FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Richard Pipes
Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004
Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004

Richard Edgar Pipes (b. July 11, 1923) is an American historian who specializes in Russian history, particularly with respect to the history of the Soviet Union. During the Cold War era he headed Team B, a team of analysts which analyzed the strategic capacities and goals of the Soviet military and political leadership. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (427x640, 38 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Richard Pipes Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (427x640, 38 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Richard Pipes Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The history of Russia is essentially that of its many nationalities, each with a separate history and complex origins. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ...


His son is Middle East academic and analyst Daniel Pipes. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ...

Contents

Career

Richard Pipes was born in Cieszyn, Poland to an assimilated Jewish family. His father was a businessman. By Pipes's own account, during his childhood and youth, he never thought about the Soviet Union; the major cultural influences on him were Polish and German culture. The Pipes family fled occupied Poland in October 1939 and arrived in the United States in July 1940, after a brief period passing through Fascist Italy.[1] Pipes became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1943 while serving in the United States Army Air Corps. He was educated at Muskingum College, Cornell University and Harvard. He married Irene Eugenia Roth in 1946, and had two children with her. His son Daniel Pipes is a scholar and controversial specialist in Middle East history and affairs and a former appointee to the U.S. Institute of Peace. Divided city. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Naturalization is the process whereby a person becomes a national of a nation, or a citizen of a country, other than the one of his birth. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Muskingum College is a selective, private four-year liberal arts college located in New Concord, Ohio, approximately sixty miles east of the state capital of Columbus. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The United States Institute of Peace is an independent, nonpartisan federal institution created by Congress to promote the prevention, management, and peaceful resolution of international conflicts. ...


Pipes taught at Harvard University from 1950 until his retirement in 1996. He was the director of Harvard’s Russian Research Center from 1968 to 1973 and is now Baird Professor Emeritus of History at Harvard University. He acted as senior consultant at the Stanford Research Institute from 1973 to 1978. During the 1970s, he was an adviser to Washington Senator Henry M. Jackson. In 1981 and 1982 he served as a member of the National Security Council, holding the post of Director of East European and Soviet Affairs under President Ronald Reagan.[2] Pipes was a member of the Committee on the Present Danger from 1977 until 1992 and serves on the Council of Foreign Relations. In the 1970s, Pipes was a leading critic of detente, which he described as "inspired by intellectual indolence and based on ignorance of one's antagonist and therefore inherently inept".[3] Harvard redirects here. ... Emeritus (IPA pronunciation: or ) is an adjective that is used in the title of a retired professor, bishop or other professional. ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... Harvard redirects here. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Henry Martin Scoop Jackson (May 31, 1912 – September 1, 1983) was a U.S. Congressman and Senator for Washington State from 1941 until his death. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Reagan redirects here. ... -1... The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is a think tank which describes itself as dedicated to increasing Americas understanding of the world and contributing ideas to U.S. foreign policy. ... For the Spanish amulet, see: Detente bala. ...


Richard Pipes has written 21 books and is a member of several editorial boards.


Team B

Further information: Team B

Pipes was head of the 1976 Team B, composed of civilian experts and retired military officers and agreed to by then CIA director George Bush at the urging of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB) as a competitive analysis exercise.[2] Team B was created as an antagonist force to a group of CIA intelligence officials, known as Team A, and argued that the National Intelligence Estimate on the Soviet Union, generated yearly by the CIA, underestimated Soviet military ambition[4] and misinterpreted Soviet strategic intentions. Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ... Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ... Order: 41st President Term of Office: January 20, 1989–January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican Vice President: Dan Quayle George... Competitive analysis shows how on-line algorithms perform and demonstrates the power of randomization in algorithms. ... National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs), produced by the National Intelligence Council, express the coordinated judgments of the US Intelligence Community made up of 16 intelligence agencies, and thus represent the most authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) with respect to a particular national security issue. ...


A top CIA analyst, defending the CIA's stance, called it "a kangaroo court of outside critics all picked from one point of view."[5] Pipes himself called Team B's evidence "soft."[2] Team B came to the conclusion that the Soviets had developed several new weapons, featuring a nuclear-armed submarine fleet that used a sonar system that didn't depend on sound and was, thus, undetectable by existing technology.[6] The information Team B produced was later determined to be false. According to Dr. Anne Cahn in 2004 (Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 1977-1980) "I would say that all of it was fantasy... if you go through most of Team B's specific allegations about weapons systems, and you just examine them one by one, they were all wrong."[7][8] Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ... Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ...


Pipes himself emphasizes the other aspects of Team B's conclusions, which were better founded: "We dealt with one problem only: What is the Soviet strategy for nuclear weapons? Team B was appointed to look at the evidence and to see if we could conclude that the actual Soviet strategy is different from ours. It's now demonstrated totally, completely, that it was," he said, using the example that documents in Polish archives that show the Soviets planning to use nuclear weapons in the event of war. For example, in a Commentary article, he argued that the A team was subject to 'mirror-imaging' (a common problem in intelligence research and analysis) [thinking that the other side necessarily thought the same as your side]; in particular he argued that Team B showed Soviet development of high-yield, accurate MIRV'ed warheads for ICBMs was inconsistent with city-hostage principles of MAD, implying Soviet first-strike plans.[5] In 1986, Pipes said that history shows that Team B overall contributed to creating more realistic estimates.[9]


Other members of Team B included Daniel O. Graham and Thomas Wolf. Its advisors included future Undersecretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz and Paul Nitze. Daniel O. Graham was a U.S. Army officer. ... Thomas Clayton Wolfe (October 3, 1900–September 15, 1938) was a famous American novelist. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated as DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships. ... Paul Nitze Paul Henry Nitze (January 16, 1907 – October 19, 2004) was a high-ranking United States government official who helped shape Cold War defense policy over the course of numerous presidential administrations. ...


Writings on Russian history

Pipes has written many books on Russian history, including Russia under the Old Regime (1974), The Russian Revolution (1990) and Russia Under the Bolshevik Regime (1994), and has been a frequent and prominent interviewee in the press on the matters of Soviet history and foreign affairs. His writings also appear in Commentary, The New York Times and The Times Literary Supplement". The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs. ... The History of the Soviet Union begins with the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Once a pariah denied diplomatic recognition by most countries, the Soviet Union had official relations with the majority of the nations of the world by the late 1980s. ... Commentary Magazine is a journal published by the American Jewish Committee, since 1945. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


Pipes is famous for arguing that the origins of the Soviet Union can be traced to the separate path taken by 15th century Muscovy in a Russian version of the Sonderweg thesis. In Pipes' opinion, Muscovy differed from every state in Europe in that there was no concept of private property in Muscovy, and that everything was regarded as the property of the Grand Duke/Tsar. In Pipes' view, this separate path undertaken by Russia ensured that Russia would always be an autocratic state with values fundamentally dissimilar to the values of Western civilization. Pipes has argued that this "patrimonialism" of Imperial Russia started to break down when Russian leaders attempted to modernize in the 19th century without seeking however to change the basic "patrimonial" structure of Russian society. In Pipes's opinion, this separate course undertaken by Russia over the centuries left Russia uniquely open to what Pipes sees as a communist hijacking in 1917. Pipes has strongly criticized the values of the radical intelligentsia of later Imperial Russia for what he sees as their unreasoning fanaticism and socialism, and inability to accept reality. The Russian writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn has often denounced Pipes' work as "the Polish version of Russian history". Pipes, in his turn, has often accused Solzhenitsyn of being an anti-Semitic Russian ultra-nationalist, who in Pipes' opinion seeks to blame the ills of Communism on the Jews rather than to admit to the Russian roots of the Soviet Union. Writing of Solzhenitsyn's novel, August 1914 in the New York Times on November 13, 1985, Pipes commented: "Every culture has its own brand of anti-Semitism. In Solzhenitsyn's case, it's not racial. It has nothing to do with blood. He's certainly not a racist; the question is fundamentally religious and cultural. He bears some resemblance to Dostoevsky, who was a fervent Christian and patriot and a rabid anti-Semitic. Solzhenitsyn is unquestionably in the grip of the Russian extreme right's view of the Revolution, which is that it was the doing of the Jews".[10] Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Sonderweg, (literally: sonder= special, weg= path) is a theory in historiography that considers the German-speaking lands, or the country Germany, to have followed its own, unique course through its evolution and history, separate from other European countries: therefore, a route of development which is special or an alternative. In... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: , IPA:  ; born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


From the left, criticism of Pipes’s interpretation of the events of 1917 has come from a number of social historians, such as Lynne Viola and Sheila Fitzpatrick, who contend that there were wider social movements involving workers, sailors, peasants, and soldiers at work in 1917 and that Pipes has focused too narrowly on intellectuals as causal agents. Pipes in his turn has often criticized both Viola and Fitzpatrick as generalizing and implicitly as being apologists for Soviet terror. Terror is a pronounced state of fear, an overwhelming sense of imminent danger. ...


Pipes has argued that the Soviet Union was an expansionist, totalitarian state bent on world conquest. He is also notable for his thesis that, contrary to many traditional histories of the USSR at the time, the "October Revolution" was, rather than a popular general uprising, a coup foisted upon the majority of the Russian population (and national minorities) by a tiny segment of the population driven by a select group of intellectuals who subsequently established a one-party dictatorship which was intolerant and repressive from the start, rather than having deviated from an initially benign course. In Pipes's view, the Russian Revolution of 1917 was a total disaster, as it allowed what he regards as the small section of the "fanatical" intelligentsia to carry out policies that in Pipes' opinion were completely unrealistic from the beginning. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub- group that forms less than half of the population, and — as a rule — is outnumbered by at least one other sub-group. ... Literati redirects here. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...


Pipes is a leading advocate of the totalitarianism school that sees Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union as being fundamentally similar regimes pursuing similar policies that, in fact, collaborated in a few essential respects. Citing the work of such historians as James Gregor, Henry Ashby Turner, Renzo De Felice, Karl Dietrich Bracher, Ernst Nolte and David Schoenbaum together with the work of Hermann Rauschning, Pipes, in a chapter in his book Russia Under The Bolshevik Regime, argued that there is no such thing as generic fascism, and that the Third Reich, the Soviet Union and Fascist Italy were all totalitarian regimes united by their antipathy to democracy. Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A. James Gregor is a Professor of Political Science at UC Berkeley who is well known for his views on race as well as fascism and security issues. ... Henry Ashby Turner, Jr. ... Renzo De Felice (1929-May 1996) was a Italian historian of Fascism. ... Karl Dietrich Bracher (born 13 March 1922) is a German political scientist and historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. ... Ernst Nolte (born 11 January 1923, Witten, Germany) is a nationalistic German historian and philosopher, often described as one of the most brooding, German thinkers about history[1]. Nolte’s major interest is the comparative studies of fascism and Communism. ... David Schoenbaum (born 1935, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) is an American social scientist, historian. ... Hermann Rauschning (7 August 1887, Thorn, Imperial Germany (present ToruÅ„, Poland) — February 1982, Portland, Oregon, United States) was a German conservative and reactionary who joined the Nazi Party, and became the president of the Danzig Senate. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


Richard Pipes, in an off-the-record interview, told Reuters in March 1981 that "Soviet leaders would have to choose between peacefully changing their Communist system in the direction followed by the West or going to war. There is no other alternative and it could go either way… Detente is dead.” Pipes also stated in the interview that Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher of West Germany was susceptible to pressure from the Soviets. It was learned independently that Pipes was the official who spoke to Reuters. This potentially jeopardized Pipes's job. The White House and the “incensed” State Department issued statements repudiating Pipes's statements.[11] Pipes, however, stayed on for a full two years, after which he returned to Harvard because his leave of absence had concluded. George H. W. Bush and Hans-Dietrich Genscher, November 21st, 1989. ...


In 1992, Pipes was an expert witness in the Russian Constitutional Court’s trial of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.


Honors

Pipes has an extensive list of honors, including: Honorary Consul of the Republic of Georgia, Foreign Member of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, Commander’s Cross of Merit of the Republic of Poland, Honorary DHL at Adelphi College, Honorary LLD at Muskingum College, Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Silesia, Annual Spring Lecturer of the Norwegian Nobel Peace Institute, Walter Channing Cabot Fellow of Harvard University, Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Guggenheim Fellow, Fellow of the American Council of Learned Societies and recipient of the George Louis Beer Prize of the American Historical Association.[12] He received one of the 2007 National Humanities Medal[13][14] The Polish Academy of Learning (Polish: Polska Akademia UmiejÄ™tnoÅ›ci), headquartered in Kraków, is one of two institutions in contemporary Poland, having the nature of an academy of sciences. ... Adelphi University is a private college located in Garden City, in Nassau County, New York. ... Muskingum College is a selective, private four-year liberal arts college located in New Concord, Ohio, approximately sixty miles east of the state capital of Columbus. ... Historical Background The University of Silesia was established in Katowice in 1968 as the nineth university in Poland and is an autonomous state university. ... Harvard redirects here. ... The House of the Academy, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (CASBS) is an American interdisciplinary research body in Stanford, California. ... Guggenheim Fellowships are awarded annually by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation to those who have demonstrated exceptional capacity for productive scholarship or exceptional creative ability in the arts. ... The American Council of Learned Societies, founded in 1919, is a private non-profit federation of sixty-eight scholarly organizations. ... The American Historical Association (AHA) is a society of historians and teachers of history founded in 1884 and incorporated by the United States Congress in 1889. ... The National Humanities Medal honors individuals or groups whose work has deepened the nation’s understanding of the humanities, broadened citizens’ engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand Americans’ access to important resources in the humanities. ...


Works

  • The Formation of the Soviet Union, Communism and Nationalism, 1917-1923 (1954)
  • The Russian Intelligentsia (1961)
  • Social Democracy and the St. Petersburg Labor Movement, 1885-1897 (1963)
  • Struve, Liberal on the Left (1970)
  • Russia Under the Old Regime (1974)
  • Soviet Strategy in Europe (1976)
  • Struve, Liberal on the Right, 1905-1944 (1980)
  • U.S.-Soviet Relations in the Era of Détente: a Tragedy of Errors (1981)
  • Survival is Not Enough: Soviet Realities and America's Future (1984)
  • Russia Observed: Collected Essays on Russian and Soviet History (1989)
  • The Russian Revolution (1990)
  • Russia Under the Bolshevik Regime: 1919-1924 (1993)
  • Communism, the Vanished Specter (1994)
  • A Concise History of the Russian Revolution (1995)
  • The Three "Whys" of the Russian Revolution (1995)
  • The Unknown Lenin: From the Secret Archive (1996)
  • Property and Freedom (1999)
  • Communism: A History (2001)
  • Vixi: Memoirs of a Non-Belonger (2003)
  • The Degaev Affair: Terror and Treason in Tsarist Russia (2003)
  • Russian Conservatism and Its Critics (2006)

Peter Bergardovich Struve (1870 - 1944) was a Russian political economist and Marxist. ... Peter Bergardovich Struve (1870 - 1944) was a Russian political economist and Marxist. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Romano, Sergio (2005). Memorie di un conservatore. TEA, p. 180. ISBN 88-304-2128-6. 
    *Notes on Professor Richard Pipes. www.persiancarpetguide.com. Retrieved on January 28, 2006.
  2. ^ a b c Press, Eyal. "Neocon man: Daniel Pipes has made his name inveighing against an academy overrun by political extremists but he is nothing if not extreme in his own views.", The Nation, May 2004. Retrieved on 2007-08-17. 
  3. ^ Bogle, Lori Lyn "Pipes, Richard" page 922.
  4. ^ Betts, Richard K. and Mahnken, Thomas G. Paradoxes of Strategic Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Michael I. Handel. 2003, page 68.
  5. ^ a b The Hard Liner: Harvard historian Richard Pipes shaped the Reagan administration's aggressive approach to the Soviet Union.. Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2006-07-30.
  6. ^ "Anatomy of a Neo-Conservative White House" (May 1, 2005). Canadian Dimension 39 (03): 46. 
  7. ^ Goodman, Melvin A. (November 19, 2004). "Righting the CIA". The Baltimore Sun. 
  8. ^ Hartmann, Thom (December 7 2004). "Hyping Terror For Fun, Profit - And Power". CommonDreams.org. 
  9. ^ Team B: The Reality Behind the Myth. Commentary Magazine. Retrieved on 2006-07-30.
  10. ^ Thomas, D.M. Alexander Solzhenitsyn St. Martin's Press, New York, New York, United States of America, 1998 ISBN 0-312-18036-5 page 490.
  11. ^ Author Unknown (March 19, 1981). "U.S. Repudiates a Hard-Line Aide". New York Times: A8. 
    *Shribman, David (October 21, 1981). "Security Adviser Ousted for a Talk Hinting at War". New York Times: Section A; Page 1, Column 2. ; Author Unknown (November 2, 1981). "The Rogue General". Newsweek. 
  12. ^ Twelve FAS Faculty Members to Retire. Harvard Gazette Archives. Retrieved on 2006-07-30.
  13. ^ "6 Academics Receive National Honors in Arts and Humanities" Chronicle of Higher Education Nov. 16, 2007 summary
  14. ^ "Humanities Medals Awarded by President Bush. Recipients honored for outstanding cultural contributions" NNEH News Archive

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Bogle, Lori Lyn "Pipes, Richard" pages 922-923 from The Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing edited by Kelly Boyd, Volume 2, London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishing, 1999.
  • Kenez, Peter "The Prosecution of Soviet History: A Critique of Richard Pipes' The Russian Revolution" pages 345-351 from Russian Review, Volume 50, 1991.
  • Malia, Martin Edward "The Hunt for the True October" pages 21-28 from Commentary, Volume 92, 1991.
  • Somin, Ilya "Riddles, Mysteries, and Enigmas: Unanswered Questions of Communism's Collapse" pages 84-88 from Policy Review, Volume 70, 1994.
  • Stent, Angela "Review of U.S-Soviet Relations in the Era of Detente" pages 91-92 from Russian Review, Volume 41, 1982.
  • Szeftel, Marc "Two Negative Apraisals of Russian Pre-Revolutionary Development" pages 74-87 from Canadian-American Slavic Studies, 1980.
The Russian Review is a major independent peer-reviewed multi-disciplinary academic journal devoted to the history, literature, culture, fine arts, cinema, society, and politics of the Russian Federation, former Soviet Union and former Russian Empire. ... The Russian Review is a major independent peer-reviewed multi-disciplinary academic journal devoted to the history, literature, culture, fine arts, cinema, society, and politics of the Russian Federation, former Soviet Union and former Russian Empire. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Graham T. Allison is a professor at Harvard University. ... Ali S. Asani is a Professor of the Practice of Indo-Muslim Languages and Culture at Harvard university. ... Richard Nelson Frye (c. ... James Robert Russell (born in 1953, New York City) is a scholar and professor in Ancient Near Eastern, Iranian and Armenian Studies. ... Wheeler M. Thackston, Jr. ... Calvert Watkins is a professor Emeritus of linguistics and the classics at Harvard University and professor-in-residence at UCLA. His doctoral dissertation was Indo-European Origins of the Celtic Verb I. The Sigmatic Aorist (Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1962), which deeply reflected the structuralist approach of Jerzy Kurylowicz... Michael E. J. Witzel (born 1943) is Wales Professor of Sanskrit and Chair of the Committee on South Asian Studies at Harvard University. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Richard Pipes: Information from Answers.com (1480 words)
Richard Pipes was born in Cieszyn, Poland to a wealthy assimilated Jewish family.
Pipes was head of the 1976 Team B, comprised of civilian experts and retired military officers and created by then CIA director George Bush as a competitive analysis exercise.
Pipes, in his turn, has often accused Solzhenitsyn of being an anti-Semitic Russian ultra-nationalist, who in Pipes' opinion seeks to blame the ills of Communism on the Jews rather than to admit to the Russian roots of the Soviet Union.
Richard Pipes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1463 words)
His son Daniel Pipes is a neoconservative scholar and specialist in Middle East history and affairs and a former appointee to the U.S. Institute of Peace.
Pipes was a member of the Committee on Present Danger from 1977 until 1992 and serves on the Council of Foreign Relations.
Pipes has argued that this "patrimonialism" of Imperial Russia started to break down when Russian leaders attempted to modernize in the 19th century without seeking however to change the basic "patrimonial" structure of Russian society.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m