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Encyclopedia > Richard O'Connor
Sir Richard O'Connor
August 21, 1889June 17, 1981
Place of birth Srinagar, India
Place of death London, United Kingdom
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 1909 - 1948
Rank General
Commands Western Desert Force
XIII Corps
VIII Corps
Battles/wars World War I
World War II
* Operation Compass
* Operation Epsom
* Operation Jupiter
* Operation Goodwood
* Operation Bluecoat
* Operation Market Garden
Awards KT, GCB, DSO, MC
Other work Commandant of the Army Cadet Force, Scotland
Colonel of the Cameronians
Lord Lieutenant of Ross and Cromarty
Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland

Sir Richard Nugent O'Connor, KT, GCB, DSO, MC, ADC (21 August 188917 June 1981) was a British Army general who commanded the Western Desert Force in the early years of World War II. He was the field commander for Operation Compass, in which his forces completely destroyed a much larger Italian army — a victory which nearly drove the Axis from Africa entirely, and in turn, led Adolf Hitler to send the German Africa Corps under Erwin Rommel to try and reverse the situation. O'Connor was later captured and spent over two years in an Italian prisoner of war camp, but escaped and in 1944 commanded VIII Corps in Normandy and later during Operation Market Garden. In 1945 he was general officer in command of the Eastern Command in India, and then headed the North Western Army in the closing days of British rule in the subcontinent. Official portrait of OConnor, circa 1910. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Srinagar city and its vicinity Srinagar is a city in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Western Desert Force, during World War II, was a British Commonwealth Army unit stationed in Egypt. ... The Western Desert Force, during World War II, was a British Commonwealth Army unit stationed in Egypt. ... The British VIII Corps was an army corps formation that existed during World War I and World War II. World War I The VIII Corps was first formed at Gallipoli during World War I. The main British battle front was at Cape Helles on the tip of the Gallipoli peninsula. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Western Desert Force Italian Tenth Army Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Strength 50,000 soldiers 120 guns 275 tanks 100,000 soldiers 1,600 guns 600 light tanks Casualties 494 dead 1,225 wounded 3,000 dead 115,000 captured 400 tanks 1,292 guns Operation... Combatants Allied Powers Nazi Germany Commanders Lieutenant General Richard OConnor SS General Paul Hausser Strength 1 armoured division 3 infantry divisions 1 armoured brigade 2 SS Panzer Divisions 5 Panzer battlegroups Casualties British VIII Corps 4,020 12th SS Panzer Regiment 324 25th SS Panzer-Grenadier Regiment 383 26th... There were 3 operations called Jupiter during World War 2: in 1942, a proposal to invade Norway in 1942, a failed Soviet offensive against the Rzhev salient in 1944, an attack to capture Hill 112, a prominent height in Normandy This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated... Operation Goodwood was an Allied military operation of World War II from July 18 to 20 July 1944 taking place in Normandy some weeks following D-Day. ... Combatants Allied Powers Germany Commanders Lieutenant General Miles Dempsey SS General Paul Hausser Strength 3 armoured divisions, 3 infantry divisions, 2 armoured brigades rising to: 3 Panzer Divisions, 3 infantry divisions Casualties N/A N/A Operation Bluecoat was an attack by British Second Army at the Battle of Normandy... Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor Stanislaw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 17,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 8,000 dead or wounded Operation Market Garden (September... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... DSO medal The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... The Army Cadet Force (ACF) is a British youth organisation that offers progressive training in a multitude of the subjects from military training to adventurous training and first aid, at the same time as promoting achievement, discipline and good citizenship, to boys and girls aged 12 to 18 years and... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) was an infantry regiment of the British Army, the only regiment of rifles amongst the Scottish regiments of infantry. ... Flag of a Lord-Lieutenant The title Lord-Lieutenant is given to the British monarchs personal representatives around the United Kingdom. ... Ross and Cromarty: administrative county (1889-1975) Image:RossCromDistrict. ... As the Sovereigns personal representative Lord High Commissioners were appointed to the Parliament of the Kingdom of Scotland between 1603 and 1707. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ... DSO medal The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... UK insignia for a full General General is a rank in the British Army and Royal Marines. ... The Western Desert Force, during World War II, was a British Commonwealth Army unit stationed in Egypt. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Western Desert Force Italian Tenth Army Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Strength 50,000 soldiers 120 guns 275 tanks 100,000 soldiers 1,600 guns 600 light tanks Casualties 494 dead 1,225 wounded 3,000 dead 115,000 captured 400 tanks 1,292 guns Operation... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Deutsches Afrikakorps (often just Afrika Korps or DAK) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypts Western Desert during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps the term is... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname “The Desert Fox” (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... Prisoner of War camps Contents // Categories: Substubs | Prisons and detention centres ... The British VIII Corps was an army corps formation that existed during World War I and World War II. World War I The VIII Corps was first formed at Gallipoli during World War I. The main British battle front was at Cape Helles on the tip of the Gallipoli peninsula. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor Stanislaw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 17,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 8,000 dead or wounded Operation Market Garden (September...


O'Connor's unassuming manner meant that he is less notable compared to more colorful Allied military leaders, such as George Patton and his colleague, Bernard Montgomery. His imprisonment during the conflict's truly decisive phases robbed him of many prime opportunities to prove his abilities further, and several of his peers and subordinates were promoted over him.[citation needed] In honour of his war service, O'Connor was recognised with the highest level of knighthood in two different orders of chivalry. He was also awarded the Distinguished Service Order, Military Cross, French Croix de guerre and Legion of Honour and served as Aide-de-camp to King George VI. General George Smith Patton Jr. ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ... The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals personal bravery, achievement or service to the United Kingdom. ... See also Orders of Chivalry in the British honours system After the failure of the crusades, the crusading military orders became idealized and romanticized, resulting in the late medieval notion of chivalry, as reflected in the Arthurian romances of the time. ... DSO medal The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ...

Contents

Early life and the First World War

O'Connor was born in Srinagar, Kashmir, India, on 21 August 1889[citation needed]. The son of a major in the Royal Irish Fusiliers, and the maternal grandson of a former Governor of India's central provinces, he was destined for an army career[citation needed]. He attended Tonbridge Castle School in 1899 and The Towers School in Crowthorne in 1902[citation needed]. In 1903, after his father's death in an accident, he transferred to Wellington School in Somerset. He attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 1908[citation needed]. In October of the following year he was billeted to the 2nd Battalion of the Cameronians.He would maintain close ties with the unit for the rest of his life[citation needed]. In January 1910, the battalion was posted to Colchester, where he received signals and rifle training. It was then stationed in Malta from 1911 to 1912 where O'Connor served as Regimental Signals Officer[citation needed]. Srinagar city and its vicinity Srinagar is a city in Jammu and Kashmir, India. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... The Royal Irish Fusiliers was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1881 and amalgamated with The Royal Ulster Rifles and The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers to form The Royal Irish Rangers in 1968. ... Statistics Population: 31,600 (2001) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TQ591468 Administration District: Tonbridge & Malling Shire county: Kent Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Kent Historic county: Kent Services Police force: Kent Police Ambulance service: South East Coast Post office and telephone... Crowthorne is also a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa Crowthorne is a small town and civil parish in the Bracknell Forest district of south-eastern Berkshire. ... Wellington School, Somerset, is a co-educational public school catering for both boarders and day pupils. ... Somerset is a county in the south-west of England. ... New College, Royal Military Academy Sandhurst New Colours are presented to RMAS, June 2005. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols A battalion is a military unit usually consisting of between two and six companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel. ... The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) was an infantry regiment of the British Army, the only regiment of rifles amongst the Scottish regiments of infantry. ... Colchester is a town and is the main settlement of the Essex borough of Colchester in the East of England. ...


During World War I, O'Connor served as Signals Officer of 22 Brigade in the 7th Division and captain, in command of 7th Division's Signals Company and brevet brigade major in 91 Brigade, 7th Division. He was awarded the Military Cross in February 1915[citation needed]. In March of that year he saw action at Arras and Bullecourt[citation needed]. O'Connor was awarded the DSO and appointed brevet lieutenant-colonel in command of 1st Infantry Battalion of the Honourable Artillery Company, part of the 7th Division, in June 1917. In November, the division was ordered to support the Italians against the Austro-Hungarian forces at the River Piave which then formed part of the Italian Front[citation needed]. In late October 1918 the 2nd Battalion captured the island of Grave di Papadopoli on the Piave River for which O'Connor received the Italian Silver Medal of Honour and a bar to add to his DSO.[1] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... The British 7th Infantry Division was a World War II division. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... The Battle of Arras is the name of a number of battles near the town of Arras in Artois, France: Battle of Arras (1654) Battle of Arras (1917) - British offensive during the First World War. ... DSO medal The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... ... Armorial bearings of the HAC, granted in 1821 The Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) is the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior[2] in the Territorial Army [3] . // The HAC can trace its history as far back as 1296, but it received a Royal Charter... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Combatants Italy France United Kingdom Austria-Hungary Commanders Armando Diaz Arthur Arz von Straussenburg Strength 58 Italian divisions, 6 French divisions, 5 British divisions 57 divisions Casualties 80,000 dead or wounded 60,000 dead, 90,000 wounded, 25,000 captured The Battle of the Piave River, known in Italy... The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ...


Inter-War years

From 1920 to 1921, O'Connor attended the Staff College, Camberley[citation needed]. O'Connor's other service in the years between the world wars included an appointment from 1921 to 1924 as brigade major of the Experimental Brigade (or 5 Brigade), which was formed to test methods and procedures for using tanks and aircraft in co-ordination with infantry and artillery. Many of the theories of mechanised, combined arms manoeuvre warfare put forth by J.F.C. Fuller (the brigade commander), Basil Liddell Hart, Heinz Guderian, and others at the time were being practiced by 5 Brigade[citation needed]. Staff College, Camberley, Surrey, is a training college for the British army. ... Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... Major-General John Frederick Charles Fuller, CB, CBE, DSO, commonly J.F.C. Fuller, (September 1, 1878–February 10, 1966), was a British major-general, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ... The military historian Basil Liddell Hart. ... Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a military theorist and innovative General of the German Army during the Second World War. ...


He returned to his old unit, The Cameronians, as adjutant from 1924 to 1925. From 1925 to 1927 he served as a company commander at Sandhurst[citation needed]. He returned to the Staff College at Camberley as an instructor from 1927 to 1929. In 1930 O'Connor again served with the 1st Battalion of The Cameronians in Egypt and from 1931 to 1932 in Lucknow, India. From 1932 to 1934 he was a general staff officer, grade 2 at the War Office. He attended the Imperial Defence College in London in 1935. In October of that year, O'Connor, having been promoted brigadier, assumed command of the Peshawar Brigade in northwest India. He would later say the lessons he learned in mobility during this time would serve him well later in Libya[citation needed]. In September 1938 O'Connor was promoted to major-general and appointed Commander of the 7th Division in Palestine, along with the additional responsibility as Military Governor of Jerusalem. It was here he worked alongside Major-General Bernard Montgomery, commander of the 8th Division, to try to quell unrest between the Jewish and Arab communities[citation needed]. In August 1939, 7th Division was transferred to the fortress at Mersa Matruh, Egypt, where O'Connor was concerned with defending the area against a potential attack from the massed forces of the Italian Tenth Army over the border in Libya[citation needed]. The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) was an infantry regiment of the British Army, the only regiment of rifles amongst the Scottish regiments of infantry. ... An adjutant (from the Latin adiutans, present participle of the verb adiutare, to help; the Romans actually used adiutor for the noun) is an officer who assists a more senior officer. ... For the village in Canada, see Lucknow, Ontario. ... The Royal College of Defence Studies (RCDS) is an internationally-renowned institution and component of the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Brigadier (IPA pronunciation: ) is a military rank, the meaning of which has a considerable variation. ... Peshāwar (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. ... See: British 7th Armoured Division British 7th Division (World War I) British 7th Infantry Division This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Flag Britain unilaterally closed the territory east of the Jordan River (Transjordan) to Jewish settlement and organized Transjordan as an autonomous state in 1923. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976) was a British Army officer, often referred to as Monty. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in World War II, and... British 8th Division can refer to: British 8th Armoured Division British 8th Infantry Division Category: ... The Great Uprising, Great Revolt, or Great Arab Revolt was an uprising by Palestinian Arabs in the British Mandate of Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Mersa Matruh is a seaport in Egypt, Africa. ... The Italian Tenth Army consisted of ten divisions when it attacked Egypt on September 13, 1940. ...


Italian Offensive and Operation Compass

The Italian Offensive and Operation Compass September 13, 1940 – 7 February 1941 (Click to enlarge).
The Italian Offensive and Operation Compass September 13, 19407 February 1941 (Click to enlarge).

Italy declared war on Britain and France on 10 June 1940[citation needed]. O'Connor was appointed Commander of the Western Desert Force, and tasked by General Wilson, commander of the Army of the Nile, to protect Egypt and the Suez Canal from Italian attack[citation needed]. To accomplish this, Wilson and O'Connor planned to use a screen of light tanks and armoured cars, supported by artillery, to delay the Italians led by Marshal Rodolfo Graziani[citation needed]. In command of the delaying force was Brigadier William Gott[citation needed]. Meanwhile, the main force was to retreat towards Mersa Matruh and the Baggush Box, a fortification, where strong fixed defences had been prepared. These would stop the Italians long enough for reinforcements to arrive, bolster the defence and, eventually, launch a counteroffensive[citation needed]. Download high resolution version (1202x451, 128 KB)Grazianis advance and Wavells offensive -- September 13, 1940 - February 7, 1941 Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... Download high resolution version (1202x451, 128 KB)Grazianis advance and Wavells offensive -- September 13, 1940 - February 7, 1941 Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... Combatants Western Desert Force Italian Tenth Army Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Strength 50,000 soldiers 120 guns 275 tanks 100,000 soldiers 1,600 guns 600 light tanks Casualties 494 dead 1,225 wounded 3,000 dead 115,000 captured 400 tanks 1,292 guns Operation... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Western Desert Force, during World War II, was a British Commonwealth Army unit stationed in Egypt. ... Field Marshal Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson of Libya (5 September 1881 - 31 December 1964), better known as Jumbo Wilson was a senior British General during World War II. He saw active service in the Boer War and the First World War. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... Polish armored car Ursus which saw combat during the Polish-German War of 1939. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli (August 11, 1882—January 11, 1955), was an Italian military officer who led expeditions in Africa before and during World War II and a war criminal responsible for thousands of Libyan and Ethiopian civilian deaths. ... William Strafer Gott, during World War II, was a Lieutenant General in the British Eighth Army. ... The Baggush Box, during World War II, was a British Army fortification, of the Western Desert Force, which was located to the east of Mersa Matruh, near Maarten Baggush, in Egypt, Africa. ...


On 13 September, Graziani struck: his leading divisions advanced sixty miles into Egypt where they reached the town of Sidi Barrani and, short of supplies, began to dig in[citation needed]. O'Connor then began to prepare for a counterattack. He had the 7th Armoured Division and the Indian 4th Infantry Division, the two finest remaining divisions in the British Army following the Battle of Dunkirk, along with two brigades[citation needed]. In total he had around 36,000 men. The Italians had nearly five times as many troops along with hundreds more tanks and artillery pieces and the support of a much larger air force. The British, however, were better trained, better led, and possessed (for the most part) superior weapons, equipment and mobility[citation needed]. O'Connor intended to use all these advantages to the utmost[citation needed]. The preparations continued: a convoy was sent from Britain through the Mediterranean, risking attack from Axis forces, carrying valuable matériel to Egypt. Among the cargo were over 150 tanks, 100 artillery pieces and nearly 1,000 machine guns and anti-tank guns[citation needed]. Meanwhile, small raiding columns were sent out from the 7th Armoured and newly formed Long Range Desert Group to probe, harass, and disrupt the Italians (this marked the start of what became the Special Air Services). The Royal Navy and Royal Air Force supported by bombarding enemy strongpoints, airfields and rear areas[citation needed]. As a result, O'Connor, his adviser Brigadier Eric Dorman-Smith, and his men began to realise just how poorly led and ill-prepared their foes were, despite having a huge numerical advantage[citation needed]. September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... Sidi Barrani is a village in Egypt, ~95km from the border with Libya, and ~240km from Tobruk. ... The 7th Armoured Division (known as the Desert Rats) of the British Army was the most famous unit of its type in British service during World War II. It was a regular division in the Middle East, designated the Mobile Division at first, renamed the Armoured Division (Egypt) in September... Fourth Indian division during world war two served first in egypt where with western desert force it fought the italians who had decided to invaded egypt. ... This article is about a Second World War battle in 1940, for the 1658 battle of the same name see Battle of the Dunes (1658) Combatants United Kingdom France Belgium Germany Commanders Lord Gort General Weygand Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Ewald von Kleist (Panzergruppe von Kleist) Strength approx. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Matériel (from the French for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... The Long Range Desert Group (LRDG) was a British Army unit during World War II. The unit was founded in Egypt following the Italian declaration of war (June 1940) by Major Ralph A. Bagnold with the assistance of Captains Clayton and Shaw, acting under the direction of General Wavell. ... SAS Cap Badge Official force name Special Air Service Nicknames The Regiment The SAS (British Army phonetic) the sass (discouraged by the unit itself) Motto Who Dares Wins Description Britains main Special Operations Force. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Major General Eric Edward Dorman-Smith (born 1895 in Bellamont Forest, Cootehill, County Cavan, Ireland; died 1969 in Ulster, Ireland) was a British Army soldier. ...

A Matilda tank advances through Egypt as part of Operation Compass.
A Matilda tank advances through Egypt as part of Operation Compass.

The counteroffensive, Operation Compass, began on 8 December 1940. O'Connor's relatively small force of 31,000 men, 275 tanks and 120 artillery pieces, ably supported by an RAF wing and the Royal Navy, broke through a gap in the Italian defences at Sidi Barrani near the coast[citation needed]. The Desert Force cut a swath through the Italian rear areas, stitching its way between the desert and the coast, capturing strongpoint after strongpoint by cutting off and isolating them, The Italian guns proved to be no match for the heavy British Matilda tanks and their shells bounced off the armour[citation needed]. By mid-December the Italians had been pushed completely out of Egypt, leaving behind 38,000 prisoners and large stores of equipment[citation needed]. Image File history File links Matilda_Compass. ... Image File history File links Matilda_Compass. ... Combatants Western Desert Force Italian Tenth Army Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Strength 50,000 soldiers 120 guns 275 tanks 100,000 soldiers 1,600 guns 600 light tanks Casualties 494 dead 1,225 wounded 3,000 dead 115,000 captured 400 tanks 1,292 guns Operation... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Tank, Infantry, Mk II, Matilda II (A12) (sometimes referred to as Senior Matilda) was a British tank of World War II. In a somewhat unorthodox move, it shared the same name as the Tank, Infantry, Mk I (A11). ...


The Desert Force paused to rest briefly before continuing the assault into Italian Libya against the remainder of Graziani's disorganised army[citation needed]. At that point, the Commander-in-Chief Middle East General Sir Archibald Wavell ordered the 4th Indian Division withdrawn to spearhead the invasion of Italian East Africa[citation needed]. This veteran division was to be replaced by the inexperienced 6th Australian Division, which was unprepared for desert warfare[citation needed]. Despite this setback, the offensive continued with minimum delay, and by the end of December the 6th Australian besieged and took Bardia, which fell along with 40,000 more prisoners and 400 guns[citation needed]. Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, GCB, GCSI, GCIE, CMG, MC, PC (May 5, 1883 – May 24, 1950) was a British field marshal and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only... Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in Africa. ... The most well-known 6th Division in the Australian Army was a unit in the Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF) during World War II. (The 6th Division name was previously used for a short-lived World War I unit, formed from First Australian Imperial Force troops in England, in... Bardia is a geographic region in the Kingdom of Nepal. ...


In January 1941, the Western Desert Force was redesignated XIII Corps directly answerable to General Wavell, a move O'Connor not only approved but had suggested it earlier[citation needed]. On 9 January, the offensive resumed. By January 12, the strategic fortress port of Tobruk was surrounded. On 22 January it fell and another 25,000 Italian POWs were taken along with valuable supplies, food, and weapons[citation needed]. On 26 January, the remaining Italian divisions in eastern Libya began to retreat to the northwest along the coast. O'Connor promptly moved to pursue and cut them off, sending the armour southwest through the desert in a wide flanking movement, while the infantry gave chase along the coast to the north[citation needed]. His armour caught up with the fleeing Italians at Beda Fomm on 5 February, blocking the main coast road and their route of escape. Two days later, after a costly and failed attempt to break through the blockade, and with the main British infantry force fast bearing down on them from Bengazi to the north, the demoralised, exhausted Italians unconditionally capitulated[citation needed]. O'Connor and Dorman-Smith cabled back to Wavell, "Fox killed in the open..."[2] The Western Desert Force, during World War II, was a British Commonwealth Army unit stationed in Egypt. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tobruk or Tubruq (Arabic: طبرق; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Ţubruq, Tobruck ) is a town, seaport, municipality, and peninsula in eastern Libya in Northern Africa. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Italian Offensive and Operation Compass September 13, 1940 - February 7, 1941 (Click to enlarge) Beda Fomm is a small coastal town in southwestern Cyrenaica, Libya located between the much larger port city Bengazi to its north and the larger town of El Agheila further to the southwest. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Benghazi (Arabic بنغازي, transliterated Banġāzī) is a seaport in Libya, Africa. ...


In two months, the XIII Corps/Western Desert Force had advanced over 800 miles (1,300 km), destroyed an entire Italian army of ten divisions, taken over 130,000 prisoners, 400 tanks and 1,292 guns at the cost of 500 killed and 1,373 wounded.[3] In recognition of this, O'Connor was made a Knight Commander of the Order of Bath, the first of his two knighthoods. Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ...


Reversal and capture

Rommel's first offensive—24 March 1941 – 15 June 1941.
Rommel's first offensive—24 March 194115 June 1941.

In a strategic sense, however, the victory of Operation Compass was not yet complete; the Italians still controlled most of Libya and possessed forces which would have to be dealt with. The Axis foothold in North Africa would remain a potential threat to Egypt and the Suez canal so long as this situation continued[citation needed]. O'Connor was aware of this and urged Wavell to allow him to push on to Tripoli with all due haste to finish off the Italians. Wavell concurred, and XIII Corps resumed its advance[citation needed]. But O'Connor's new offensive would prove short-lived. When the corps reached El Agheila, just to the southwest of Beda Fomm, Churchill ordered the advance to halt there[citation needed]. The Axis had invaded Greece and Wavell was ordered to send all available forces there as soon as possible to oppose this. Wavell took the 6th Australian Division, along with part of 7th Armoured Division and most of the supplies and air support for this ultimately doomed operation[citation needed]. Download high resolution version (1202x446, 105 KB)Rommels first offensive -- March 24, 1941 - June 15, 1941 Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... Download high resolution version (1202x446, 105 KB)Rommels first offensive -- March 24, 1941 - June 15, 1941 Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided by the formidable barrier of the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Operation Crusader November 18, 1941 - December 31, 1941 El Agheila is on the lower left (Click to enlarge) El Agheila is a coastal city on the Gulf of Sidra in far southwestern Cyrenaica, Libya. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, soldier in the British Army, orator, and strategist, and is studied as part of the modern British and world history. ... Combatants Germany, Italy, Bulgaria Greece, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand Commanders Wilhelm List, Maximilian von Weichs Alexander Papagos, Henry Maitland Wilson, Thomas Blamey Strength Germany: 680,000 men,[1] 1200 tanks, 700 aircraft, Italy: 529,000 men Greece: 350,000 men, British Commonwealth: 58,000 men Casualties Italy: 13,755...


But matters were soon to become much worse for the British. By March 1941, Hitler had dispatched General Erwin Rommel along with the German Africa Corps to bolster the all-but-defeated Italians. Wavell and O'Connor now faced a formidable foe under a commander whose cunning, resourcefulness, and daring would earn him the nickname "the Desert Fox". Rommel wasted little time in launching his own offensive and, by the end of March, had driven what was left of XIII Corps back from the El Agheila line, retaking Benghazi along with most of western Cyrenaica[citation needed]. Hitler redirects here. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname “The Desert Fox” (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... The seal of Afrikakorps The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK  ) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps, the term is... The Roman Empire ca. ...


Justly alarmed by this sudden turn of events and with command responsibilities now stretching across the eastern Mediterranean, Wavell appointed Lieutenant-General Sir Philip Neame commander of British and Commonwealth troops in Egypt[citation needed]. Neame and O'Connor quickly formed a friendship, both preferring to command from the front lines rather than from a distant headquarters[citation needed]. Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Philip Neame (VC, KBE, CB, DSO, Chevalier, Legion dHonneur and Croix de Guerre (France), Croix de Guerre (Belgium)) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

O'Connor (centre, middle distance) and other officers following their capture by the Germans.

O'Connor would spend the next two and a half years as a prisoner of war, mainly at the Castello di Vincigliata near Florence, Italy. Here he and Neame were in the company of such figures as Major-General Sir Adrian Carton de Wiart and Air Vice Marshal O.T. Boyd[citation needed]. Although the conditions of their imprisonment were not unpleasant, the officers soon formed an escape club and began planning a breakout. Their first attempt, a simple attempt to climb over the castle walls, resulted in a month's solitary confinement[citation needed]. The second attempt, by an escape tunnel built between October 1942 and March 1943, was initially successful. Boyd made it to Como near the Swiss border, but O'Connor and de Wiart were captured near Bologna in the Po Valley[citation needed]. It was only after the Italian surrender in September 1943 that the final, successful, attempt was made. With help from the Italian resistance movement O'Connor escaped while being transferred from Vincigliati. After a failed rendezvous with a submarine, he arrived by boat at Termoli, then went on to Bari where he was welcomed as a guest by General Alexander on 21 December 1943[citation needed]. In later life, he would remain in touch with his fellow prisoners from the Vincigliati escape club and the members of the Italian resistance, who had aided him during his escape.[citation needed] Upon his return to Britain, O'Connor was presented with the knighthood he had been awarded in 1941 and promoted to lieutenant-general. Montgomery suggested that O'Connor be his successor as Eighth Army commander but that post was instead given to Oliver Leese and O'Connor was given a corps to command[citation needed]. ImageMetadata File history File links OConnor_Captured. ... ImageMetadata File history File links OConnor_Captured. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Lieutenant General Sir Adrian Carton de Wiart VC, KBE, CB, CMG, DSO, (May 5, 1880 - June 5, 1963), was a British officer of Belgian and Irish descent. ... An Air Vice Marshals sleeve/shoulder insignia An Air Vice Marshals command flag Air Vice Marshal is the third most senior rank active in the Royal Air Force today, after the inactivation of Marshal of the Royal Air Force as a substantive rank in peacetime during defence cuts... Como (Comm in the local dialect of Lombard language) is a city in Lombardy, Italy, 45 km north of Milan. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... Partisans parading in Milan The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. // After Italys capitulation on 8 September 1943, the Italian resistance movement became massive. ... Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... Termoli is a medium-sized town on the Adriatic coast of Italy, in the province of Campobasso, region of Molise. ... Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ... Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, KG, OM, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCVO, DSO, MC, LL.D, PC (10 December 1891 - 16 June 1969) was a British military commander and field marshal, notably during the Second World War as the commander of the 15th Army... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Eighth Army was one of the best-known formations in World War II, fighting in the campaigns in North Africa and Italy. ... Oliver Leese (right) with Sir Henry Maitland Wilson. ...


VIII Corps and Normandy

On 21 January 1944 O'Connor became commander of VIII Corps[citation needed]. It consisted of the Guards Armoured Division, 11th Armoured Division, 15th (Scottish) Infantry Division along with 6 Guards Tank Brigade, 8 Group Royal Artillery and 2 Household Cavalry Regiment[citation needed]. A powerful force, but one still in need of much training and preparation for the upcoming Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy[citation needed]. O'Connor would prove up to the task, and over the following months the Corps would conduct many training operations in Yorkshire, including ones involving the new Sherman "Crab" mine-clearing flail tanks and the testing of novel tank modifications (see Hobart's Funnies)[citation needed]. During an inspection of the Guards division by Prime Minister Churchill in April, O'Connor raised concerns about armour protection and escape hatches on the Cromwell and Sherman tanks[citation needed]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x966, 2039 KB) Description: Normandy 13 - 30 June 1944 Source: www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x966, 2039 KB) Description: Normandy 13 - 30 June 1944 Source: www. ... It has been suggested that Northern France Campaign (1944) be merged into this article or section. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The British VIII Corps was an army corps formation that existed during World War I and World War II. World War I The VIII Corps was first formed at Gallipoli during World War I. The main British battle front was at Cape Helles on the tip of the Gallipoli peninsula. ... The Guards Armoured Division was formed on 17 June 1941. ... British 11th Armoured Division: The Black Bull. ... The British 15th (Scottish) Division was a New Army division formed in September 1914 as part of the K2 Army Group. ... The 6th Guards Brigade was a First and Second World War British Army Brigade. ... The Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment is a ceremonial regiment of the British Army. ... It has been suggested that Northern France Campaign (1944) be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... WWII foreign variants and use: Lend-Lease Sherman tanks Post-WWII foreign variants and use: Postwar Sherman tanks The Medium Tank M4 was the primary tank produced by the United States for its own use and the use of its Allies during World War II. Production of the M4 Medium... Badge of the 79th Armoured Division Amphibious DD tanks await blowing of breaches in the sea wall on Utah Beach. ... The A27M Cruiser Tank VIII Cromwell, named after the English Civil War leader Oliver Cromwell, was one of the most successful series of cruiser tanks fielded by Britain in World War II. It was the first tank in the British arsenal to combine a dual-purpose gun, high speed, and... General characteristics Length: 5. ...


On 11 June 1944, O'Connor and the leading elements of VIII Corps arrived in Normandy in the sector around Caen. Their first mission was to break out from the bridgehead established by the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division, cross the Odon and Orne rivers, then secure the high-ground positions northeast of Bretteville-sur-Laize and cut Caen off from the south. The breakout and river crossings were accomplished promptly[citation needed]. O'Connor's commanding officer and friend from his days in Palestine, Montgomery, congratulated him and his Corps on their success[citation needed]. But cutting off Caen would prove much harder (see Operation Epsom). O'Connor raised concerns that the Germans might launch a counterattack, and strongly recommended the ground gained by VIII Corps be consolidated before continuing on further against Caen[citation needed]. This was ignored, however, and the Germans did exactly as O'Connor had feared[citation needed]. VIII Corps was pushed back over the Orne. O'Connor tried to re-establish a bridgehead during Operation Jupiter, but met with little success[citation needed]. June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Caen (pronounced /kɑ̃/) is a commune of northwestern France. ... The formation of the Canadian 3rd Infantry Division was authorized on 17 May 1940. ... Commune names in France that have the name Odon: Aunay sur Odon Baron sur Odon Bretteville sur Odon There is a river in France named Odon. ... Orne is a département in the northwest of France named after the Orne River. ... Bretteville-sur-Laize is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Basse_Normandie région in France. ... Combatants Allied Powers Nazi Germany Commanders Lieutenant General Richard OConnor SS General Paul Hausser Strength 1 armoured division 3 infantry divisions 1 armoured brigade 2 SS Panzer Divisions 5 Panzer battlegroups Casualties British VIII Corps 4,020 12th SS Panzer Regiment 324 25th SS Panzer-Grenadier Regiment 383 26th... Orne is the name of two rivers in France: one in Normandy and one in Lorraine. ... There were 3 operations called Jupiter during World War 2: in 1942, a proposal to invade Norway in 1942, a failed Soviet offensive against the Rzhev salient in 1944, an attack to capture Hill 112, a prominent height in Normandy This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated...


The next major action for VIII Corps would be Operation Goodwood. The attack began on 18 July with a massive aerial bombardment by the 9th USAAF, and was ended on 20 July with a successful three-pronged drive to capture Bras and Hubert-Folie on the right, Fontenay on the left and Bourguebus Ridge in the centre[citation needed]. This was followed by Operation Bluecoat, formulated by O'Connor himself[citation needed]. 15th (Scottish) Division attacked towards Vire to the east and west of Bois du Homme in order to facilitate the American advance in Operation Cobra[citation needed]. A swift drive was followed by fierce fighting to the south during the first two days of the advance, with both sides taking heavy losses[citation needed]. Operation Goodwood was an Allied military operation of World War II from July 18 to 20 July 1944 taking place in Normandy some weeks following D-Day. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... Ninth Air Force is a Numbered Air Force in Air Combat Command (ACC). ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Broadband Remote Access Server (B-RAS) is an application running on your router that: Aggregates the output from digital subscriber line access multiplexers (DSLAM) Provides user PPP sessions or IP over ATM sessions Enforces quality of service (QoS) policies Routes traffic into an ISP’s backbone network A DSLAM collects... Hubert-Folie is a commune of the département of Calvados, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... Fontenay can refer to: Abbaye de Fontenay, see Marmagne Fontenai and Fontenay is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Fontenay, in the Eure département Fontenay, in the Indre département Fontenay, in the Manche département Fontenay, in the Saône-et-Loire... Combatants Allied Powers Germany Commanders Lieutenant General Miles Dempsey SS General Paul Hausser Strength 3 armoured divisions, 3 infantry divisions, 2 armoured brigades rising to: 3 Panzer Divisions, 3 infantry divisions Casualties N/A N/A Operation Bluecoat was an attack by British Second Army at the Battle of Normandy... Vire is a commune and a canton of the département of Calvados, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... Combatants Allied Powers Germany Commanders General Omar Bradley, General George S. Patton SS General Paul Hausser Strength 8 infantry divisions, 4 armoured divisions 2 infantry divisions, 11 infantry battlegroups, 2 Panzer Divisions, 1 Panzergrenadier Division Casualties Unknown Unknown Operation Cobra was the codename for the World War II operation planned...


As the allies prepared to pursue the Germans from France, O'Connor learned that VIII Corps would not take part in this phase of the campaign[citation needed]. VIII Corps was placed in reserve, replaced by XII Corps under Lieutenant-General Neil Ritchie[citation needed]. His command was reduced in mid-August, with the transfer of 11th Armoured Division to XXX Corps and 15th (Scottish) Division to XII Corps[citation needed]. While in reserve, O'Connor maintained an active correspondence with Churchill, Montgomery and others, making suggestions for improvements of armoured vehicles and addressing various other problems such as combat fatigue[citation needed]. Some of his recommendations were followed up (such as for mounting "rams" on armoured vehicles in order to cope with the difficult hedgerow country), but most were ignored[citation needed]. General Ritchie as commander of XII Corps in France General Sir Neil Ritchie GBE, KCB, DSO, MC (July 29, 1897 - December 11, 1983) was a British commanding officer during the Second World War. ... The XXX Corps was an infantry corps in the British Army. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Post-traumatic stress disorder. ... For other meanings, see hedge. ...


Operation Market Garden, India and afterwards

O'Connor remained in command of VIII Corps, for the time being, and was given the task of supporting Horrocks' XXX Corps in Operation Market Garden (the plan by Montgomery to establish a bridgehead across the Rhine in the Netherlands). In spite of receiving reduced forces and a largely thankless task, his Corps advanced and captured the Dutch towns of Deurne and Helmond[citation needed]. O'Connor suggested a possible string of operations in the following days, including the construction of bridges over the Escaut and the Meuse canal, and the capture of Soerendonk and Weert[citation needed]. If O'Connor's suggestions had been followed, the main German defences which had bogged down XXX Corps might have been bypassed and Market Garden salvaged[citation needed]. Following their entry into Weert at the end of September, VIII Corps prepared for and took part in the advance towards Venray and Venlo beginning on 12 October[citation needed]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x965, 1822 KB) Description: Northwestern Europe 1944 - 21st Army Group Operations 15 September - 15 December Source: www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x965, 1822 KB) Description: Northwestern Europe 1944 - 21st Army Group Operations 15 September - 15 December Source: www. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor Stanislaw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 17,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 8,000 dead or wounded Operation Market Garden (September... Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks, (September 7, 1895 - January 4, 1985) was a British military officer. ... The XXX Corps was an infantry corps in the British Army. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor Stanislaw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 17,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 8,000 dead or wounded Operation Market Garden (September... The Rhine (German: ; Dutch: ; French: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... See also: Deurne, Belgium. ... Helmond ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southern Netherlands. ... The Scheldt in Antwerp Length 350 km Elevation of the source 95 m Average discharge 120 m³/s Area watershed 21860 km² Origin France Mouth Westerschelde Basin countries France, Belgium, Netherlands The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French lEscaut) is a 350 km[1] (217 mile) long river that finds its... Meuse is a département in northeast France, named after the Meuse River. ... This is about the city in the Netherlands. ... This is about the city in the Netherlands. ... Venray is a municipality and a town in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Venlo ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In early September 1944, O'Connor heard rumours that he might be transferred to India. When he wrote to Montgomery about this, he was assured this was unlikely[citation needed]. On 27 November he received orders to take over from Lieutenant-General Sir Moseley Mayne as GOC-in-C, Eastern Army in India[citation needed]. This marked the end of a long and distinguished combat career. As was O'Connor's habit, he stayed in touch with members of VIII Corps after his transfer to India, and closely followed the accounts of their advances[citation needed]. is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In November 1945, O'Connor was promoted to full general and appointed GOC-in-C, North Western Army[citation needed]. In July 1946 he took over as Adjutant-General to the Forces and Aide de Camp General to the King[citation needed]. He spent much of this time visiting British troops stationed throughout India and the Far East[citation needed]. His career as Adjutant General was to be short-lived, however. After a disagreement over a cancelled demobilisation for troops stationed in the Far East, O'Connor offered his resignation in August 1947, which was accepted[citation needed]. Not long after this he was installed a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath[citation needed]. The Adjutant-General to the Forces, commonly just referred to as the Adjutant-General (AG), is one of the most senior officers in the British Army. ... A Personal Aide-de-Camp to The Queen (Personal Aide-de-Camp to The King when the Sovereign is male) is a member of the British Royal Family with military rank who has been appointed one of the Sovereigns titular military advisors. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Demobilization is the process of standing down a nations armed forces from combat-ready status. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. ...


In retirement

O'Connor retired in 1948 at the age of fifty-eight. Despite this, he maintained his links with the Army and took on other responsibilities[citation needed]. He was Commandant of the Army Cadet Force in Scotland from 1948 to 1959; Colonel of the Cameronians, 1951 to 1954; Lord Lieutenant of Ross and Cromarty from 1955 to 1964 and served as Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1964[citation needed]. His first wife, Jean, died in 1959[citation needed]. In 1963 he married Dorothy Russell[citation needed]. In July 1971 he was created Knight of the Thistle. On The World at War, a BBC television series, he spoke in depth about his experiences in the Western Desert and of missed opportunities during the offensive[citation needed]. He died in London on 17 June 1981[citation needed]. The Army Cadet Force (ACF) is a British youth organisation that offers progressive training in a multitude of the subjects from military training to adventurous training and first aid, at the same time as promoting achievement, discipline and good citizenship, to boys and girls aged 12 to 18 years and... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) was an infantry regiment of the British Army, the only regiment of rifles amongst the Scottish regiments of infantry. ... Flag of a Lord-Lieutenant The title Lord-Lieutenant is given to the British monarchs personal representatives around the United Kingdom. ... Ross and Cromarty: administrative county (1889-1975) Image:RossCromDistrict. ... As the Sovereigns personal representative Lord High Commissioners were appointed to the Parliament of the Kingdom of Scotland between 1603 and 1707. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... James VII ordained the modern Order. ... The World at War was a 1974 television documentary series on the Second World War, the events that led up to it, and those that followed in its wake. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... The Western Desert is a desert region West of the Nile in Egypt, extending to Libya. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Papers of General Sir Richard O'Connor.
  2. ^ Barnett, 58
  3. ^ Dupuy

References

  • Papers of General Sir Richard O'Connor KT, GCB, DSO, MC (1889–1981). King's College London Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  • Barclay, Cyril Nelson (1955). Against all odds: the story of the first offensive in Libya, 1940-41, including extracts from O'Connor's personal narrative. Sifton Praed & Co, London. 
  • Barnett, Corelli (Allen and Unwin). The Desert Generals, 1st ed.. ISBN 0-304-35280-2. 
  • Baynes, John (1989). The Forgotten Victor : General Sir Richard O'Connor, KT, GCB, DSO, MC, 1st ed., Potomac Books. ISBN 0-08-036269-9. 
  • Docherty, Richard (2004). Ireland's Generals in the Second World War. Four Courts Press, Dublin. ISBN 1-85182-865-6. 
  • Dupuy, R. Ernest; Trevor N. Dupuy (1986). The Encyclopedia Of Military History: From 3500 B.C. To The Present, 2nd revised edition, HarperCollins. ISBN 0-060-11139-9. 
  • Keegan, John (ed) (1992). Churchill's Generals. Abacus. ISBN 0-349-11317-3. 
  • Smart, Nick (2005). Biographical Dictionary of British Generals of the Second World War. Pen and Sword. ISBN 1-844-15049-6. 
Preceded by
Hector David Mackenzie
Lord Lieutenant of Ross and Cromarty
1955 – 1964
Succeeded by
Sir John Stirling

 
 

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