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Encyclopedia > Richard Strauss

Richard Georg Strauss (June 11, 1864September 8, 1949) was a German composer of the late Romantic era and early modern era, particularly noted for his tone poems and operas. Strauss was also a noted conductor. Image File history File links Strauss3. ... Image File history File links Strauss3. ... Strauss or Strauß is a common German surname. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ...

Contents

Life and works

Early life

Strauss was born on June 11, 1864, in Munich, the son of Franz Strauss, who was the principal horn player at the Court Opera in Munich. He received a thorough, but conservative, musical education from his father in his youth, writing his first music at the age of six. He continued to write music almost until his death. is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Franz Strauss (1822–1905) is perhaps most famous for being the father of Richard Strauss, the well-known composer. ... For other uses, see Horn. ...


During his boyhood he had the good fortune to be able to attend orchestra rehearsals of the Munich Court Orchestra, and he also received private instruction in music theory and orchestration from an assistant conductor there. In 1874 Strauss heard his first Wagner operas, Lohengrin, Tannhäuser and Siegfried; the influence of Wagner's music on Strauss's style was to be profound, but at first his father forbade him to study it: it was not until the age of 16 that he was able to obtain a score of Tristan und Isolde. Indeed, in the Strauss household the music of Richard Wagner was considered inferior. Later in life, Richard Strauss said and wrote that he deeply regretted this. Lohengrin is a romantic opera (or music drama) in three acts by Richard Wagner. ... In the Venusberg by John Collier, 1901: a gilded setting that is distinctly Italian quattrocento. ... Siegfried is the third of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ... Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the romance by Gottfried von Straßburg. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ...

In 1882 he entered Munich University, where he studied philosophy and art history, but not music. Nevertheless, he left a year later to go to Berlin, where he studied briefly before securing a post as assistant conductor to Hans von Bülow, taking over from him at Munich when von Bülow resigned in 1885. His compositions around this time were quite conservative, in the style of Robert Schumann or Felix Mendelssohn, true to his father's teachings. His Horn Concerto No. 1 (1882–1883) is representative of this period and is still regularly played. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (880x1293, 507 KB) Summary Published in Modern Music and Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (880x1293, 507 KB) Summary Published in Modern Music and Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ... Hans von Bülow. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ...


Richard Strauss married soprano Pauline de Ahna on September 10, 1894. She was famous for being bossy, ill-tempered, eccentric, and outspoken, but the marriage was happy, and she was a great source of inspiration to him. Throughout his life, from his earliest songs to the final Four Last Songs of 1948, he would prefer the soprano voice to all others. Nearly every major operatic role that Strauss wrote is for a soprano. Pauline Maria de Ahna (4 February 1863 - 13 May 1950) was a German soprano. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Four Last Songs are the final works of Richard Strauss, composed in 1948, at the age of 84. ...


Tone poems

Strauss's style began to change when he met Alexander Ritter, a noted composer and violinist, and the husband of one of Richard Wagner's nieces. It was Ritter who persuaded Strauss to abandon the conservative style of his youth, and begin writing tone poems; he also introduced Strauss to the essays of Richard Wagner and the writings of Schopenhauer. Strauss went on to conduct one of Ritter's operas, and later Ritter wrote a poem based on Strauss's own Tod und Verklärung. For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher born in Gdańsk (Danzig), Poland. ... Tod und Verklärung (Death and Transfiguration) is a tone poem by Richard Strauss. ...


This newly found interest resulted in what is widely regarded as Strauss's first piece to show his mature personality, the tone poem Don Juan. When this was premiered in 1889, half of the audience cheered while the other half booed. Strauss knew he had found his own musical voice, saying "I now comfort myself with the knowledge that I am on the road I want to take, fully conscious that there never has been an artist not considered crazy by thousands of his fellow men." Strauss went on to write a series of other tone poems, including Aus Italien (1886), Tod und Verklärung (Death and Transfiguration, 1888–1889), Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche (Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks, 1894–95), Also sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spake Zarathustra, 1896) — the opening section of which is well known today for its use in Stanley Kubrick's film 2001: A Space Odyssey), Don Quixote (1897), Ein Heldenleben (A Hero's Life, 1897–98), Sinfonia Domestica (Domestic Symphony, 1902–03) and Eine Alpensinfonie (An Alpine Symphony, 1911–1915). A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... Don Juan, op. ... Aus Italien, op. ... Tod und Verklärung (Death and Transfiguration) is a tone poem by Richard Strauss. ... Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche (Till Eulenspiegels Merry Pranks), Op. ... Also sprach Zarathustra, op. ... Kubrick redirects here. ... Don Quixote, Op. ... Ein Heldenleben (literally A Heroic Life, but usually more loosely translated as A Heros Life), op. ... Sinfonia Domestica, op. ... Eine Alpensinfonie (An Alpine Symphony), Op. ...


Opera

Around the end of the 19th century, Strauss turned his attention to opera. His first two attempts in the genre, Guntram in 1894 and Feuersnot in 1901 were considered obscene and were critical failures.[1] However, in 1905 he produced Salome (based on the play by Oscar Wilde), and the reaction was as passionate and extreme as it had been with Don Juan. When it opened at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City, there was such a public outcry that it was closed after just one performance. Doubtless, much of this was due to the subject matter, and negative publicity about Wilde's "immoral" behavior. However, some of the negative reactions may have stemmed from Strauss's use of dissonance, rarely heard then at the opera house. Elsewhere the opera was highly successful and Strauss reputedly financed his house in Garmisch-Partenkirchen completely from the revenues generated by the opera. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (672x1143, 336 KB) Summary Published in Modern Music and Musicians, University Society, New York, 1918 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Guntram is an opera in three acts by Richard Strauss with a German libretto written by the composer. ... Feuersnot (The Need for Fire or Fire Famine) is a Singgedicht (sung poem) or opera in one act by Richard Strauss. ... This article is about the opera by Richard Strauss . ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Garmisch-Partenkirchen (29,875 inhabitants; 01-01-2004) is a market town, and the administrative centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region of Bavaria, Germany, near the border with Austria. ...


Strauss's next opera was Elektra, which took his use of dissonance even further. It was also the first opera in which Strauss collaborated with the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal. The two would work together on numerous other occasions. For these later works, however, Strauss moderated his harmonic language somewhat, with the result that works such as Der Rosenkavalier (The Knight of the Rose, 1910) were great public successes. Strauss continued to produce operas at regular intervals until 1940. These included Ariadne auf Naxos (1912), Die Frau ohne Schatten (1918), Die ägyptische Helena (1927), and Arabella (1932), all in collaboration with Hofmannsthal; and Intermezzo (1923), for which Strauss provided his own libretto, Die schweigsame Frau (1934), with Stefan Zweig as librettist; Friedenstag (1936) and Daphne (1937) (libretto by Joseph Gregor and Zweig); Die Liebe der Danae (1940) (with Gregor) and Capriccio (libretto by Clemens Krauss) (1941). For information about the 1967 opera based on the 1931 Eugene ONeill play based on the Elektra story, see Mourning Becomes Electra. ... Hugo von Hofmannsthal Hugo von Hofmannsthal (February 1, 1874 – July 15, 1929), was an Austrian novelist, librettist, poet, dramatist, narrator, and essayist. ... Der Rosenkavalier (The Cavalier of the Rose) is a comic opera in three acts by Richard Strauss to an original German libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal. ... Ariadne auf Naxos (Ariadne on Naxos) is an opera by Richard Strauss with libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal. ... Die Frau ohne Schatten (The Woman without a Shadow) is an opera in three acts by Richard Strauss with a libretto by his long-time collaborator, the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal. ... Die ägyptische Helena (The Egyptian Helen) is an opera in two acts by Richard Strauss to a German libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal. ... Arabella is an opera (lyric comedy in 3 acts) by Richard Strauss with libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal, their sixth and last common work. ... Intermezzo is a Bürgerliche Komödie mit sinfonischen Zwischenspielen (town comedy with symphonic interludes) or opera in two acts by Richard Strauss to his own German libretto. ... Die schweigsame Frau (in English The Silent Woman) is an opera by Richard Strauss with libretto by Stefan Zweig after Ben Jonsons Epicoene, or the Silent Woman. ... Stefan Zweig Stefan Zweig (November 28, 1881, Vienna, Austria – February 23, 1942, Petrópolis, Brazil) was an Austrian novelist, playwright, journalist and biographer. ... Friedenstag (Peace Day) is an opera in one act by Richard Strauss to a German libretto by Joseph Gregor. ... Daphne is an opera in one act by Richard Strauss to a German libretto by Joseph Gregor. ... Die Liebe der Danae (The Love of Danae) is an opera in three acts by Richard Strauss to a German libretto by Joseph Gregor. ... Capriccio is an opera by German composer Richard Strauss. ... Clemens Krauss (born in Vienna, March 31, 1893 – buried at Mexico City, May 16, 1954) was an Austrian conductor famed for his interpretations of the music of Richard Strauss, Richard Wagner and other German composers. ...


Strauss also made live-recording player piano music rolls for the Hupfeld system, all of which survive today and can be heard. The player piano is a type of piano that plays music without the need for a human pianist to depress the normal keys or pedals. ...


Solo and chamber works

Strauss's solo and chamber works include early compositions for piano solo in a conservative harmonic style, many of which are lost; a rarely heard string quartet (opus 2); the famous violin sonata in Eb which he wrote in 1887; as well as a handful of late pieces. There are only six works in his entire output dating from after 1900 which are for chamber ensembles, and four are arrangements of portions of his operas. His last chamber work, an Allegretto in E for violin and piano, dates from 1940.


Solo instrument with orchestra

Much more extensive was his output of works for solo instrument or instruments with orchestra. The most famous include two horn concerti, which are still part of the standard repertoire of most horn soloists; a concerto for violin; Burleske for Piano and Orchestra; the tone poem Don Quixote, for cello, viola and orchestra; a late concerto for oboe (inspired by a request from an American soldier and oboist, John DeLancie, whom he met after the war); and the duet concertino for bassoon and clarinet, which was one of his last works (1947). Strauss admitted that the Duett Concertino had an extra-musical "plot", in which the clarinet represented a princess and the bassoon a bear; when the two dance together, the bear transforms into a prince. For other uses, see Horn. ... Don Quixote, Op. ... The Concerto in D major for Oboe and Small Orchestra, op. ...


Strauss and the Nazis

There is much controversy surrounding Strauss's role in Germany after the Nazi Party came to power. Some say that he was constantly apolitical, and never cooperated with the Nazis completely. Others point out that he was an official of the Third Reich. Several noted musicians disapproved of his conduct while the Nazis were in power, among them the conductor Arturo Toscanini, who famously said, "To Strauss the composer I take off my hat; to Strauss the man I put it back on again."[2] The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian musician. ...


In November 1933, without consultation with Strauss, Joseph Goebbels appointed him to the post of president of the Reichsmusikkammer, the State Music Bureau. Strauss decided to keep his post but to remain apolitical, a decision which has been criticized as naïve. While in this position he composed the Olympische Hymne for the 1936 Summer Olympics, and also befriended some high-ranking Nazis. Evidently his intent was to protect his daughter-in-law Alice, who was Jewish, from persecution. In 1935, Strauss was forced to resign his position as Reichsmusikkammer president, after refusing to remove from the playbill for Die schweigsame Frau the name of the Jewish librettist, his friend Stefan Zweig. He had written Zweig a supportive letter, insulting to the Nazis, which was intercepted by the Gestapo. By the time he conducted the Olympische Hymne at the Berlin Olympic Stadium in 1936, he was no longer president of the Reichsmusikkammer. Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... Olympische Hymne (Olympic Hymn) is a composition for orchestra and mixed chorus by Richard Strauss. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... Stefan Zweig Stefan Zweig (November 28, 1881, Vienna, Austria – February 23, 1942, Petrópolis, Brazil) was an Austrian novelist, playwright, journalist and biographer. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


His decision to produce Friedenstag in 1938, a one-act opera set in a besieged fortress during the Thirty Years' War – essentially a hymn to peace and a thinly veiled criticism of the Third Reich – during a time when an entire nation was preparing for war, has been seen as extraordinarily brave. With its contrasts between freedom and enslavement, war and peace, light and dark, this work has been considered more related to Fidelio than to any of Strauss's other recent operas. Production ceased shortly after the outbreak of war in 1939. Friedenstag (Peace Day) is an opera in one act by Richard Strauss to a German libretto by Joseph Gregor. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... Fidelio (Op. ...


When his daughter-in-law Alice was placed under house arrest in Garmisch in 1938, Strauss used his connections in Berlin, for example the Berlin Intendant Heinz Tietjen, to secure her safety; in addition, there are also suggestions that he attempted to use his official position to protect other Jewish friends and colleagues. Unfortunately Strauss left no specific records or commentary regarding his feeling about Nazi anti-Semitism, so most of the reconstruction of his motivations during the period are conjectural. While most of his actions during the 1930s were midway between outright collaboration and dissidence, it was only in his music that the dissident streak was, in retrospect, more obvious, such as in the pacifist drama Friedenstag. Heinz Tietjen (June 24, 1881 - November 30, 1967) was a German conductor and music producer born in Tangier, Morocco. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


In 1942, Strauss moved with his family back to Vienna, where Alice and her children could be protected by Baldur von Schirach, the Gauleiter of Vienna. Unfortunately, even Strauss was unable to protect his Jewish relatives completely; in early 1944, while Strauss was away, Alice and the composer's son were abducted by the Gestapo and imprisoned for two nights. Only Strauss's personal intervention at this point was able to save them, and he was able to take the two of them back to Garmisch, where they remained, under house arrest, until the end of the war. Baldur von Schirach Baldur Benedikt von Schirach (May 9, 1907 – August 8, 1974) was a Nazi youth leader later convicted of being a war criminal. ... A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. ...


Strauss completed the composition of Metamorphosen, a work for 23 solo strings, in 1945. It is now generally accepted that Metamorphosen was composed, specifically, to mourn the bombing of Strauss's favorite opera house, the Hoftheater in Munich. Strauss called this "the greatest catastrophe that has ever disturbed my life." However, some scholars suggest that the original intention of the piece was to be a choral setting of Goethe's poem, Niemand wird sich selber kennen. Metamorphosen is a composition for 23 solo strings by Richard Strauss. ...


In April 1945 Strauss was apprehended by American soldiers at his house in Garmisch. He descended the staircase and announced to Lieutenant Milton Weiss of the US Army (who it transpired was also a musician) "I am Richard Strauss, the composer of Rosenkavalier and Salome". Lieutenant Weiss nodded in recognition and another musical American officer placed an 'Off limits' sign on the lawn to protect Strauss.[3]


Final years

In 1948, Strauss wrote his last work, Vier letzte Lieder ("Four last songs") for soprano and orchestra, reportedly with Kirsten Flagstad in mind. She certainly gave the first performance and it was recorded, but the quality of the recording is poor. It is available as a historic CD release for enthusiasts. All his life he had produced lieder, but these are among his best known (alongside "Zueignung", "Cäcilie", "Morgen" and "Allerseelen"). When compared to the work of younger composers, Strauss's harmonic and melodic language was considered somewhat old-fashioned by this time. Nevertheless, the songs have always been popular with audiences and performers. Strauss himself declared in 1947, "I may not be a first-rate composer, but I am a first-class second-rate composer!" The Four Last Songs are the final works of Richard Strauss, composed in 1948, at the age of 84. ... Kirsten Flagstad Kirsten MÃ¥lfrid Flagstad (July 12, 1895 – December 7, 1962) was a Norwegian opera singer. ... Lied (plural Lieder) is a German word, literally meaning song; among English speakers, however, it is used primarily as a term for European classical music songs, also known as art songs. ...


Richard Strauss died on September 8, 1949, in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany at the age of 85. is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Garmisch-Partenkirchen (29,875 inhabitants; 01-01-2004) is a market town, and the administrative centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region of Bavaria, Germany, near the border with Austria. ...


Recordings

Richard Strauss made a number of recordings of his music, as well as music by German and Austrian composers. Harold C. Schonberg in The Great Conductors (New York:Simon and Schuster, 1967) says that, while Strauss was a very fine conductor, he often put scant effort into his recordings.


The 1929 performances of Till Eulenspiegel and Don Juan with the Berlin State Opera Orchestra have long been considered the best of his early electrical recordings; even the original 78 rpm discs had superior sound for their time and the performances were top-notch and quite exciting at times, despite a noticeable mistake by the French horn soloist in the famous opening passage of Till Eulenspiegel. The breaks for side changes, necessitated by the 78 rpm process, are rather curious because Strauss actually repeated a few notes each time the music resumed; careful editing for LP and CD reissues resolved the repetitions as well as the obvious interruptions in the music.


Schonberg focused primarily on Strauss' recordings of Mozart's Symphony No. 40 in G minor and Beethoven's Symphony No. 7 in A, as well as noting that Strauss played a breakneck version of Beethoven's ninth symphony in about 45 minutes. Concerning the Beethoven seventh symphony, Schonberg wrote, "There is almost never a ritard or a change in experession or nuance. The slow movement is almost as fast as the following vivace; and the last movement, with a big cut in it, is finished in four minutes, twenty-five seconds. (It should run between seven and eight minutes.)" Schonberg also complained that the Mozart symphony had "no force, no charm, no inflection, with a metronomic rigidity." “Mozart” redirects here. ...


Peter Gutmann's 1994 review for classicalnotes.com says the performances of the Beethoven fifth and seventh symphonies, as well as Mozart's last three symphonies, are actually quite good, even if they are sometimes unconventional. "The Koch CDs," Gutman wrote, "represent all of Strauss's recordings of works by other composers. (The best of his readings of his own famous tone poems and other music are collected on DGG 429 925-2, 3 CDs.) It is true, as the critics suggest, that the readings forego overt emotion, but what emerges instead is a solid sense of structure, letting the music speak convincingly for itself. It is also true that Strauss's tempos are generally swift, but this, too, contributes to the structural cohesion and in any event is fully in keeping with our modern outlook in which speed is a virtue and attention spans are defined more by MTV clips and news sound bites than by evenings at the opera and thousand page novels."


Koch Legacy has also released recordings of overtures by Gluck, Weber, Cornelius and Wagner. The preference for German and Austrian composers in Germany in the 1920s through the 1940s was typical of the German nationalism that existed after World War I. Strauss clearly capitalized on national pride for the great German-speaking composers. Christoph Willibald Gluck (July 2, 1714 – November 15, 1787) was a German composer. ... Weber is a surname of German origin, derived from the noun meaning weaver. The German pronunciation is IPA: , while in English it is more likely to be pronounced IPA: or . In some cases, following migration to English-speaking countries, it has been anglicised to the English surname Webber or even... Cornelius (fem. ... Wagner may refer to more than one place in the United States: Wagner, South Dakota Wagner, Wisconsin Wagner may refer to more than one person: Richard Wagner, German composer Cosima Wagner, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of Richard Wagner Heinrich Leopold Wagner, dramatist and author John Peter Honus Wagner...


One of the more interesting of Strauss' recordings was perhaps the first complete performance of his An Alpine Symphony, made in 1941 and later released by EMI, because Strauss used the full complement of percussion instruments required in this spectacular symphony. The intensity of the performance rivaled that of the digital recording Herbert von Karajan made many years later with the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... The Berlin Philharmonic rehearsing in the Berliner Philharmonie. ...


There were many other recordings, including some taken from radio broadcasts and concerts, during the 1930s and early 1940s. Undoubtedly, the sheer volume of recorded performances would yield some definitive performances from a very capable and rather forward-looking conductor.


In 1944, Strauss celebrated his 80th birthday and conducted the Vienna Philharmonic in recordings of his major orchestral works, as well as the seldom-heard Schlagobers (Whipped Cream) ballet music. He actually put more feeling into these performances than his earlier recordings, which were recorded on the Magnetophon tape recording equipment (developed primarily by the Germans to record Adolf Hitler's speeches for radio broadcasts). Vanguard Records later issued the recordings on LPs. Some of these recordings have been reissued on CDs by Preiser; given their remarkable fidelity and their above average performances, these performances deserve to be heard. The Vienna Philharmonic (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) is an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ... Magnetophon was the brand or model name of the pioneering reel-to-reel tape recorder developed by engineers of the German electronics company AEG in the 1930s, based on the magnetic tape invention by Fritz Pfleumer. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Vanguard Records was a record label set up in 1950 by brothers Maynard and Seymour Solomon in New York. ...


Principal compositions

  • Detailed listing by opus number

Tone poems

Aus Italien, op. ... Don Juan, op. ... Tod und Verklärung (Death and Transfiguration) is a tone poem by Richard Strauss. ... Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche (Till Eulenspiegels Merry Pranks), Op. ... Also sprach Zarathustra, op. ... Don Quixote, Op. ... Ein Heldenleben (literally A Heroic Life, but usually more loosely translated as A Heros Life), op. ... Sinfonia Domestica, op. ... Eine Alpensinfonie (An Alpine Symphony), Op. ...

Other orchestral works

  • Romance for Clarinet and Orchestra (1879)
  • Symphony in D minor (1880)
  • Concerto in D minor for violin and orchestra, Op. 8 (1882)
  • Concerto No. 1 for horn and orchestra in E flat major, Op. 11 (1882/83)
  • Romance for violoncello and orchestra (1883)
  • Symphony in F minor, Op. 12 (1883)
  • Burleske for Piano and Orchestra (1886-1890)
  • Festive Prelude for orchestra and organ (1913)
  • Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, suite for orchestra Op. 60 (1917)
  • Film music for Der Rosenkavalier (1925)
  • Parergon for Piano left hand and Orchestra, Op. 73 (1925)
  • Panathenäenzug for Piano left hand and Orchestra, Op. 74 (1926-1927)
  • Japanese Festival Music (1940)
  • Concerto No. 2 for horn and orchestra in E flat major (1942)
  • Concerto for Oboe in D major (1945)
  • Duett-Concertino for clarinet and bassoon with string orchestra (1947)

Richard Strausss Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in D minor was written in 1881-1882. ... Le Bourgeois gentilhomme, op. ... In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ... Der Rosenkavalier (The Cavalier of the Rose) is a comic opera in three acts by Richard Strauss to an original German libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal. ... Japanese Festival Music, Op. ... The Concerto in D major for Oboe and Small Orchestra, op. ...

Operas

Guntram is an opera in three acts by Richard Strauss with a German libretto written by the composer. ... Feuersnot (The Need for Fire or Fire Famine) is a Singgedicht (sung poem) or opera in one act by Richard Strauss. ... This article is about the opera by Richard Strauss . ... For information about the 1967 opera based on the 1931 Eugene ONeill play based on the Elektra story, see Mourning Becomes Electra. ... Der Rosenkavalier (The Cavalier of the Rose) is a comic opera in three acts by Richard Strauss to an original German libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal. ... Ariadne auf Naxos (Ariadne on Naxos) is an opera by Richard Strauss with libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal. ... Die Frau ohne Schatten (The Woman without a Shadow) is an opera in three acts by Richard Strauss with a libretto by his long-time collaborator, the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal. ... Intermezzo is a Bürgerliche Komödie mit sinfonischen Zwischenspielen (town comedy with symphonic interludes) or opera in two acts by Richard Strauss to his own German libretto. ... Die ägyptische Helena (The Egyptian Helen) is an opera in two acts by Richard Strauss to a German libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal. ... Arabella is an opera (lyric comedy in 3 acts) by Richard Strauss with libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal, their sixth and last common work. ... Die schweigsame Frau (in English The Silent Woman) is an opera by Richard Strauss with libretto by Stefan Zweig after Ben Jonsons Epicoene, or the Silent Woman. ... Friedenstag (Peace Day) is an opera in one act by Richard Strauss to a German libretto by Joseph Gregor. ... Daphne is an opera in one act by Richard Strauss to a German libretto by Joseph Gregor. ... Die Liebe der Danae (The Love of Danae) is an opera in three acts by Richard Strauss to a German libretto by Joseph Gregor. ... Capriccio is an opera by German composer Richard Strauss. ...

Ballet music

  • Josephslegende (The Legend of Joseph), Op. 63 (1914)
  • Schlagobers (Whipped Cream), Op. 70 (1921/2)

Choral works

  • Zwei Gesänge, Op. 34 (1896/97) - 1. Der Abend 2. Hymne
  • Deutsche Motette, Op. 62 (1913)
  • Die Göttin im Putzzimmer (1935)
  • Männerchöre (1935)
  • An den Baum Daphne (1943)

Other works

Olympische Hymne (Olympic Hymn) is a composition for orchestra and mixed chorus by Richard Strauss. ... Metamorphosen is a composition for 23 solo strings by Richard Strauss. ... The Four Last Songs (German: Vier letzte Lieder) for soprano and orchestra were the final works of Richard Strauss, composed in 1948 when the composer was 84. ...

Media

  • Burleske for Piano and Orchestra
    Performed by Neal O'Doan with orchestra
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

See also

  • Elektra chord

Notes

  1. ^ Ashley, Tim. "Feuersnot". The Guardian (UK), 30 November 2000. Retrieved on 27 October 2007.
  2. ^ Kennedy, Michael. Review of "A Confidential Matter: The Letters of Richard Strauss and Stefan Zweig, 1931-1935". Music & Letters, Vol. 59, No. 4, October 1978. pp. 472-475.
  3. ^ Ross, Alex. "The Rest is Noise: Listening to the 20th Century" (published by Fourth Estate)

is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Sources

  • Michael Kennedy, "Richard Strauss," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980. ISBN 1-56159-174-2
  • Bryan Gilliam: "Richard Strauss", Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed August 19, 2005), (subscription access) (This article is very different from the one in the 1980 Grove; in particular, the analysis of Strauss's behavior during the Nazi period is more detailed.)
  • David Dubal, "The Essential Canon of Classical Music," North Point Press, 2003. ISBN 0-86547-664-0

Selective bibliography

  • Del Mar, Norman (1962). Richard Strauss. London: Barrie & Jenkins. ISBN 0-214-15735-0.
  • Tuchman, Barbara W. (1966, reprinted 1980). The Proud Tower chapter 6. Macmillan, London. ISBN 0-333-30645-7.
  • Gilliam, Bryan (1999). The Life of Richard Strauss. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57895-7.
  • Kennedy, Michael (1999). Richard Strauss: Man, Musician, Enigma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58173-7.
  • Osborne, Charles (1991). The Complete Operas of Richard Strauss. New York City: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80459-X.
  • Wilhelm, Kurt (1989). Richard Strauss: An Intimate Portrait. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01459-0.
  • Youmans, Charles (2005). Richard Strauss's Orchestral Music and the German Intellectual Tradition: the Philosophical Roots of Musical Modernism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34573-1.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Richard Strauss
Persondata
NAME Strauss, Richard
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION German composer and conductor
DATE OF BIRTH 11 June 1864
PLACE OF BIRTH Munich, Bavaria
DATE OF DEATH 8 September 1949
PLACE OF DEATH Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... Victorianism is the name given to the attitudes, art, and culture of the later two-thirds of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Richard Strauss - MSN Encarta (452 words)
Richard Strauss (1864-1949), German composer and conductor, a leading composer for the modern orchestra and a master of composing for the human voice.
Born June 11, 1864, in Munich and educated at the University of Munich, Strauss was the son of an eminent horn player, Franz Strauss, and was trained in music from the age of four.
Strauss also composed more than 100 songs; some of them, such as “Zueignung” (Dedication, 1882-1883) and “Morgen” (Morning, 1893-1894), are of the finest quality.
Richard Strauss - Music Downloads - Online (1417 words)
Strauss was born in Munich, the first child of the second marriage of Franz Joseph Strauss, who was regarded as the greatest French horn player in the world.
Richard Strauss, who could read music before he could read words, received one of the finest and most comprehensive musical educations that it was possible to get.
Strauss' recording career ended with the conclusion of the Second World War--he never got to work during the long-playing or stereo eras, and the only masters that exist on many of those recordings are from less-than-ideal disc sources, but his records hold up remarkably well despite these limitations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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