once hot the hot water container could be wheeled to where heat was required and the issuing heat could be altered using adjustable doors. Software being used to design HVAC systems HVAC (pronounced either H-V-A-C or, occasionally, H-VAK) is an initialism/acronym that stands for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning. This is sometimes referred to as climate control. ...


To commemorate the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832 he designed a massive column to be 1000 feet (300 m) high, being 100 feet (30 m) in diameter at the base tapering to 12 feet (3.6 m) at the top where a statue of a horse would have been mounted. It was to be made of 1500 10 foot (3 m) square pieces of cast iron and would have weighed 6000 tons. There was substantial public interest in the proposal, but it was never built. The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ...


Trevithick’s final project

About the same time he was invited to do some development work on an engine of a new vessel at Dartford by John Hall, the founder of J & E Hall Limited. The work involved a reaction turbine for which Trevithick earned £1200. He lodged at The Bull hotel in the High Street, Dartford, Kent. After he had been working there about a year, he was taken ill with pneumonia and had to retire to bed at The Bull. After a week's confinement in bed he died on the morning of 22 April, 1833. He was penniless and no relatives or friends had attended his bedside during his illness. His colleagues at Hall's works made a collection for his funeral expenses and acted as bearers and he was buried in an unmarked grave. They also paid a night watchman to guard his grave at night to deter grave robbers as body snatching was common at that time. , Dartford is the principal town in the borough of Dartford. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


Conclusion

Professor Charles Inglis speaking in 1933 at a lecture to the Institution of Civil Engineers to commemorate the centenary of Trevithick's death included the following words: The Institutions headquarters Founded on 2 January 1818, the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) is an independent professional association, based in central London, representing civil engineers. ...


"In the brief period between 1799 and 1808 he totally changed the breed of steam engines, from an unwieldy giant of limited ability he evolved a prime mover of universal application".


One of his four sons, Francis, became Locomotive Superintendent of the Northern division of the London and North Western Railway. The London and North Western Railway (LNWR) was formed in 1846 by the merger of three railway companies - the Grand Junction Railway, London and Birmingham and Manchester and Birmingham. ...


Memorials

Richard Trevithick's statue by the public library at Camborne, Cornwall
Richard Trevithick's statue by the public library at Camborne, Cornwall

Today, to commemorate his achievements, a statue depicting Richard Trevithick holding one of his small scale models, stands beside the public library at Camborne. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 676 KB) Summary Statue of Richard Trevithick in front of the Public Library at Camborne, Cornwall, United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 676 KB) Summary Statue of Richard Trevithick in front of the Public Library at Camborne, Cornwall, United Kingdom. ... Julio Pérez Ferrero Library - Cúcuta, Colombia A modern-style library in Chambéry A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. ...


On 17th March 2007, Dartford Borough Council invited the Chairman of the Trevithick Society, Phil Hosken, to unveil a Blue Plaque at the Royal Victoria and Bull hotel (formerly The Bull) marking Trevithick's last years in Dartford and the place of his death in 1833. The Blue Plaque is prominently displayed on the Hotel's front facade and is clearly visible to visitors to the town.


The Cardiff University Engineering, Computer Science and Physics departments are based around the Trevithick Building which also holds the Trevithick Library, named after Richard Trevithick [12]. The main building of Cardiff University Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cardiff University Cardiff University (Welsh: Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a leading university located in the civic centre of Cardiff, Wales. ...


See also

This is a list of topics related to Cornwall, UK. The Cornwall category contains a more comprehensive selection of Cornish articles. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Hodge, James; Richard Trevithick, Lifelines 6 (2003); Shire Publications Ltd, Risborough, Buckinghamshire HP27 9AA UK; p11
  2. ^ Griffiths, John C (2004), 'William Murdock', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.
  3. ^ SA MOTORING HISTORY - TIMELINE. Government of South Australia.
  4. ^ Setright, L. J. K. (2004). Drive On!: A Social History of the Motor Car. Granta Books. ISBN 1-86207-698-7. 
  5. ^ Rogers, Col. H. C. Turnpike to Iron Road (Seeley, Service & Co. Ltd. London 1961), pp 40 - 44.
  6. ^ Kirkby, R. S. et al., Engineering in History, pp 175 - 177. ISBN 0-486-26412-2.
  7. ^ Rattenbury, Gordon; Lewis, M. J. T. (2004). Merthyr Tydfil Tramroads and their Locomotives. Oxford: Railway & Canal Historical Society. ISBN 0-901461-52-0. 
  8. ^ Rogers, Colonel H. C. OBE, op. cit., pp 40
  9. ^ Kirkby, R. S., et al. op. cit., pp 274 - 275
  10. ^ Richard Trevithick. Spartacus Educational online encyclopaedia. Spartacus Educational. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  11. ^ Tyler, N., 'Trevithick's Circle' Trans. Newcomen Soc. 77 (2007), 101-13.
  12. ^ Trevithick Library

Spartacus Educational - an historical encyclopedia mainly focused on Britain and the U.S.[1] In 1984 Simkin John Simkin established Spartacus Education. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Lowe, J.W., British Steam Locomotive Builders (Guild Publishing, 1989)
  • Hodge, James, Richard Trevithick (Lifelines 6 (2003), Shire Publications Ltd, Risborough, Buckinghamshire HP27 9AA UK).
  • Shelton Kirby, Richard et al., Engineering in History Dover Publications Inc., New York. ISBN 0-486-26412-2
  • Rogers, Colonel H. C. OBE, Turnpike to Iron Road (Seeley, Service & Co. Ltd. London 1961), pp 40 - 44.
  • Anthony Burton , Richard Trevithick: Giant of Steam (Aurum Press, London, 2000) ISBN 1-85410-878-6.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • [1]
Persondata
NAME Trevithick, Richard
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English inventor, engineer and steam locomotive builder
DATE OF BIRTH 13 April 1771
PLACE OF BIRTH Illogan, Cornwall, England
DATE OF DEATH 22 April 1833
PLACE OF DEATH Dartford, Kent, England
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... Penydarren was the fourth of the great ironworks established at Merthyr Tydfil. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Salamanca was the first commercially successful steam locomotive, built in 1812 by Matthew Murray of Holbeck, for the edge railed Middleton Railway between Middleton and Leeds. ... Puffing Billy was an early steam locomotive, constructed in 1813-1814 by engineer William Hedley, enginewright Jonathan Forster and blacksmith Timothy Hackworth for Christopher Blackett, the owner of Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne. ... Wylam Dilly is one of the two oldest surviving railway locomotives in the world;[1] it was built in 1813 by William Hedley and Timothy Hackworth. ... The Steam Horse was constructed by the Butterley Company in Derbyshire in 1813 by William Brunton (1777-1851). ... A 19th Century engraving of the Blucher This article is about the locomotive Blücher. See also Blücher Blücher was an early railway locomotive built in 1814 by George Stephenson for Killingworth Colliery. ... Locomotion No. ... The Stourbridge Lions first run, as depicted by Clyde Osmer DeLand c. ... Contemporary drawing of Novelty Novelty was an early steam locomotive built by John Ericsson and John Braithwaite to take part in the Rainhill Trials. ... The Sans Pareil was a locomotive built by Timothy Hackworth which took part in the 1829 Rainhill Trials on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, held to select a builder of locomotives. ... A contemporary drawing of Rocket Rocket as preserved in the Science Museum, London. ... Perseverance Perseverance was an early steam locomotive that took part in the Rainhill Trials. ... The Rainhill Trials were an important competition in the early days of steam locomotive railways, run in October of 1829 near Rainhill (just outside Liverpool). ... This article is part of a series on the History of rail transport in Great Britain The history of rail transport in Great Britain to 1830 covers the period up to the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the worlds first intercity passenger railway operated solely by steam... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Inventor (disambiguation). ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Illogan is a village and civil parish in the Kerrier district of Cornwall, United Kingdom, not far from Redruth and Camborne. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , Dartford is the principal town in the borough of Dartford. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Richard Trevithick - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (990 words)
Richard Trevithick (born 13 April 1771 in Illogan, Cornwall; died 22 April 1833 in Dartford, Kent) was a British inventor, engineer and builder of the first working steam locomotive.
Trevithick was the son of a mine engineer and as a child would watch steam engines pump water from the deep tin and copper mines common in Cornwall.
Trevithick first demonstrated it in public on Christmas Eve 1801 (his cousin Andrew Vivian at the controls) by having it take friends on short trips through the streets of Camborne.
Richard Trevithick - definition of Richard Trevithick in Encyclopedia (492 words)
Richard Trevithick (13 April 1771 – 22 April 1833) was an English inventor, who was born in Illogan, Cornwall.
Richard Trevithick was the son of a mine engineer, and as a child would watch steam engines pump water out of the deep tin and copper mines which were common in Cornwall.
Trevithick's locomotive had no name and was used at the Pen-y-Darren ironworks near Merthyr Tydfil in Wales, and pulled up to 10 wagons at speeds of around 5 mph (8 km/h).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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