FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Richard Owen
Richard Owen

Richard Owen
Born July 20, 1804
Lancaster, England, UK
Died December 18, 1892
Richmond Park, London, England, UK

Sir Richard Owen KCB (July 20, 1804December 18, 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1549x1870, 1226 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Lancaster is a city within Lancashire, in North West England. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that King Henry VIIIs Mound be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Languages English Religions Christianity (Anglicanism, Roman Catholicism and other minority denominations), and other faiths. ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of organisms. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ...

Contents

Early life and career

Owen was born in Lancaster and educated at Lancaster Royal Grammar School. In 1820, he was apprenticed to a local surgeon and apothecary and, in 1824, he proceeded as a medical student to the university of Edinburgh. He left the university in the following year and completed his medical course in St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, where he came under the influence of the eminent surgeon, John Abernethy. Lancaster is a city within Lancashire, in North West England. ... Lancaster Royal Grammar School (LRGS) is a voluntary aided, selective grammar school (day and boarding) for boys in Lancaster, England. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Interior of an apothecarys shop. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The King Henry VIII Gate at Barts, which was constructed in 1702. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... John Abernethy (1764–1831) John Abernethy (April 3, 1764 - April 20, 1831) was an English surgeon, the grandson of Reverend John Abernethy. ...


He then contemplated the usual professional career but his bent was evidently in the direction of anatomical research. He was induced by Abernethy to accept the position of assistant to William Clift, conservator of the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. This congenial occupation soon led him to abandon his intention of medical practice and his life henceforth was devoted to purely scientific labours. He prepared an important series of catalogues of the Hunterian collection, in the Royal College of Surgeons and, in the course of this work, he acquired the unrivalled knowledge of comparative anatomy, which enabled him to enrich all departments of the science and especially facilitated his researches on the remains of extinct animals. In 1836, he was appointed Hunterian professor, in the Royal College of Surgeons and, in 1849, he succeeded Clift as conservator. He held the latter office until 1856, when he became superintendent of the natural history department of the British Museum. He then devoted much of his energies to a great scheme for a National Museum of Natural History, which eventually resulted in the removal of the natural history collections of the British Museum to a new building at South Kensington, the British Museum (Natural History). He retained office until the completion of this work, in 1884, when he received the distinction of K.C.B. and thenceforward lived quietly in retirement at Sheen Lodge, Richmond Park, until his death. Holman Hunt, the famous British artist even painted a portrait of him! The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... , A wealthy area in Kensington, that is just south of Kensington High Street. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... It has been suggested that King Henry VIIIs Mound be merged into this article or section. ...

The Natural History Museum at South Kensngton, London. Richard Owen devoted much of his energies to the scheme for its construction. It opened in 1881.
The Natural History Museum at South Kensngton, London. Richard Owen devoted much of his energies to the scheme for its construction. It opened in 1881.

His later career was tainted by numerous accusations of failing to give credit to the work of others and even trying to appropriate it in his own name. This came to a head in 1844, when he claimed sole credit for material in his paper on belemnites, which had clearly already been presented to the Geological Society by Chaning Pearce, a few years earlier. He was as a consequence voted off the councils of the Zoological Society and the Royal Society. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3752x2391, 2729 KB) Summary The Natural History Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3752x2391, 2729 KB) Summary The Natural History Museum. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Jan. ... Extinct Orders Aulacocerida Phragmoteuthida Belemnitida Diplobelida Belemnoteuthina Belemnites (or belemnoids) are an extinct group of marine cephalopod, very similar in many ways to the modern squid and closely related to the modern cuttlefish. ... The Zoological Society of London (sometimes known by the abbreviation ZSL) is a learned society founded in April 1826 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lord Auckland, Sir Humphry Davy, Joseph Sabine, Nicholas Aylward Vigors and other eminent naturalists. ... The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ...


Owen always tended to support orthodox men of science and the status quo. His somewhat fawning elitism attracted elite conservative patrons. The royal family presented him with the cottage in Richmond Park and Robert Peel put him on the Civil List. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A civil list is a list of individuals to whom money is paid by the government. ...


Work on invertebrates

While occupied with the cataloguing of the Hunterian collection, Owen did not confine his attention to the preparations before him but also seized every opportunity to dissect fresh subjects. He was especially favoured with the privilege of investigating the animals which died in the Zoological Society's gardens and, when that society began to publish scientific proceedings, in 1831, he was the most voluminous contributor of anatomical papers. His first notable publication, however, was his Memoir on the Pearly Nautilus (London, 1832), which was soon recognized as a classic. Henceforth, he continued to make important contributions to every department of comparative anatomy and zoology, for a period of over fifty years. In the sponges, Owen was the first to describe the now well-known Venus's flower basket or Euplectella (1841, 1857). Among Entozoa, his most noteworthy discovery was that of Trichina spiralis (1835), the parasite infesting the muscles of man in the disease now termed trichinosis (see also, however, Sir James Paget). Of Brachiopoda he made very special studies, which much advanced knowledge and settled the classification, which has long been adopted. Among Mollusca, he not only described the pearly nautilus, but also Spirula (1850) and other Cephalopoda, both living and extinct and it was he who proposed the universally-accepted subdivision of this class into the two orders of Dibranchiata and Tetrabranchiata (1832). The problematical Arthropod Limulus was also the subject of a special memoir by him, in 1873. The Zoological Society of London (sometimes known by the abbreviation ZSL) is a learned society founded in April 1826 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Lord Auckland, Sir Humphry Davy, Joseph Sabine, Nicholas Aylward Vigors and other eminent naturalists. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Genera Allonautilus Nautilus Nautilus (from Greek ναυτίλος, sailor) is the common name of any marine creatures of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole family of the suborder Nautilina. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Trichinosis, also called trichinellosis, or trichiniasis, is a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork and wild game products infected with the larvae of a species of roundworm Trichinella spiralis, commonly called the trichina worm. ... Sir James Paget (1814-1899) was a British surgeon and pathologist who is best remembered for Pagets disease and who is considered, together with Rudolf Virchow, as one of the founders of scientific medical pathology. ... Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin brachium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) are a phylum of animals. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Binomial name Spirula spirula (Linnaeus, 1758) Rams Horn Squid (Spirula spirula) is a unique and peculiar species of mollusc which constitutes a family (Spirulidae) and order (Spirulida) by itself. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) ?†Boletzkyida Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusk class... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Binomial name Limulus polyphemus Linnaeus, 1758 The horseshoe crab, horsefoot, or sauce-pan (Limulus polyphemus, syn. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Work on fish, reptiles and birds

Owen's technical descriptions of the Vertebrata were still more numerous and extensive than those of the invertebrate animals. His Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of Vertebrates (3 vols., London, 1866-1868) was indeed the result of more personal research than any similar work since Georges Cuvier's Leçons d'anatomie comparée. He not only studied existing forms but also devoted great attention to the remains of extinct groups and immediately followed Cuvier, as a pioneer in vertebrate paleontology. Early in his career, he made exhaustive studies of teeth, both of existing and extinct animals and published his profusely illustrated work on Odontography (1840-1845). He discovered and described the remarkably complex structure of the teeth of the extinct animals which he named Labyrinthodonts. Among his writings on fishes, his memoir on the African lungfish, which he named Protopterus, laid the foundations for the recognition of the Dipnoi by Johannes Muller. He also later pointed out the serial connection between the teleostean and ganoid fishes, grouping them in one sub-class, the Teleostomi. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Invertebrate is a term that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Vertebrate paleontology seeks to discover the behavior, reproduction and appearance of extinct spined animals, through the study of their fossilized remains. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are cold-blooded, covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Species Protopterus aethiopicus Protopterus amphibius Protopterus annectens Protopterus dolloi The African lungfish are the genus Protopterus and constitute the four species of lungfish found in Africa. ... Orders See text. ... Johannes Peter Müller (July 14, 1801, Koblenz – April 28, 1858, Berlin), was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, and ichthyologist not only known for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge. ... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... In most biological nomenclature, a scale (Greek lepid, Latin squama) is a small rigid plate that grows out of an animals skin to provide protection. ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with...


Most of his work on reptiles related to the skeletons of extinct forms and his chief memoirs, on British specimens, were reprinted in a connected series in his History of British Fossil Reptiles (4 vols., London, 1849-1884). He published the first important general account of the great group of Mesozoic land-reptiles, to which he gave the now familiar name of Dinosauria. He also first recognized the curious early Mesozoic land-reptiles, with affinities both to amphibians and mammals, which he termed Anomodontia. Most of these were obtained from South Africa, beginning in 1845 (Dicynodon) and eventually furnished materials for his Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia of South Africa, issued by the British Museum, in 1876. Among his writings on birds, his classical memoir on the kiwi (1840-1846), a long series of papers on the extinct dinornithidae of New Zealand, other memoirs on aptornis, the takahe, the dodo and the Great Auk, may be especially mentioned. His monograph on Archaeopteryx (1863), the long-tailed, toothed bird from the Bavarian lithographic stone, is also an epoch-making work. Subclasses Anapsida Diapsida Synonyms Reptilia Laurenti, 1768 Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane, and members of the class Sauropsida. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Orders Saurischia    Sauropodomorpha    Theropoda Ornithischia Dinosaurs are giant reptiles that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for most of their 165-million year existence. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Species D. trautscholdi Dicynodon (Two Dog-teeth) is a type of herbivorous mammal-like reptile that flourished during the Permian Period. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... who cares though]] island species, have also lost the ability to fly. ... Species See text. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Genera Anomalopteryx (bush moa) Euryapteryx Megalapteryx (upland moa) Dinornis (giant moa) Emeus Pachyornis Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. ... Species Aptornis otidiformis Owen, 1844 Aptornis defossor Owen, 1871 Synonyms Genus-level: Apterornis A. otidiformis: Aptornis otidiformes The adzebills (genus Aptornis) were two closely related bird species, the North Island Adzebill (Aptornis otidiformis) and the South Island Adzebill (Aptornis defossor) of the extinct family Aptornithidae. ... Binomial name Porphyrio mantelli Owen, 1848 The TakahÄ“, Porphyrio mantelli is a flightless bird native to New Zealand which belongs to the rail family. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Former range (in red) Synonyms Struthio cucullatus Linnaeus, 1758 Didus ineptus Linnaeus 1766 Probably the earliest accurate drawings of a dodo (1601–1603). ... Binomial name Pinguinus impennis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis, formerly Alca impennis) is an extinct bird. ... Binomial name Meyer, 1861 Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...


With Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins, Owen helped create the first life-size sculptures depicting dinosaurs as they may have appeared. Some models were initially created for the Great Exhibition of 1851 but 33 were eventually produced, when the Crystal Palace was relocated to Sydenham, in south London. Owen famously hosted a dinner for 21 prominent men of science inside the hollow concrete Iguanodon on New Year's Eve, 1853. Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins (8 February 1807_1889) was an English sculptor and natural history artist renowned for combining both in his work on the life-size models of dinosaurs in Crystal Palace Park, Sydenham, south London. ... The Great Exhibition was an international exhibition held in Hyde Park London, from 1 May to 15 October 1851 and the first in a series of Worlds Fair exhibitions of culture and industry that were to be a popular 19th century feature. ... The 1851 Great Exhibition in Hyde Park . ... Sydenham is a place, for the most part, in the London Borough of Lewisham; though some streets towards Crystal Palace Park and Penge are in the London Borough of Bromley, and some streets off Sydenham Hill are in the London Borough of Southwark. ... Species (Boulenger, 1881) (neotype) (Holl, 1829) nom. ... New Years Eve is December 31, the final day of the Gregorian year, and the day before New Years Day. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Work on mammals

This drawing illustrates a camel skeleton structure.
This drawing illustrates a camel skeleton structure.

With regard to living mammals, the more striking of Owen's contributions relate to the monotremes, marsupials and the anthropoid apes. He was also the first to recognize and name the two natural groups of typical Ungulate, the odd-toed (Perissodactyla) and the even-toed (Artiodactyla), while describing some fossil remains, in 1848. Most of his writings on mammals, however, deal with extinct forms, to which his attention seems to have been first directed by the remarkable fossils collected by Charles Darwin, in South America. Toxodon, from the pampas, was then described and gave the earliest clear evidence of an extinct generalized hoof animal, a pachyderm with affinities to the Rodentia, Edentata and herbivorous Cetacea. Owen's interest in South American extinct mammals then led to the recognition of the giant armadillo, which he named Glyptodon (1839) and to classic memoirs on the giant ground-sloths, Mylodon (1842) and Megatherium (1860), besides other important contributions. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 365 × 246 pixelsFull resolution (365 × 246 pixel, file size: 13 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Richard Owen - On the Anatomy of Vertebrates (1866) Fair use, copyright has expired (Author died more than 100 years ago). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 365 × 246 pixelsFull resolution (365 × 246 pixel, file size: 13 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Richard Owen - On the Anatomy of Vertebrates (1866) Fair use, copyright has expired (Author died more than 100 years ago). ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Families †Kollikodontidae Ornithorhynchidae Tachyglossidae †Steropodontidae Monotremes (monos, single + trema, hole; refers to the cloaca) are mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria). ... Orders Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Sparassodonta (extinct) Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the marsupium, from which the name Marsupial derives) in which it rears its young through early infancy. ... Families Hylobatidae Hominidae †Proconsulidae †Dryopithecidae †Oreopithecidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, which includes humans. ... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae Brontotheriidae (extinct) Chalicotheriidae (extinct) Hyracodontidae (extinct) Palaeotheriidae (extinct) Amynodontidae (extinct) The odd-toed ungulates are browsing and grazing mammals that comprise the order Perissodactyla. ... Families Antilocapridae Bovidae Camelidae Cervidae Giraffidae Hippopotamidae Moschidae Suidae Tayassuidae Tragulidae Leptochoeridae † Chaeropotamidae † Dichobunidae † Cebochoeridae † Entelodontidae † Anoplotheriidae † Anthracotheriidae † Cainotheriidae † Agriochoeridae † Merycoidodontidae † Leptomerycidae † Protoceratidae † Xiphodontidae † Amphimerycidae † Helohyidae † Gelocidae † Merycodontidae † Dromomerycidae † Raoellidae † Choeropotamidae † Sanitheriidae † The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Toxodon platensis Owen, 1837 Toxodon is a genus of mammals, similar to the capybara but now extinct, that lived in the late Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs in South America. ... The pampas (from Quechua for plain) are the fertile lowlands that extend across c. ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents. ... Families Myrmecophagidae Megalonychidae Bradypodidae Dasypodidae The order Xenarthra is a group of placental mammals, extant today only in the Americas. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Families Pampatheriidae (prehistoric) Glyptodontidae (prehistoric) Dasypodidae Armadillos are small placental mammals, known for having a bony armor shell. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Families Rathymotheriidae Scelidotheriidae Mylodontidae Orophodontidae Megalonychidae Megatheriidae Ground sloths are extinct edentate (Order Xenarthra) mammals that are believed to be relatives of tree sloths and three-toed sloths. ... The Mylodon was a smaller breed of ground sloth, approximately ox-sized, related to the Megatherium and modern three-toed sloths and two-toed sloths. ... Megatheriinae were a subfamily of elephant-sized ground sloths that lived from 2 million to 8,000 years ago. ...


At the same time, Sir Thomas Mitchell's discovery of fossil bones, in New South Wales, provided material for the first of Owen's long series of papers on the extinct mammals of Australia, which were eventually reprinted in book-form in 1877. He discovered Diprotodon and Thylacoleo, besides extinct kangaroos and wombats, of gigantic size. While occupied with so much material from abroad, Owen was also busily collecting facts for an exhaustive work on similar fossils from the British Isles and, in 1844-1846, he published his History of British Fossil Mammals and Birds, which was followed by many later memoirs, notably his Monograph of the Fossil Mammalia of the Mesozoic Formations (Palaeont. Soc., 1871). One of his latest publications was a little work entitled Antiquity of Man as deduced from the Discovery of a Human Skeleton during Excavations of the Docks at Tilbury (London, 1884). 1838 map of Victoria and New South Wales showing towns, major rivers and the limits of the Colony at the time. ... Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $305,437 (1st)  - Product per capita  $45,153/person (4th) Population (End of March 2006)  - Population  6,817,100 (1st)  - Density  8. ... Species Macropus rufus Macropus giganteus Macropus fuliginosus Macropus antilopinus A kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae. ... Genera and Species Vombatus Vombatus ursinus Lasiorhinus Lasiorhinus latifrons Lasiorhinus krefftii †Rhizophascolomus †Phascolonus †Warendja †Ramasayia Wombats are Australian marsupials; they are short-legged, muscular quadrupeds, approximately one metre (3 feet) in length with a very short tail. ...


Owen and Darwin's theory of evolution

Sir Richard Owen and Dinornis bird skeleton
Sir Richard Owen and Dinornis bird skeleton

Following the voyage of the Beagle, Darwin had at his disposal a considerable collection of specimens and, on 29 October 1836, he was introduced by Charles Lyell to Owen, who agreed to work on fossil bones collected in South America. Owen's subsequent revelations, that the extinct giant creatures were rodents and sloths, showed that they were related to current species in the same locality, rather than being relatives of similarly sized creatures in Africa, as Darwin had originally thought. This was one of the many influences which lead Darwin to later formulate his own ideas on the concept of natural selection. Image File history File links Dinornis1387. ... Image File history File links Dinornis1387. ... On its second voyage, much of it chronicled by Charles Darwin in his book, The Voyage of the Beagle, the HMS Beagle crossed the Atlantic towards Tierra Del Fuego, and carried out surveying especially of the West coast of South America, as well as a number of Pacific islands. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charles Lyell The frontispiece from Principles of Geology Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, KT, (November 14, 1797 – February 22, 1875), Scottish lawyer, geologist, and populariser of uniformitarianism. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...


At this time, Owen talked of his theories, influenced by Johannes Peter Müller, that living matter had an "organising energy", a life-force that directed the growth of tissues and also determined the lifespan of the individual and of the species. Darwin was reticent about his own thoughts, understandably, when, on 19 December 1838, as secretary of the Geological Society of London, he saw Owen and his allies ridicule the Lamarckian 'heresy' of Darwin's old tutor, Robert Edmund Grant. In 1841, when the recently married Darwin was ill, Owen was one of the few scientific friends to visit; however, Owen's opposition to any hint of Transmutation made Darwin keep quiet about his hypothesis. Johannes Peter Müller (July 14, 1801, Koblenz – April 28, 1858, Berlin), was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, and ichthyologist not only known for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Geological Society of London is a learned society based in England with the aim of investigating the mineral structure of the Earth. It is the oldest national geological society in the world and the largest in Europe with over 9000 Fellows entitled to the postnominal FGS - over 2000 of... Lamarckism is a now discredited theory of biological evolution developed by French biologist Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck in the 19th century. ... Robert Edmond Grant (1793-1874), born in Edinburgh and educated at Edinburgh University as a doctor, became one of the foremost biologists of the early 19th century at Edinburgh and subsequently a professor at London University, particularly noted for his influence on Charles Darwin. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Transmutation of species refers to the altering of one species into another. ...


During the development of Darwin's theory, his investigation of barnacles showed, in 1849, how their segmentation related to other crustaceans, showing how they had diverged from their relatives. To Owen such "homologies" in comparative anatomy showed "archetypes" in the Divine mind but to Darwin this was evidence of Descent. Owen demonstrated fossil evidence of an evolutionary sequence of horses, as supporting his idea of development from archetypes in "ordained continuous becoming" and, in 1854, gave a British Association talk on the impossibility of bestial apes, such as the recently discovered gorilla, standing erect and being transmuted into men. Working class militants were trumpeting man's monkey origins[citation needed]. To crush these ideas, Owen, as President-elect of the Royal Association, announced his authoritative anatomical studies of primate brains, claiming that the human brain had structures that apes brains did not, and that therefore humans were a separate sub-class. Darwin wrote that "I cannot swallow Man [being that] distinct from a Chimpanzee". The combative Thomas Henry Huxley used his March 1858 Royal Institution lecture to deny Owen's claim and that, structurally, gorillas are as close to humans as they are to baboons. He believed that the "mental & moral faculties are essentially... the same kind in animals & ourselves". This was a clear denial of Owen's claim for human uniqueness, given at the same venue. The Development of Darwins theory began with a search for explanations of contradictions in current faith based ideas, and led him to formulate his theory of evolution which was eventually published in his book On the Origin of Species, a turning point in the history of evolutionary thought. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The British Association or the British Association for the Advancement of Science or the BA is a learned society with the object of promoting science, directing general attention to scientific matters, and facilitating intercourse between scientific workers. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 – June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Royal Institution of Great Britain was set up in 1799 by the leading British scientists of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea, for diffusing the knowledge, and facilitating the general introduction, of useful mechanical inventions and improvements; and for... Type species Simia hamadryas Linnaeus, 1758 Species Papio hamadryas Papio papio Papio anubis Papio cynocephalus Papio ursinus The five baboon species are some of the largest non-hominid members of the primate order; only the Mandrill and the Drill are larger. ...


On the publication of Darwin's theory, in The Origin of Species, he sent a complimentary copy to Owen, saying "it will seem 'an abomination'". Owen was the first to respond, courteously claiming that he had long believed that "existing influences" were responsible for the "ordained" birth of species. Darwin now had long talks with him and Owen said that the book offered the best explanation "ever published of the manner of formation of species", although he still had the gravest doubts that transmutation would bestialize man. It appears that Darwin had assured Owen that he was looking at everything as resulting from designed laws, which Owen interpreted as showing a shared belief in "Creative Power". The publication of Darwins theory followed on from the development of Darwins theory of evolution and culminated in the publication of his book On the Origin of Species. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ...


In his lofty position at the head of Science, Owen received numerous complaints about the book. His own position remained unknown: when emphasising to a Parliamentary committee the need for a new Natural History museum, he pointed out that "The whole intellectual world this year has been excited by a book on the origin of species; and what is the consequence? Visitors come to the British Museum, and they say, "Let us see all these varieties of pigeons: where is the tumbler, where is the pouter?" and I am obliged with shame to say, I can show you none of them".... As to showing you the varieties of those species, or of any of those phenomena that would aid one in getting at that mystery of mysteries, the origin of species, our space does not permit; but surely there ought to be a space somewhere, and, if not in the British Museum, where is it to be obtained?"


However, Huxley's attacks were making their mark. When Owen's Edinburgh review of the Origin appeared, in April 1860, he showed his anger at what he saw as Darwin's caricature of the creationist position and his ignoring Owen's "axiom of the continuous operation of the ordained becoming of living things". To him, new species appeared at birth, not through natural selection. As well as attacking Darwin's "disciples", Hooker and Huxley, for their "short-sighted adherence", he thought that the book symbolised the sort of "abuse of science... to which a neighbouring nation, some seventy years since, owed its temporary degradation" in a reference to the French Revolution. Darwin thought it "Spiteful, extremely malignant, clever, and... damaging" and later commented that "The Londoners say he is mad with envy because my book is so talked about. It is painful to be hated in the intense degree with which Owen hates me." 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


During the reaction to Darwin's theory, Huxley's arguments with Owen continued. Owen tried to smear Huxley, by portraying him as an "advocate of man's origins from a transmuted ape" and one of his contributions to the Athenaeum was titled "Ape-Origin of Man as Tested by the Brain". In 1862 (and on other occasions) Huxley took the opportunity to arrange demonstrations of ape brain anatomy (e.g. at the BA meeting, where William Flower performed the dissection). Visual evidence of the supposedly missing structures (posterior cornu and hippocampus) was used, in effect, to indict Owen for perjury. The campaign ran over two years and was devastatingly successful, with each "slaying" being followed by a recruiting drive for the Darwinian cause. The spite lingered. When Huxley joined the Zoological Society Council, in 1861, Owen left and, in the following year, Huxley moved to stop Owen from being elected to the Royal Society Council, accusing him "of wilful & deliberate falsehood". (See also Wiki Thomas Henry Huxley page) The reaction to Darwins theory came quickly after the publication of Darwins theory which had followed twenty years of development of Darwins theory of evolution. ... Sir William Henry Flower KCB FRCS FRS (November 30, 1831 - July 1, 1899) was an English comparative anatomist and surgeon. ... Posterior cornu can refer to: Posterior horn Posterior horn of lateral ventricles Category: ... The hippocampus is structurally located inside the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... Thomas Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley F.R.S. (May 4, 1825 – June 29, 1895) was a British biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his defence of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ...


In January 1863, Owen bought the archaeopteryx fossil for the British Museum. It fulfilled Darwin's prediction, that a proto-bird with unfused wing fingers would be found, although Owen described it unequivocally as a bird. Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Binomial name Meyer, 1861 Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ...


The feuding between Owen and Darwin's supporters continued. In 1871, Owen was found to be involved in a threat to end government funding of Joseph Dalton Hooker's botanical collection, at Kew, possibly trying to bring it under his British Museum. Darwin commented that "I used to be ashamed of hating him so much, but now I will carefully cherish my hatred & contempt to the last days of my life". 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph Dalton Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, GCSI, OM, FRS, MD (June 30, 1817 – December 10, 1911) was an English botanist and traveller. ... Kew is a place in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in South West London. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ...


Legacy

Owen's detailed memoirs and descriptions require laborious attention in reading, on account of their complex terminology and ambiguous modes of expression. The fact that very little of his terminology has found universal favour causes them to be more generally neglected than they otherwise would be. At the same time, it must be remembered that he was a pioneer in concise anatomical nomenclature and, so far at least as the vertebrate skeleton is concerned, his terms were based on a carefully-reasoned philosophical scheme, which first clearly distinguished between the now-familiar phenomena of analogy and homology. Owen's theory of the Archetype and Homologies of the Vertebrate Skeleton (1848), subsequently illustrated also by his little work On the Nature of Limbs (1849), regarded the vertebrate frame as consisting of a series of fundamentally identical segments, each modified according to its position and functions. Much of it was fanciful and failed when tested by the facts of embryology, which Owen systematically ignored, throughout his work. However, though an imperfect and distorted view of certain great truths, it possessed a distinct value at the time of its conception. Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... In biology, homology is any similarity between structures that is due to their shared ancestry. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


To the discussion of the deeper problems of biological philosophy, he made scarcely any direct and definite contributions. His generalities rarely extended beyond strict comparative anatomy, the phenomena of adaptation to function and the facts of geographical or geological distribution. His lecture on virgin reproduction or parthenogenesis, however, published in 1849, contained the essence of the germ plasm theory, elaborated later by August Weismann and he made several vague statements concerning the geological succession of genera and species of animals and their possible derivation one from another. He referred, especially, to the changes exhibited by the successive forerunners of the crocodiles (1884) and horses (1868) but it has never become clear how much of the modern doctrines of organic evolution he admitted. He contented himself with the bare remark that "the inductive demonstration of the nature and mode of operation of the laws governing life would henceforth be the great aim of the philosophical naturalist." It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Asexual reproduction. ... The germ plasm (or polar plasm) is a zone found in the the cytoplasm of the egg cells of some model organisms (such as C. elegans, Drosophila, Xenopus), which contains determinants that will give rise to the germ cell lineage. ... August Weismann Friedrich Leopold August Weismann (b. ... Genera Mecistops Crocodylus Osteolaemus See full taxonomy. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


Controversy

Owen has been described by some as a malicious, dishonest and hateful individual. He has been described in one biography as being a "social experementer with a penchant for sadism. Addicted to controversy and driven by arrogance and jealousy." Deborah Cadbury stated that Owen possessed an "almost fanatical egoism with a callous delight in savaging his critics." Indeed, an Oxford University professor once described Owen as "a damned liar. He lied for God and for malice." [1] Gideon Mantell claimed it was "a pity a man so talented should be so dastardly and envious." This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Gideon Algernon Mantell (February 3, 1790 – November 10, 1852) was an English obstetrician, geologist and palaeontologist. ...

A cartoon of Owen riding a Megatherium skeleton which appeared in the Vanity fair where he was described as a wicked, simple minded creature.

Owen famously credited himself and Georges Cuvier with the discovery of the Iguanodon, completely excluding any credit for the original discoverer of the dinosaur, Gideon Mantell. This was not the first or last time Owen would deliberately claim a discovery as his own, when in fact it was not. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 351 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (351 × 529 pixel, file size: 31 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sir Richard Owen Cartoon This image is a screenshot of a copyrighted television program or station ID. As such, the copyright for it is most likely... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 351 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (351 × 529 pixel, file size: 31 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sir Richard Owen Cartoon This image is a screenshot of a copyrighted television program or station ID. As such, the copyright for it is most likely... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... Species (Boulenger, 1881) (neotype) (Holl, 1829) nom. ... Gideon Algernon Mantell (February 3, 1790 – November 10, 1852) was an English obstetrician, geologist and palaeontologist. ...


It has been suggested by some authors, including Bill Bryson in A Short History of Nearly Everything, that Owen even used his influence in the Royal Society to ensure that many of Mantell’s research papers were never published. William Bill McGuire Bryson, OBE, (born December 8, 1951) is a best-selling American-born author of humorous books on travel, as well as books on the English language and on scientific subjects. ... A Short History of Nearly Everything by Bill Bryson A Short History of Nearly Everything (ISBN 0-7679-0817-1) is a general science book by Bill Bryson, which explains some areas of science in ordinary language. ... The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ...


Despite originally starting out on good terms with Darwin, he turned on him savagely at the first opportunity, despite knowing enough anatomy to understand the explanatory power of Darwin’s theory. The reason for this, some historians claim, was that Owen felt upstaged by Darwin and supporters such as Huxley, and his judgment was clouded by jealousy. That’s what Darwin himself believed: Owen in his opinion was "Spiteful, extremely malignant, clever." ; "The Londoners say he is mad with envy because my book is so talked about." [2] "It is painful to be hated in the intense degree with which Owen hates me."[3]


He was also involved in a threat to end government funding of Joseph Dalton Hooker's botanical collection, at Kew, out of what appears to be a mixture of wanting it under his control at the British Museum and pure spite.


When Mantell suffered an accident that left him permanently crippled, Owen exploited the opportunity by renaming several dinosaurs which had already been named by Mantell, even having the audacity to claim credit for their discovery himself. When Mantell finally died in 1852, an obituary carrying no byline derided Mantell as little more than a mediocre scientist, who brought forth few notable contributions. The obituary’s authorship was universally attributed to Owen, by every local geologist. The president of the Geological society claimed that it "Bespeaks of the lamentable coldness of the heart of the writer." He was subsequently denied the presidency of the society for his repeated and pointed antagonism towards Gideon Mantell.


Even more extraordinary was the way Owen ignored the genuine scientific content of Mantell's work. For example, despite the paucity of finds Mantell had worked out that some dinosaurs were bipedal, including Iguanodon. This remarkable insight was totally ignored by Owen, whose instructions for the Crystal Palace models by Waterhouse Hawkins portrayed Iguanodon as grossly overweight and quadrupedal, with its misidentified thumb on its nose. Mantell did not live to witness the discovery in 1878 of articulated skeletons in a Belgium coal-mine that showed Iguanodon was mostly bipedal (and in that stance could use its thumb for defence). Owen made no comment or retraction; he never did. Moreover, since the earliest known dinosaurs were bipedal, Mantell's idea was indeed perspicacious. Species (Boulenger, 1881) (neotype) (Holl, 1829) nom. ...


Owen was finally dismissed from the Royal Society's Zoological Council for plagiarism. Plagiarism (from Latin plagiare to kidnap) is the practice of claiming, or implying, original authorship or incorporating material from someone elses written or creative work, in whole or in part, into ones own without adequate acknowledgement. ...


However, the portrayal of Owen as a villain was fostered and encouraged by his rivals, particularly Huxley, and may be somewhat undeserved. He was clearly one of the greatest scientific figures of the age. Despite his feuding his brilliant career continued until his official retirement at the age of 79, and he then continued with his work and observations.[4]


"Owen: the most distinguished vertebrate zoologist and palaeontologist... but a most deceitful and odious man" Richard Broke Freeman (Charles Darwin: a Companion. Dawson 1978)


"No one fact tels so strongly against Owen... as that he has never reared one pupil or follower." Charles Darwin to Asa Gray, 1860. (More Letters of C.D p153)


Citations

  1. ^ Rocky Road: Sir Richard Owen
  2. ^ Darwin 1887, p.149
  3. ^ Darwin & Seward 1903, p.300
  4. ^ Sir Richard Owen: the archetypal villain

References

  • The Life of Richard Owen, by his grandson, Rev. Richard Owen (2 vols., London, 1894). (A. S. Wo.)
  • Adrian Desmond and James Moore, Darwin (London: Michael Joseph, the Penguin Group, 1991). ISBN 0-7181-3430-3
  • Francis Darwin, editor, The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin: Including an Autobiographical Chapter (3 vols., London: John Murray, 1887) (7th Edition).
  • Francis Darwin & A. C. Seward, editors, More letters of Charles Darwin: A record of his work in a series of hitherto unpublished letters (2 vols., London: John Murray, 1903).
Awards
Preceded by
New award
Clarke Medal
1878
Succeeded by
George Bentham

  Results from FactBites:
 
Richard Owen (1804-1892) (1619 words)
Owen's family was not wealthy, and Owen's father died when the boy was five years old.
Owen was soon to become an assistant in cataloging the Hunterian Collection of thirteen thousand human and animal anatomical specimens, which had been purchased by the Crown after the death of its owner, the famous surgeon John Hunter.
Owen was also a taxonomist, naming and describing a vast number of living and fossil vertebrates.
Richard Owen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2849 words)
Owen's subsequent revelations, that extinct giant creatures were rodents and sloths, showed that they were related to current species in the same locality, rather than being relatives of similarly sized creatures in Africa, as Darwin had originally thought.
Owen demonstrated fossil evidence of an evolutionary sequence of horses, as supporting his idea of development from archetypes in "ordained continuous becoming" and, in 1854, gave a British Association talk on the impossibility of bestial apes, such as the recently discovered gorilla, standing erect and being transmuted into men.
Owen's detailed memoirs and descriptions require laborious attention in reading, on account of their nomenclature and ambiguous modes of expression and the circumstance, that very little of his terminology has found universal favour, causes them to be more generally neglected than they otherwise would be.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m