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Encyclopedia > Richard Stallman
Richard Matthew Stallman

Richard Stallman at DTU in Denmark 2007
Born March 16, 1953 (1953-03-16) (age 55)
New York City, New York
Other names rms
Occupation President, Free Software Foundation
Religious beliefs Atheist[1]
Website
www.stallman.org

Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated "rms",[2] is an American software freedom activist, hacker,[3] and software developer. In September 1983, he launched the GNU Project[4] to create a free Unix-like operating system, and has been the project's lead architect and organizer. With the launch of the GNU Project, he started the free software movement and, in October 1985, set up the Free Software Foundation. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 585 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1683 × 1725 pixel, file size: 1. ... Technical University of Denmark The Technical University of Denmark (Danish: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU)) was founded in 1829 as the College of Advanced Technology (Danish: Den Polytekniske Læreanstalt) belonging to the University of Copenhagen. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... For other uses, see Software developer (disambiguation). ... The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... The free software movement, also known as the free software philosophy, began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ...


Stallman pioneered the concept of copyleft and is the main author of several copyleft licenses including the GNU General Public License, the most widely used free software license.[5] Since the mid-1990s, Stallman has spent most of his time advocating for free software, as well as campaigning against both software patents and what he sees as excessive extension of copyright laws. Stallman has also developed a number of pieces of widely used software, including the original Emacs, the GNU Compiler Collection, and the GNU Debugger. He co-founded the League for Programming Freedom in 1989. The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ... GPL redirects here. ... Free software is software which grants recipients the freedom to modify and redistribute the software. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... Software patent does not have a universally accepted definition. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... This article is about the text editor. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... The GNU Debugger, usually called just GDB, is the standard debugger for the GNU software system. ... League for Programming Freedom (LPF) was founded in 1989 by Richard Stallman to unite free software developers as well as developers of proprietary software to fight against software patents and the extension of the scope of copyright. ...

Contents

Early years

Stallman was born to Daniel Stallman and Alice Lippman in 1953 in New York City, New York. Hired by the IBM New York Scientific Center, Stallman spent the summer after his high-school graduation writing his first program, a preprocessor for the PL/I programming language on the IBM 360. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... IBM New York Scientific Center was a now-defunct research facility in downtown Manhattan. ... In computer science, a preprocessor is a program that processes its input data to produce output that is used as input to another program. ... PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced pee el one) is an imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, and business applications. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ...


During this time, Stallman was also a volunteer laboratory assistant in the Biology Department at Rockefeller University. Although he was already moving toward a career in mathematics or physics, his teaching professor at Rockefeller thought he would have a future as a biologist.[6] For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Founders Hall Rockefeller University is a private university focusing primarily on graduate and postgraduate education research in the biomedical fields, located between 63rd and 68th Streets along York Avenue, on the Upper East Side of Manhattan island in New York City, New York. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


In June 1971, as a first year student at Harvard University, Stallman became a programmer at the AI Laboratory of MIT. There he became a regular in the hacker community, where he was usually known by his initials, "RMS" (which was the name of his computer accounts). In the first edition of the Hacker's Dictionary, he wrote, "'Richard Stallman' is just my mundane name; you can call me 'rms'."[2] Stallman graduated from Harvard magna cum laude earning a BA in Physics in 1974. Harvard redirects here. ... The MIT Artificial intelligence Laboratory was an interdisciplinary research entity at MIT founded in 1959, and one of the most influential and accomplished in the field. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... The Jargon File is a glossary of hacker slang. ... Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ...


Stallman then enrolled as a graduate student in physics at MIT, but abandoned his graduate studies while remaining a programmer at the MIT AI Laboratory. At the end of his first year in the graduate program, Stallman suffered a knee injury that ended the main joy in his life[7] - his participation in international folk dancing, and with it the opportunity it provided for socializing with the opposite sex.[8] Stallman's ensuing despair culminated in social withdrawal; but he found solace in a heightened focus on the area in which his achievements made him most proud - programming. His doctoral pursuits in physics became a casualty of this calling; however, Stallman has since been awarded six honorary doctorates and two honorary professorships.(see list below)


While a graduate student at MIT, Stallman published a paper on an AI truth maintenance system called dependency-directed backtracking with Gerald Jay Sussman.[9] This paper was an early work on the problem of intelligent backtracking in constraint satisfaction problems. As of 2003, the technique Stallman and Sussman introduced is still the most general and powerful form of intelligent backtracking.[10] The technique of constraint recording, wherein partial results of a search are recorded for later reuse, was also introduced in this paper.[10] An Artificial Intelligence technique. ... // Gerald Jay Sussman is the Panasonic Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). ... Constraint-satisfaction problems or CSPs are mathematical problems where one must find states or objects in a system that satisfy a number of constraints or criteria. ... In constraint satisfaction backtracking algorithms, constraint learning is a techinque for imporoving efficiency. ...


As a hacker in MIT's AI laboratory, Stallman worked on software projects like TECO, Emacs, and the Lisp Machine Operating System. He would become an ardent critic of restricted computer access in the lab. When MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS) installed a password control system in 1977, Stallman found a way to decrypt the passwords and sent users messages containing their decoded password, with a suggestion to change it to the empty string (that is, no password) instead, to re-enable anonymous access to the systems. Around 20% of the users followed his advice at the time, although passwords ultimately prevailed. Stallman boasted of the success of his campaign for many years afterward.[11] TECO (pronounced /teekoh/; originally an acronym for [paper] Tape Editor and COrrector, but later Text Editor and COrrector) is a text editor originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the 1960s and was modified by just about everybody. With all the dialects included, TECO may have... This article is about the text editor. ... The original Lisp machine built by Greenblatt and Knight Lisp machines were general-purpose computers designed (usually through hardware support) to efficiently run Lisp as their main software language. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Project MAC, later the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS), was a research laboratory at MIT. Project MAC would become famous for groundbreaking research in operating systems, artificial intelligence, and the theory of computation. ...


MIT's hacker culture declines

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the hacker culture that Stallman thrived in began to fragment. To prevent software from being used on their competitors' computers, most manufacturers stopped distributing source code and began using copyright and restrictive software licenses to limit or prohibit copying and redistribution. Such proprietary software had existed before, and it became apparent that it would become the norm. This shift in the legal characteristics of software can be regarded as a consequence triggered by the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976, as stated by Stallman's MIT fellow Brewster Kahle.[12] Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... The Copyright Act of 1976 is a landmark statute in United States copyright legislation and remains the primary basis of copyright law in the United States. ... Brewster Kahle speaking 20 November 2002 Brewster Kahle (last name pronounced kale, like the vegetable) was an early member of the Thinking Machines team and later went on to found WAIS (sold to AOL) and later Alexa Internet (sold to Amazon. ...


When Brian Reid in 1979 placed "time bombs" in Scribe to restrict unlicensed access to the software, Stallman proclaimed it "a crime against humanity."[13] He clarified, years later, that it is blocking the user's freedom that he believes is a "crime", not the issue of charging for the software.[14] Brian Keith Reid (born 1949) is a computer scientist most famous for developing the Scribe word processing system, the subject of his 1980 doctoral dissertation, for which he received the Association for Computing Machinerys Grace Murray Hopper Award in 1982. ... In Computer Software, a Time-bomb refers to a computer program that has been written in such a way that it will stop functioning after a certain fixed date or time is reached. ... Scribe was a markup language and word processing system, developed by Brian Reid. ...


In 1980, Stallman and some other hackers at the AI Lab were refused the software's source code for the Xerox 9700 laser printer (code-named "Dover"), the industry's first. Stallman had modified the software on an older printer (the XGP, Xerographic Printer), so it electronically messaged a user when the person's job was printed, and would message all logged-in users when a printer was jammed. Not being able to add this feature to the Dover printer was a major inconvenience, as the printer was on a different floor from most of the users. This one experience convinced Stallman of people's need to be free to modify the software they use.[15] Xeroxs former headquarters in Stamford (now headquartered in Norwalk) Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ...


In 1980, Richard Greenblatt, a fellow AI Lab hacker, founded Lisp Machines, Inc. (LMI) to market Lisp machines, which he and Tom Knight designed at the lab. Greenblatt rejected outside investment, believing that the proceeds from the construction and sale of a few machines could be profitably reinvested in the growth of the company. In contrast, the other hackers felt that the venture capital-funded approach was better. As no agreement could be reached, hackers from the latter camp founded Symbolics, with the aid of Russ Noftsker, an AI Lab administrator. Symbolics recruited most of the remaining hackers including notable hacker Bill Gosper, who then left the AI Lab. Symbolics forced Greenblatt to also resign by citing MIT policies. While both companies delivered proprietary software, Stallman believed that LMI, unlike Symbolics, had tried to avoid hurting the lab's community. For two years, from 1982 to the end of 1983, Stallman worked by himself to clone the output of the Symbolics programmers, with the aim of preventing them from gaining a monopoly on the lab's computers.[16] Richard D. Greenblatt is an American programmer. ... Lisp machines were general purpose computers designed (often with hardware support) to efficiently run Lisp as their main language. ... The original Lisp machine built by Greenblatt and Knight Lisp machines were general-purpose computers designed (usually through hardware support) to efficiently run Lisp as their main software language. ... Tom Knight is a senior research scientist in the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, or CSAIL, part of the MIT EECS department. ... Venture capital is a general term to describe financing for startup and early stage businesses as well as businesses in turn around situations. ... ... R. William Gosper, Jr. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ...


However, he was the last of his generation of hackers at the lab. He rejected a future where he would have to sign non-disclosure agreements not to share source code or technical information with other software developers and perform other actions he considered betrayals of his principles. He chose instead to share his work with others in what he regarded as a classical spirit of collaboration. While Stallman did not participate in the 1960s era counterculture, he was inspired by its rejection of the pursuit of wealth as the primary goal of living. A non-disclosure agreement (NDA), also called a confidential disclosure agreement (CDA), confidentiality agreement or secrecy agreement, is a legal contract between at least two parties which outlines confidential materials or knowledge the parties wish to share with one another for certain purposes, but wish to restrict from generalized use. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... Counterculture (also counter-culture) is a sociological word used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day,[1] the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ...


Stallman argues that software users should have the freedom to "share with their neighbor" and to be able to study and make changes to the software that they use. He has repeatedly said that attempts by proprietary software vendors to prohibit these acts are "antisocial" and "unethical".[1] The phrase "software wants to be free" is often incorrectly attributed to him, and Stallman argues that this is a misstatement of his philosophy.[17] He argues that freedom is vital for the sake of users and society as a moral value, and not merely for pragmatic reasons such as possibly developing technically superior software.


In January 1984, Stallman quit his job at MIT to work full-time on the GNU project, which he had announced in September 1983. “MIT” redirects here. ... The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ...


GNU project

Main article: GNU project

Stallman announced the plan for the GNU operating system in September 1983 on several ARPAnet mailing lists and USENET.[18] The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ... GNU is a free software operating system. ... ARPANET logical map, March 1977. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ...


In 1985, Stallman published the GNU Manifesto, which outlined his motivation for creating a free operating system called GNU, which would be compatible with Unix. The name GNU is a recursive acronym for GNU's Not Unix. Soon after, he started a non-profit corporation called the Free Software Foundation to employ free software programmers and provide a legal infrastructure for the free software movement. Stallman is the nonsalaried president of the FSF, which is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded in Massachusetts. The GNU Manifesto was written by Richard Stallman at the beginning of the GNU Project, to ask for participation and support. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... A recursive acronym (or occasionally recursive initialism) is an abbreviation which refers to itself in the expression for which it stands. ... A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... The free software movement, also known as the free software philosophy, began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project. ... 501(c) is a provision of the United States Internal Revenue Code (), listing 27 types of non-profit organizations exempt from some federal income taxes. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


In 1985, Stallman invented and popularized the concept of copyleft, a legal mechanism to protect the modification and redistribution rights for free software. It was first implemented in the GNU Emacs General Public License, and in 1989 the first program-independent GNU General Public License (GPL) was released. By then, much of the GNU system had been completed. Stallman was responsible for contributing many necessary tools, including a text editor, compiler, debugger, and a build automator. The notable exception was a kernel. In 1990, members of the GNU project began a kernel called GNU Hurd, which has yet to achieve the maturity level required for widespread usage. The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... GPL redirects here. ... Notepad is the standard text editor for Microsoft Windows A text editor is a piece of computer software for editing plain text. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... A debugger is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs. ... Build Automation is the act of scripting or automating the process of turning computer source code into binary code. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... Hurd redirects here. ...


In 1991, Linus Torvalds, a Finnish student, used the GNU development tools to produce the Linux kernel. The existing programs from the GNU project were readily ported to run on the resultant platform; most sources use the name "Linux" to refer to the general-purpose operating system thus formed. This has been a longstanding naming controversy in the free software community. Stallman argues that not using "GNU" in the name of the operating system unfairly disparages the value of the GNU project and harms the sustainability of the free software movement by breaking the link between the software and the free software philosophy of the GNU project. Linus Benedict Torvalds   (born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish software engineer best known for initiating the development of the Linux kernel. ... The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... The GNU/Linux naming controversy is a dispute between members of the free and open source software community relating to the normative branding of the computer operating systems commonly referred to as Linux. ... // The free software community is also called the open source community or the Linux community. ... The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ...


Stallman's influences on hacker culture include the name POSIX[19] and the Emacs editor. On UNIX systems, GNU Emacs's popularity rivaled that of another editor vi, spawning an editor war. Stallman's take on this was to jokingly canonize himself as "St. IGNUcius" of the Church of Emacs[20][21] and acknowledge that "vi vi vi is the editor of the beast," while "using a free version of vi is not a sin; it is a penance."[22] POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... This article is about the text editor. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... GNU Emacs is one of the two most popular versions of Emacs (see also XEmacs). ... vi editing a temporary, empty file. ... In hacker culture, the editor war is an ongoing debate in the computer programming community about which text editor is best for general-purpose editing. ... The hacker community has a tradition of treating their favorite text editor with a reverence bordering on religious fanaticism. ... For other uses, see Number of the Beast (disambiguation). ...


A number of developers view Stallman as being difficult to work with from a political, interpersonal, or technical standpoint. Around 1992, developers at Lucid Inc. doing their own work on Emacs clashed with Stallman and ultimately forked the software. Their fork later became XEmacs. An email archive published by Jamie Zawinski documents their criticisms and Stallman's responses.[23] Ulrich Drepper, whom Stallman had appointed to work on GNU libc for the GNU Project, published complaints against Stallman in the release notes for glibc 2.2.4.[24] Drepper accuses Stallman of attempting a "hostile takeover" of the project, referring to him as a "control freak and raging maniac." Eric S. Raymond, who sometimes claims to speak for parts of the open source movement, has written many pieces laying out that movement's disagreement with Stallman and the free software movement, often in terms sharply critical of Stallman.[25] Lucid Incorporated was a supercomputer then a software development company founded by Richard P. Gabriel in 1984, which went bankrupt in 1994. ... In software engineering, a project fork or branch happens when a developer (or a group of them) takes a copy of source code from one software package and starts to independently develop a new package. ... XEmacs, a fork of the GNU Emacs text editor, runs on almost any Unix-like operating system — inside X or in a text terminal — as well as on Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. Any user can download XEmacs as free software available under the GNU General Public License. ... Jamie W. Zawinski (born 1971 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), commonly known as jwz, is a computer programmer responsible for significant contributions to the free software projects Mozilla and XEmacs, and early versions of the proprietary Netscape Navigator web browser. ... Ulrich Drepper is the lead contributor and maintainer of the GNUs C standard library project, Glibc. ... Eric S. Raymond (FISL 6. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... The free software movement, also known as the free software philosophy, began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project. ...


Activism

Richard Stallman giving a speech about "Copyright and Community" at Wikimania (2005)
Richard Stallman giving a speech about "Copyright and Community" at Wikimania (2005)
Richard Stallman giving a speech at WSIS-2005
Richard Stallman giving a speech at WSIS-2005

Stallman has written many essays on software freedom and since the early 1990s has been an outspoken political campaigner for the free software movement. The speeches he has regularly given are titled "The GNU project and the Free Software movement"[26], "The Dangers of Software Patents"[27], and "Copyright and Community in the age of computer networks".[28] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x684, 267 KB) Wikimania 2005, Richard Stallman keynote 2005-08-07 author: Elke Wetzig (User:Elya) File links There are no pages that link to this file. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x684, 267 KB) Wikimania 2005, Richard Stallman keynote 2005-08-07 author: Elke Wetzig (User:Elya) File links There are no pages that link to this file. ... Jimmy Wales speaking at Wikimania Wikimania[1] is a conference for users of the wiki projects operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Look up speech, speaking, utter, gab in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) was a pair of United Nations-sponsored conferences about information, communication and, in broad terms, the information society that took place in 2003 in Geneva and in 2005 in Tunis. ... A poltical campaigner (or political activist) is someone (generally not a politician) involved in politicial campaigning, that is, lobbying the government and politicians on political issues (such as the environment) and encouraging other citizens to do the same. ... The free software movement, also known as the free software philosophy, began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project. ...


In 2006 and 2007, during the eighteen month public consultation for the drafting of version 3 of the GNU General Public License, he added a fourth topic explaining the proposed changes.[29] GPL redirects here. ...


Stallman's staunch advocacy for free software inspired "Virtual Richard M. Stallman" (vrms), software that analyzes the packages currently installed on a Debian GNU/Linux system, and report those that are from the non-free tree.[30] Stallman would disagree with parts of Debian's definition of free software.[31] Debian is a free operating system. ...


In 1999, Stallman called for development of a free on-line encyclopedia through the means of inviting the public to contribute articles. See GNUPedia.[32] GNUPedia (later renamed GNE) was a project to create a free content encyclopedia (licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License) under the auspices of the Free Software Foundation that has been discontinued. ...


In Venezuela, Stallman has delivered public speeches and promoted the adoption of free software in the state's oil company (PDVSA), in municipal government, and in the nation's military. Although generally supportive of Hugo Chávez, Stallman has criticised some policies on television broadcasting, free speech rights, and privacy in meetings with Chávez and in public speeches in Venezuela.[33][34] Stallman is on the Advisory Council of teleSUR, a Latin American television station.[35] Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA) is the Venezuelan nationally owned petroleum company. ... Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (pronounced ) (born July 28, 1954) is the current President of Venezuela. ... For the unrelated telecommunications company in Suriname, see Telesur (Suriname). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This article is about a television transmitting location or company. ...


In August 2006 at his meetings with the government of the Indian State of Kerala, he persuaded officials to discard proprietary software, such as Microsoft's, at state-run schools. This has resulted in a landmark decision to switch all school computers in 12,500 high schools from Windows to a free software operating system.[36] , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... 1. ...


After personal meetings, Stallman has obtained positive statements about the free software movement from the then-President of India, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam,[37] French 2007 presidential candidate Ségolène Royal,[38] and the president of Ecuador Rafael Correa.[39] Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (Tamil: ) (Hindi: ) born October 15, 1931, Tamil Nadu, India, usually referred as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam^ , was the eleventh President of India, serving from 2002 to 2007. ... Marie-Ségolène Royal (born 22 September 1953 in Dakar, Senegal, then a French colony), known as  , (IPA: ) is a French politician. ... Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado (born 6 April 1963 in Guayaquil) [1]is the President of the Republic of Ecuador. ...


Stallman has participated in protests about software patents,[40] DRM,[41][42] and proprietary software. Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ...


Protesting against proprietary software in April 2006, Stallman held a "Don't buy from ATI, enemy of your freedom" placard at a speech by an ATI representative in the building where Stallman works, resulting in the police being called.[43] ATI has since merged with AMD Corporation and has taken small steps to make their hardware documentation available for use by the free software community. ATI Technologies Inc. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... // The free software community is also called the open source community or the Linux community. ...


Stallman has also helped and supported the International Music Score Library Project in getting back online, after it had been taken down on October 19, 2007 following a cease and desist letter from Universal Edition.[44] The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Cease-and-desist is a legal term meaning essentially stop: It is used in demands for a person or organization to stop doing something (to cease and desist from doing it). ... Universal Edition (UE) are a classical music publishing firm. ...


Terminology

Stallman places great importance on the words and labels people use to talk about the world, including the relationship between software and freedom. He untiringly asks people to say "free software", "GNU/Linux", and to avoid the term "intellectual property". His requests that people use certain terms, and his ongoing efforts to convince people of the importance of terminology are a source of regular mis-understanding and friction with parts of the free and open source software community. For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... // The free software community is also called the open source community or the Linux community. ...


One of his criteria for giving an interview to a journalist is that the journalist agree to use his terminology throughout their article.[45] Sometimes he has even required journalists to read parts of the GNU philosophy before an interview, for "efficiency's sake".[46] He has been known to turn down speaking requests over some terminology issues.[47]


Stallman rejects a common alternative term "open-source software" because it does not call to mind what Stallman sees as the value of the software: freedom.[48] Thus it will not inform people of the freedom issues, and will not lead to people valuing and defending their freedom.[49] Two alternatives which Stallman does accept are "libre software" and "unfettered software", however, "free software" is the term he asks people to use in English. For similar reasons, he argues for the term "proprietary software" rather than "closed source software", when referring to software that is not free software. From the early 90s onward, alternative terms for free software have come into common use, with much debate in the free software community. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ...


Stallman repeatedly asks that the term "GNU/Linux", which he pronounces "GNU Slash Linux", be used to refer to the operating system created by combining the GNU system and the Linux kernel. Stallman refers to this operating system as "a variant of GNU, and the GNU Project is its principal developer."[47] He claims that the connection between the GNU project's philosophy and its software is broken when people refer to the combination as merely "Linux."[50] Starting around 2003, he began also using the term "GNU+Linux", which he pronounces "GNU plus Linux". The GNU/Linux naming controversy is a dispute between members of the free and open source software community relating to the normative branding of the computer operating systems commonly referred to as Linux. ...


Stallman argues that the term "Intellectual Property" is designed to confuse people, and is used to prevent intelligent discussion on the specifics of copyright, patent, and trademark laws, respectively, by lumping together areas of law that are more dissimilar than similar.[51] He also argues that by referring to these laws as "property" laws, the term biases the discussion when thinking about how to treat these issues.

These laws originated separately, evolved differently, cover different activities, have different rules, and raise different public policy issues. Copyright law was designed to promote authorship and art, and covers the details of a work of authorship or art. Patent law was intended to encourage publication of ideas, at the price of finite monopolies over these ideas--a price that may be worth paying in some fields and not in others. Trademark law was not intended to promote any business activity, but simply to enable buyers to know what they are buying."[52]

An example of cautioning others to avoid other terminology while also offering suggestions for possible alternatives, is this sentence of an email by Stallman to a public mailing list:

"I think it is ok for authors (please let's not call them "creators", they are not gods) to ask for money for copies of their works (please let's not devalue these works by calling them "content") in order to gain income (the term "compensation" falsely implies it is a matter of making up for some kind of damages)."[53]

Personal life

Stallman has devoted the bulk of his life’s energies to political and software activism.[54] Professing to care little for material wealth, he explains that he has "always lived cheaply… like a student, basically. And I like that, because it means that money is not telling me what to do."[55]


For many years, Stallman maintained no permanent residence outside his office at MIT’s CSAIL Lab,[56] describing himself as a “squatter” on campus.[57] His “research affiliate” position at MIT is unpaid.[58] Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... The Stata Center houses CSAIL and has very unusual architecture. ... This article is about occupying land without permission. ...


In a footnote to an article he wrote in 1999, he says “As an atheist, I don't follow any religious leaders, but I sometimes find I admire something one of them has said.”[1] Stallman chooses not to celebrate Christmas, instead celebrating on December 25 a holiday of his own invention, "Grav-mass." The name and date are references to Isaac Newton, whose birthday falls on that day.[59] For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ...


When asked about his influences, he replied that he admires Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Nelson Mandela, Aung San Suu Kyi, Ralph Nader, and Dennis Kucinich, and commented as well: “I admire Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, even though I criticize some of the things that they did.”[60] Stallman is a Green Party supporter.[2] Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Rangoon, is a pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Burma, and a noted prisoner of conscience and advocate of nonviolent resistance. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney, author, lecturer, political activist, and candidate for President of the United States in five elections. ... Dennis John Kucinich (IPA: ) (born October 8, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic party and a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in both 2004 and 2008. ... FDR redirects here. ... Churchill redirects here. ... This article is about the American political party, Green Party. ...


Stallman recommends not owning a mobile phone,[61] as he believes the tracking of cell phones creates harmful privacy issues.[62]


In a lecture in Manchester, England on May 1, 2008, Stallman advocated paper voting over machine voting, insisting that there was a much better chance of being able to do a "recount" dutifully if there was a paper copy of the ballots.


Stallman enjoys a wide range of musical styles from Conlon Nancarrow[63] to folk;[64] the Free Software Song takes the form of alternative words for the Bulgarian folk dance Sadi Moma. More recently he wrote a take-off on the Cuban folk song Guantanamera, about a prisoner in the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, and recorded it in Cuba with Cuban musicians.[65] He does, from time to time, enjoy more mainstream music as well (including the song "Tell 'Em" by Soulja Boy[66]). Conlon Nancarrow (October 27, 1912 - August 10, 1997) was an American composer who took Mexican citizenship in 1955. ... Folk song redirects here. ... The Free Software Song is a filk song by Richard M. Stallman about free software. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Guantanamera (girl from Guantánamo) is perhaps the best known Cuban song and that countrys most noted patriotic song. ... Gitmo redirects here. ... DeAndre Way (born on July 28, 1990 in Chicago, Illinois), better known by his stage name, Soulja Boy, is an American rapper, best known for the dance and song called Crank That (Soulja Boy). // DeAndre was born in Chicago, Illinois, and moved to Atlanta, Georgia at the age of six. ...


Stallman is a fan of science fiction, including works by the author Greg Egan. He occasionally goes to science fiction conventions[22] and wrote the Free Software Song while awaiting his turn to sing at a convention. He has written two science fiction stories, The Right to Read and Jinnetic Engineering. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Greg Egan (August 20, 1961, Perth, Western Australia) is an Australian computer programmer and science fiction author. ... Science fiction conventions are gatherings of the community of fans (called science fiction fandom) of various forms of speculative fiction including science fiction and fantasy. ... The Right to Read is a short story by Richard Stallman, the founder of the free software movement. ...


A native English speaker, Stallman is also sufficiently fluent in French and Spanish to deliver his two-hour speeches in those languages, and claims a “somewhat flawed” command of Indonesian.[67] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Recognition

Stallman has received the following recognition for his work:

The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation is a private, independent grantmaking institution. ... The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the worlds first scientific and educational computing society. ... Although many awards have added Grace Hoppers name to them since her death in 1992, the original Grace Murray Hopper Awards have been awarded by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) since 1971. ... An Honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum) is a degree awarded to someone by an institution that he or she may have never attended, it may be a bachelors, masters or doctorate degree - however, the latter is most common. ... The Royal Institute of Technology or Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH) is a university in Stockholm, Sweden. ... EFF Logo The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States with the stated purpose of being dedicated to preserving free speech rights such as those protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution in the context of... The EFF Pioneer Award is an annual prize for people who have made significant contributions to the empowerment of individuals in using computers. ... The Yuri Rubinsky Memorial Award (formerly the SoftQuad Award for Excellence) is a prize awarded annually by the Yuri Rubinsky Insight Foundation. ... The Takeda Foundation, is an organisation based in Japan. ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... Founded in 1964, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in the United States provides engineering leadership in service to the nation. ... The Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) is a Flemish university situated in Brussels, Belgium. ... Motto: My wisdom comes from this earth (Mi sabiduría proviene de esta tierra) Fundation: 1972 Kind: Public Principal: Stella M. Pérez de Bianchi Students: 20. ... National University of Engineering (Spanish:Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería) (UNI) is a prestigious engineering and science university in Lima, Peru. ... The University of Pavia is a university in Pavia, Italy. ...

Literary Contributions

Stallman has written and been the subject of several books:

  • Stallman, Richard M; Sussman, Gerald J (November 1975). Heuristic Techniques in Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis CAS-22 (11). IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems. 
  • Stallman, Richard M; Sussman, Gerald J (1977). Forward Reasoning and Dependency-Directed Backtracking In a System for Computer-Aided Circuit analysis. Artificial Intelligence 9, 135–196. 
  • Stallman, Richard M (1981). EMACS: The Extensible, Customizable, Self-Documenting Display Editor. Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT: MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory publication. AIM-519A. 
  • Stallman, Richard M (2002). GNU Emacs Manual: Fifteenth edition for GNU Emacs Version 21. Boston, Massachusetts: GNU Press. ISBN 1-882114-85-X. 
  • Gay, Joshua (2002). Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman. Boston, Massachusetts: GNU Press. ISBN 1-882114-98-1. 
  • Williams, Sam (2002). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. 
  • Stallman, Richard M; McGrath, Roland; & Smith, Paul D (2004). GNU Make: A Program for Directed Compilation. Boston, Massachusetts: GNU Press. ISBN 1-882114-83-3. 
Find more about Richard Stallman on Wikipedia's sister projects:
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Stallman has four topics that he has spoken on often: Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

See also

In modern parlance, the hacker ethic (otherwise known as hacktivism) is either: the belief that information-sharing is a powerful positive good, and that it is an ethical duty of hackers to share their expertise by writing free software and facilitating access to information and computing resources wherever possible; and... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lisp Machine Lisp is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, a direct descendant of MacLisp, and was initially developed in the mid to late 1970s as the systems programming language for the MIT Lisp machines. ... Software hoarding is the creation of proprietary software products based on free software code. ... Promotional poster for two disc edition of Revolution OS Revolution OS is a documentary which traces the history of GNU, Linux, Free Software and the Open Source movement. ...

External links

Free software Portal

Image File history File links Free_Software_Portal_Logo. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Various (1999). "Stallman chapter", Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 1-56592-582-3. Retrieved on 2006-12-09. 
  2. ^ a b c Richard Stallman's homepage. “'Richard Stallman' is just my mundane name; you can call me 'rms'”
  3. ^ On Hacking.
  4. ^ Initial GNU announcement.
  5. ^ Make Your Open Source Software GPL-Compatible. Or Else. (See the list in section 2).
  6. ^ Williams, Sampoydne (2002). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4.  Chapter 3. Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition (accessed on 27 October 2006) and the updated FAIFzilla edition (accessed on 27 October 2006)
  7. ^ Williams, Sam (2002-03-15). "The Emacs Commune", Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software. O’Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.  “Near the end of that first year at MIT, however, disaster struck. A knee injury forced Stallman to drop out of the troupe.”
  8. ^ Williams, Sam (2002-03-15). "Impeach God", Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software. O’Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.  “During the middle of his sophomore year at Harvard, Stallman had joined up with a dance troupe that specialized in folk dances. What began as a simple attempt to meet women and expand his social horizons soon expanded into yet another passion alongside hacking.”
  9. ^ Stallman, Richard M; Sussman, Gerald J (1977). Forward Reasoning and Dependency-Directed Backtracking In a System for Computer-Aided Circuit analysis 135–196. Artificial Intelligence 9.
  10. ^ a b Russell, Stuart; Norvig, Peter (2003). Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 157. 
  11. ^ Levy,S: Hackers, page 417. Penguin USA, 1984
  12. ^ Robert X. Cringely's interview with Brewster Kahle, around the 46th minute
  13. ^ Williams, Sam (2002). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4.  Chapter 6. Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition (accessed on 27 October 2006) and the updated FAIFzilla edition (accessed on 27 October 2006)
  14. ^ Richard Stallman, Live and Unplugged. “Q: You once said "the prospect of charging money for software was a crime against humanity.” Do you still believe this? A: Well, I was not distinguishing the two meanings of free.”
  15. ^ Williams, Sam (2002). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4.  Chapter 1. Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition (accessed on 27 October 2006) and the updated FAIFzilla edition (accessed on 27 October 2006)
  16. ^ Levy,S: Hackers. Penguin USA, 1984
  17. ^ The Daemon, the GNU and the Penguin by Peter H. Salus, accessed on 18 February 2005.
  18. ^ new UNIX implementation
  19. ^ POSIX 1003.1 FAQ Version 1.12 (2006-02-02). Retrieved on 2006-07-16.
  20. ^ Richard Stallman: GNU/Linux and a free society article by Takver Sunday October 10, 2004 at 08:06 AM on Melbourne Indymedia web site.
  21. ^ St IGNUcius web page at www.stallman.org
  22. ^ a b Williams, Sam (2002-03-15). Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software. O’Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-00287-4. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. 
  23. ^ The Lemacs/FSFmacs Schism. Retrieved on 2006-07-16.
  24. ^ Drepper, Ulrich (2001-08-15). glibc 2.2.4 release notes. [email protected] mailing list. Retrieved on 2006-07-16.
  25. ^ Freedom, Power, or Confusion?. Linux Today (2001-08-17). Retrieved on 2006-07-16.
  26. ^ Transcript of Richard Stallman on the Free Software movement, Zagreb; 2006-03-09. FSFE. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  27. ^ IFSO: Richard Stallman: The Dangers of Software Patents; 2004-05-24 (transcript). Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  28. ^ Copyright and Globalization in the Age of Computer Networks - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF). Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  29. ^ GPLv3 - GNU General Public License, version 3. FSFE. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  30. ^ The Virtual Richard M. Stallman package. Debian. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  31. ^ Debian Bug report logs - #221807: "vrms and RMS disagree sometimes....
  32. ^ Richard Stallman. The Free Universal Encyclopedia and Learning Resource. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  33. ^ Stallman, Richard. "Encounter with President Chavez (2004-12-01 to 2004-12-06)". Richard Stallman Travel and Free Software Activities Journal.
  34. ^ Chavez threatens dignitaries.
  35. ^ Chavez TV beams into South America.
  36. ^ The Financial Express: Kerala logs Microsoft out
  37. ^ Richard Stallman Meets the President of India.
  38. ^ Meeting between Ségolène Royal and Richard Stallman.
  39. ^ Success for free software in Latin America!.
  40. ^ Protest in Brussels against software patents.
  41. ^ Protest outside and inside MPAA meeting on DRM.
  42. ^ Protest in France against DRM.
  43. ^ Protest against ATI nearly led to the arrest of RMS. Free Software Foundation page.
  44. ^ Temporary main page of the IMSLP, accessed on May 2, 2008
  45. ^ Leader of the Free World, Wired Magazine, Issue 11.11, November 2003.
  46. ^ Interview with Josh Mehlman, Australian Personal Computer, accessed on 18 February 2005
  47. ^ a b Linux, GNU, Freedom by Richard M. Stallman, accessed on 18 February 2005
  48. ^ Why "Free Software" is better than "Open Source", accessed on 18 February 2005
  49. ^ Why Software Should Be Free. April 24, 1992.
  50. ^ What's in a name? by Richard Stallman, accessed on 18 February 2005
  51. ^ Transcript of Richard Stallman speaking on GPLv3 in Torino (18th March 2006). “Everyone who uses the term "intellectual property" is either confused himself or trying to confuse you.”
  52. ^ Did You Say "Intellectual Property"? It's a Seductive Mirage by Richard M. Stallman, accessed on 18 February 2005
  53. ^ email on Top Policy Issues for Athens
  54. ^ Stallman, Richard. My Personal Ad. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. “My 23-year-old child, the Free Software Movement, occupies most of my life, leaving no room for more children, but I still have room to love a sweetheart.”
  55. ^ Stallman, Richard (2001-05-29). Transcript of Richard M. Stallman’s speech. Free Software Foundation. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  56. ^ Jones, K.C.. A Rare Glimpse into Richard Stallman’s World. InformationWeek.
  57. ^ Lerner, Reuven M (1990-07-18). Stallman wins $240,000 in MacArthur award. The Tech. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  58. ^ Stallman shares Takeda award of nearly $1M. MIT (2001-10-17). Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  59. ^ Celebrate Grav-mass. stallman.org. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  60. ^ FSF India: A Q & A session with Richard M. Stallman. Free Software Foundation of India. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  61. ^ Stallman recommends not carrying a phone.
  62. ^ Stallman's phone dislike.
  63. ^ Bruce Sterling interview.
  64. ^ Humorous bio.
  65. ^ Stallman, Richard M. Guantanamero. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  66. ^ Richard Stallman dances to Soulja Boy Tell 'Em.
  67. ^ WGIG nominees - Richard Stallman. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  68. ^ Grace Murry Hopper award citation.
  69. ^ Richard Stallman Wins Microsoft's Money.
  70. ^ RESOLUCIÓN CS N° 204/04.
  71. ^ Laurea in Ingegneria Informatica a Richard Stallman..
Persondata
NAME Stallman, Richard Matthew
ALTERNATIVE NAMES RMS
SHORT DESCRIPTION American programmer; Activist; Hacker; Free software pioneer
DATE OF BIRTH March 16, 1953
PLACE OF BIRTH Manhattan, New York City
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Open and Shut?: Interview with Richard Stallman (3008 words)
In the 1970s, Stallman was a legendary hacker at MIT's AI Lab.
Richard Stallman was born in Manhattan, NY, in 1953.
In recent years, Stallman has also become a very effective campaigner against corporate and government attempts to allow software to be patented, and he is an energetic and constant critic of digital rights management, which he prefers to call "digital restrictions management".
Richard Stallman - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3196 words)
Richard Matthew Stallman (frequently abbreviated to RMS) (born March 16, 1953) is the founder of the free software movement, the GNU Project, and the Free Software Foundation.
Stallman was simultaneously a volunteer Laboratory Assistant in the biology department at Rockefeller University.
While Stallman did not participate in the counterculture of the 60s, he found inspiring its rejection of wealth as the main goal of life, and this may have played a role in his actions at this time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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