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Encyclopedia > Richard Nixon
Richard Milhous Nixon
Richard Nixon

In office
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
Vice President(s) Spiro Agnew (1969–1973)
vacant (Oct.–Dec. 1973)
Gerald Ford (1973–1974)
Preceded by Lyndon B. Johnson
Succeeded by Gerald Ford

In office
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Preceded by Alben W. Barkley
Succeeded by Lyndon B. Johnson

In office
December 1, 1950 – January 1, 1953
Preceded by Sheridan Downey
Succeeded by Thomas Kuchel

In office
January 2, 1947 – December 1, 1950
Preceded by Jerry Voorhis
Succeeded by Patrick J. Hillings

Born January 9, 1913(1913-01-09)
Yorba Linda, California
Died April 22, 1994 (aged 81)
New York City
Political party Republican
Spouse Thelma Catherine "Pat" Ryan
Alma mater Whittier College
Duke University School of Law
Occupation Lawyer
Religion Quaker
Signature Richard Nixon's signature

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the thirty-seventh President of the United States, and was the only U.S. President to resign the office. Elected twice to the presidency, he served from 1969 to 1974. He was also the thirty-sixth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953–1961). During the Second World War, he served as a Navy lieutenant commander in the Pacific, before being elected to the Congress, and later serving as Vice President. After an unsuccessful presidential run in 1960, Nixon was elected in 1968. Nixon is a surname, descended from a Scottish clan traditionally allied with Clan Armstrong and most commonly refers to Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States It may also refer to Agnes Nixon, American soap opera creator Amy Nixon, Canadian curler Brad Nixon, Canadian politician Christine Nixon, Australian police... Image File history File links Nixon_30-0316a. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... LBJ redirects here. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate from Kentucky, and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ... LBJ redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into U.S. Congressional Delegations from California. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Sheridan Downey (1884-1961) was a Democratic Senator from California. ... Categories: People stubs | 1910 births | 1994 deaths | United States Senators ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Map Californias 12th congressional district is one of 53 California Congressional Districts. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jerry Voorhis (April 6, 1901-?) was a democratic politician from California. ... Patrick Jerome Hillings (February 19, 1923 - July 20, 1994) was a U.S. Representative from California. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: Land of Gracious Living Location of Yorba Linda within Orange County, California. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... GOP redirects here. ... Thelma Catherine Pat Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of former President Richard Nixon and the First Lady of the United States of America from 1969 to 1974. ... Southwest Quadrant Whittier College in 1912 Hoover Hall and Library Whittier College is a private liberal arts college in Whittier, California. ... The Duke University School of Law is the law school and a constituent academic unit of Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Quaker redirects here. ... Image File history File links Richard_M._Nixon_signature. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... A resignation occurs when a person holding a position gained by election or appointment steps down. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... USN redirects here. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. ...


Under President Nixon, the United States followed a foreign policy marked by détente with the Soviet Union and by the opening of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China. As a result of the Watergate scandal, Nixon resigned the presidency in the face of likely impeachment by the United States House of Representatives and conviction by the United States Senate. His successor, Gerald Ford, issued a controversial pardon for any federal crimes Nixon may have committed. Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Watergate redirects here. ... The impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton in 1999, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presiding. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ...


Nixon experienced a stroke on April 18, 1994 and died four days later at the age of 81. is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...

Contents

Early years

Richard Milhous Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California. His father was Francis "Frank" A. Nixon and his mother was Hannah M. Nixon (born Hannah Milhous). She was a Quaker, and his upbringing is said to have been marked by conservative Quaker observances such as refraining from drinking, dancing and swearing. His father converted from Methodist to Quaker after his marriage. Richard Nixon's great-grandfather George Nixon III had been killed at the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War while serving in the 73rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Through his mother, he was a second cousin of the writer Jessamyn West. Motto: Land of Gracious Living Location of Yorba Linda within Orange County, California. ... Francis Anthony Frank Nixon (3 December 1878–4 September 1956), father of United States President Richard Nixon, was born in Vinton County, Ohio. ... Hannah Milhous Nixon (7 March 1885–30 September 1967) was mother of President Richard Nixon. ... Quaker redirects here. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Mary Jessamyn West (July 18, 1902 – February 23, 1984) was an American Quaker who wrote numerous stories and novels, notably The Friendly Persuasion (1945). ...

The infant Richard stands outside the Nixons' Yorba Linda Home (early 1914)
The infant Richard stands outside the Nixons' Yorba Linda Home (early 1914)

Nixon's parents had five children, all boys: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,536 × 1,152 pixels, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The infant Richard stands outside the Nixons Yorba Linda Home (early 1914), looking toward what is today the Richard Nixon Presidential Library and... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,536 × 1,152 pixels, file size: 211 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The infant Richard stands outside the Nixons Yorba Linda Home (early 1914), looking toward what is today the Richard Nixon Presidential Library and...

Lieutenant Commander Richard Nixon of the United States Navy, 1945
Lieutenant Commander Richard Nixon of the United States Navy, 1945

Nixon attended Fullerton High School, from 1926 to 1928, in Fullerton, California, and later, Whittier High School, from 1928 to 1930, in Whittier, California. He graduated second in his class from Whittier, showing a penchant for Shakespeare and Latin. Although he was awarded a scholarship to Harvard University, he declined, due to insufficient financial means for attendance.[1] Instead, he chose to enroll at Whittier College, a local Quaker school, where he co-founded a fraternity called the Orthogonian Society. Nixon was a formidable debater, a stand out in collegiate drama productions, and was elected student-body president. While at Whittier, he taught Sunday school at East Whittier Friends Church, where he remained a member all his life. A lifelong American football fan, Nixon practiced with the team assiduously, but spent most of his time on the bench. In 1934, he graduated second in his class from Whittier, and went on to Duke University School of Law, where he received a full scholarship and graduated third in his class. Harold Samuel Nixon (1 June 1909–7 March 1933) was a brother of United States President Richard Nixon. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Francis Donald Nixon (23 November 1914 – 27 June 1987) was a brother of United States President Richard Nixon. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Arthur Burdg Nixon (May 26, 1918–August 19, 1925) was a brother of President Richard Nixon. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward Calvert Nixon (born 3 May 1930) is the youngest brother of President Richard Nixon: Harold Nixon (June 1, 1909 – March 7, 1933) Richard Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) Donald Nixon (November 23, 1914 – June 27, 1987) Arthur Nixon (May 26, 1918 – August 10, 1925) Edward Nixon Nixon... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Public photo of the young LT Commander Richard Nixon of the US Navy 1945 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Public photo of the young LT Commander Richard Nixon of the US Navy 1945 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Fullerton High School is a high school located in Fullerton, California, United States. ... Location of Fullerton within Orange County, California, U.S. Coordinates: , Country State County Orange Government  - Mayor Shawn Nelson Area  - City  22. ... Whittier High School (WHS) is a high school located in Whittier, California, United States and belongs to the Whittier Union High School District. ... Whittier is a city in Los Angeles County, California about 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Los Angeles. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Southwest Quadrant Whittier College in 1912 Hoover Hall and Library Whittier College is a private liberal arts college in Whittier, California. ... A friendly society (sometimes called a mutual society, benevolent society or fraternal organization) is a mutual association for insurance-like purposes, and often, especially in the past, serving ceremonial and friendship purposes also. ... The Orthogonian Society is a local fraternity at Whittier College, co-founded by Richard Nixon and primarily known for its football team heritage. ... Debate (North American English) or debating (British English) is a formal method of interactive and position representational argument. ... Sunday school, Indians and whites. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. ... The Duke University School of Law is the law school and a constituent academic unit of Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States. ...


In 1937, Nixon returned to California, was admitted to the bar, and began working in the law office of a family friend in a nearby small town. The work was mostly routine, and Nixon generally found it to be dull. He later wrote that family law cases caused him particular discomfort, since his reticent Quaker upbringing was severely at odds with the idea of discussing intimate marital details with strangers. This article is about the U.S. state. ... A bar association is a body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ...


During the Second World War, Nixon served as a reserve officer in the Navy. He received his training at Naval Air Station Quonset Point, Rhode Island and Ottumwa, Iowa, before serving in the supply corps on several islands in the South Pacific, commanding cargo handling units in the SCAT.[2] There he was known as "Nick" and for his prowess in poker, banking a large sum that helped finance his first campaign for Congress. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... USN redirects here. ... Naval Air Station Quonset Point was a United States Naval Base in Quonset Point, Rhode Island. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Ottumwa (pronounced Uh-tuhm-wa) is a city in Wapello County, Iowa. ... South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command (SCAT) was a joint command of U.S. military logistics units in World War II. It contributed notably to the success of U.S. forces in the battles for Guadalcanal (1942-1943) and New Georgia (1943). ... For the domestic fireplace tool, see fireplace poker. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


Marriage and children

The Nixon family in September 1952; pictured are Richard, Tricia, Julie, and Pat

Richard Nixon met Thelma "Pat" Ryan, a high school teacher native to California. The two became acquainted at a Little Theater group when they were cast in the same play. Nixon asked Pat Ryan to marry him the first night they went out as a joke. "I thought he was nuts or something," she recalled.[3] They eventually did marry on June 21, 1940.The Nixons had two daughters: Tricia, born in 1946, and Julie, born two years later. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Categories: Stub | 1946 births | Children of U.S. Presidents ... Julie Nixon Eisenhower (born July 5, 1948 in Washington, D.C.) is the daughter of Richard Nixon and married to David Eisenhower, grandson of the 34th president, Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... Thelma Catherine Pat Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of former President Richard Nixon and the First Lady of the United States of America from 1969 to 1974. ... Thelma Catherine Pat Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of former President Richard Nixon and the First Lady of the United States of America from 1969 to 1974. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Stub | 1946 births | Children of U.S. Presidents ... Julie Nixon Eisenhower was born July 5, 1948 in Washington, D.C. the second daughter of Richard and Pat Nixon. ...


House and Senate: 1946–1952

Nixon while he served in Congress
Nixon while he served in Congress

Nixon was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1946, defeating Democratic five-term incumbent Jerry Voorhis in the 12th Congressional district in southern California. Nixon's campaign alleged that his opponent's CIO PAC support showed that Voorhis was collaborating with communist-controlled labor unions. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Jerry Voorhis (April 6, 1901-?) was a democratic politician from California. ... The Congress of Industrial Organizations, or CIO, proposed by Senator Huey Long in 1932, was a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955. ... In the United States, a political action committee, or PAC, is the name commonly given to a private group organized to elect or defeat government officials in order to promote legislation, often supporting the groups special interests. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...


Nixon's first major breakthrough came in his two terms in Congress, where his dogged investigation on the House Un-American Activities Committee broke the impasse of the Alger Hiss spy case in 1948. Nixon believed Whittaker Chambers, who alleged that Hiss, a high State Department official, was a Soviet spy. Nixon discovered that Chambers had saved microfilm reproductions of incriminating documents by hiding the film in a pumpkin (these became known as the "Pumpkin Papers"). These documents were alleged both to be accessible only by Hiss, and to have been typed on Hiss's personal typewriter. Hiss was convicted of perjury in 1950 for statements that he made to the HUAC. The discovery that Hiss, who had been an adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, could have been a Soviet spy, thrust Nixon into the public eye and made him a hero to many of FDR's enemies, and an enemy to many of FDR's supporters. In reality, his support for internationalism put him closer to the center of the Republican party. HUAC hearings House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA) (1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Alger Hiss testifying Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. ... Whittaker Chambers, 1948 Jay Vivian (David Whittaker) Chambers (April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961) was an American writer, editor, Communist party member and spy for the Soviet Union who defected and became an outspoken opponent of communism. ... Department of State redirects here. ... FDR redirects here. ...


In the 1950 mid-term elections, Nixon defeated Democratic Congresswoman Helen Gahagan Douglas to win a seat in the United States Senate. Accusing her of being a fellow traveler with Communist sympathies, Nixon called her "the Pink Lady" and said she was "pink right down to her underwear." Gahagan, for her part, bestowed upon Nixon one of the most enduring nicknames in American politics: "Tricky Dick". Helen Gahagan in the 1920s Helen Gahagan (25 November 1900 - 28 June 1980) was a United States actress and (under the name Helen Gahagan Douglas) a politician of Scottish descent. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... A fellow traveller is a person who sympathizes with the beliefs of a particular organization, but does not belong to that organization. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... A reference to President Richard Nixon, stemming from his alleged involvement in the Watergate scandal in 1973. ...


Vice Presidency

Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon at a campaign stop for the presidential election of 1952
Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon at a campaign stop for the presidential election of 1952

In 1952, Nixon was elected Vice President on Dwight Eisenhower's ticket; he was 39 years old. In September 1952, during the campaign, the New York Post and other publications reported that Nixon had kept a "slush fund" for personal use. Democrats and leading Republicans pressured Eisenhower to remove Nixon from the ticket. Nixon convinced Eisenhower to let him defend himself. Nixon went on TV on September 23, and defended himself in a famous speech. He provided an independent third-party review of the fund's accounting along with a personal summary of his finances, which he cited as exonerating him from wrongdoing, and he noted that the Democratic Presidential candidate, Adlai Stevenson, also had a similar fund. This speech would, however, become better known for its rhetoric, such as when he stated that his wife Pat did not wear mink, but rather "a respectable Republican cloth coat," and that although he had been given an American Cocker Spaniel named "Checkers" in addition to his other campaign contributions, he was not going to give it back because his daughters loved it. As a result, this speech became known as the "Checkers speech." At the end of the broadcast, Nixon intended to appeal to viewers to write to the Republican National Committee to voice their support or opposition. Although the broadcast was cut off before he could make this appeal, his speech resulted in a flood of support, prompting Eisenhower to keep Nixon on the ticket. Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Eisenhower Library File No. ... Eisenhower Library File No. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician, noted for intellectual demeanor and advocacy of liberal causes in the Democratic party. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Checkers speech The Checkers speech was given by Richard Nixon on September 23, 1952, when he was the Republican candidate for the Vice Presidency. ...


Nixon greatly expanded the office of Vice President. Although he had little formal power, he had the attention of the media and the Republican Party. He demonstrated that the office could be a springboard to the White House as it had not been since the 19th century; most Vice Presidents since have followed his lead and sought the presidency. Nixon was the first Vice President to step in temporarily to run the government. He did so three times when Eisenhower was ill: on the occasions of Eisenhower's heart attack on September 24, 1955; his ileitis in June 1956; and his stroke on November 25, 1957. Despite this, Nixon was forced to announce his own inclusion on the 1956 Eisenhower re-election campaign, which highlighted the lack of rapport he and Eisenhower shared. Nixon's quick thinking was on display on July 24, 1959, at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow where he and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had an impromptu "kitchen debate" about the merits of capitalism versus communism. For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Heart attack redirects here. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Crohns disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the alimentary tract and it can involve any part of it - from the mouth to the anus. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Soviet redirects here. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... The Kitchen Debate was an impromptu debate (through interpreters) between Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, on July 24, 1959. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...


1960 election and post-Vice Presidency

In 1960, Nixon ran for President against John F. Kennedy in a race that remained close all year.[4] Nixon campaigned on his experience, but Kennedy called for new blood and claimed that the Eisenhower-Nixon administration had allowed the Soviet Union to overtake the U.S. in offensive missiles (the "missile gap"). Kennedy also made much of the stagnant American economy of 1960, telling voters it was time to "get the country moving again." Nixon's frosty relationship with Eisenhower also hurt him. When asked about major policy decisions that Nixon had helped shape, the President responded: "Give me a week and I might think of one." In the first of four televised debates, Kennedy not only looked better physically, he also came off as polished, articulate and mature. The performance dispelled many people's worries that the young senator was too inexperienced to be President. Nixon, for his part, was recovering from an illness, and, with the stubble on his face visible, looked unimpressive. (Nixon's performance in the debate was perceived to be mediocre only in the visual medium of television, though; many people listening on the radio considered that Nixon had won).[5] The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Nixon lost the 1960 election narrowly. It is often argued by American historians that Nixon in fact lost primarily due to the invention of the televised debate. There were charges of vote fraud in Texas and Illinois, and Nixon supporters challenged the results in both states as well as nine others. All of these challenges failed. The Kennedy camp challenged Nixon's victory in Hawaii. That challenge succeeded, and after all the court battles and recounts were done, Kennedy had a greater number of electoral votes than he had held after Election Day.


Nixon wrote Six Crises (1962), a book dealing with his political involvement as a congressman, senator and as Vice-President. The book used six different crises Nixon had experienced throughout his political career to illustrate his political memoirs. It was not supposed to be an academic work on the subject of crises, rather a method of depicting his political biography in a personal manner. The work won praise from many policy experts and critics. Ironically, as Margaret MacMillan would discuss in her book Nixon in China (2006), Six Crises found a favorable critic in Mao Zedong, who referred to the book when in preparation for Nixon's visit in 1972. Mao redirects here. ...


In 1962, against the advice of many friends and supporters, Nixon chose to challenge the popular Pat Brown for Governor of California. Nixon had never before shown any interest in the office and biographers still disagree on his precise motive in seeking it. In all likelihood, he was looking for a reason not to run for president again in 1964. With John F. Kennedy's popularity strong, it was likely to be a losing effort.[citation needed] Therefore, if Nixon won in 1962, he would have the excuse that he was too busy running the state. If he lost, he could plead a desire not to campaign again so soon. In either case, Brown won handily. For other persons named Pat Brown, see Pat Brown (disambiguation). ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that...


Nevertheless, years of campaigning and losing had worn Nixon down. In an impromptu concession speech the morning after the election, Nixon famously blamed the media for favoring his opponent. At a postelection press conference, a bitter Nixon lashed out at reporters who, he said "are so delighted that I have lost." He added:

For 16 years, ever since the Hiss case, you've had a lot of—a lot of fun—that you've had an opportunity to attack me and I think I've given as good as I've taken.....But as I leave you I want you to know—just think how much you're going to be missing. You won't have Nixon to kick around anymore, because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference. [6]

—Richard Nixon 1962 Alger Hiss testifying Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. ...

Nixon's loss in the California gubernatiorial election was widely believed to be the end of his career. However, just one year later, John Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. The events that defined the tumultuous 1960s were beginning, and before the decade closed, a "New Nixon," one who was "tanned, rested and ready," would win the presidency in another close election. President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... Dallas redirects here. ...


1968 election

Nixon campaigns in Pennsylvania, 1968
Nixon campaigns in Pennsylvania, 1968

Seeking a fresh start after the 1962 gubernatorial defeat, Nixon moved to New York City, where he became a senior partner in the leading law firm Nixon, Mudge, Rose, Guthrie & Alexander. During the 1966 Congressional elections, he stumped the country in support of Republican candidates, rebuilding his base in the party. In the election of 1968, he completed a remarkable political comeback by taking the nomination. Nixon's success in the nomination might be attributed to Robert F. Kennedy's assassination after he won the California Democratic primary in June 1968.[citation needed] Nixon appealed to what he called the "silent majority" of socially conservative Americans who disliked the hippie counterculture and the anti-war demonstrations. Nixon promised peace with honor, and, though never claiming to be able to win the war, Nixon did say that "new leadership will end the war and win the peace in the Pacific". He did not explain in detail his plans to end the war in Vietnam, causing Democratic nominee Hubert Humphrey to allege that he must have had some "secret plan." Nixon didn't invent the phrase, but because he did not disavow the term, it soon became part of the campaign. In his memoirs, Nixon wrote that he actually had no such plan. In a three-way race between Nixon, Humphrey, and independent candidate George Wallace, Nixon defeated Humphrey by less than 1% of the popular vote to become the 37th President of the United States. The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The U.S. House election, 1966 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1966 which occurred in the middle of President Lyndon Johnsons second term. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Silent Majority was a Swiss rap and hip hop music group. ... Singer of a modern Hippie movement in Russia The hippie subculture was a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread around the world. ... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An election promise is a promise made to the public by a politician who is trying to win an election. ... George Corley Wallace, Jr. ...


The Nixon presidency (1969 – 1974)

Nixon is sworn in as the 37th President on January 20, 1969, with the new First Lady, Pat, holding the family Bibles.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...

Foreign policies

In his book "Real Peace" in 1983 Nixon wrote that: "Short of changing human nature, therefore, the only way to achieve a practical, livable peace in a world of competing nations is to take the profit out of war".[7]


Vietnam War

President Nixon greets released POW Lt. Commander John McCain, future U.S. Senator, upon his return from years in a North Vietnamese prison camp, 1973

Once in office, he proposed the Nixon Doctrine, a strategy of replacing American troops with the Vietnamese troops, also called "Vietnamization." In July 1969, he visited South Vietnam, and met with President Nguyen Van Thieu and with U.S. military commanders. American involvement in the war declined steadily until all American troops were gone in 1973. After the withdrawal of U.S. troops, fighting was left to the South Vietnamese army. Although the South Vietnamese were well supplied with modern arms, their fighting capability was limited by inadequate funding, low morale, and corruption. The lack of funding was primarily because of large funding cutbacks by the U.S. Congress. Nixon was widely praised in the United States for having delivered 'peace with honor', and ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam. However, a part of his strategy was the resumption of the U.S. bombing of North Vietnam should they violate the Peace agreement, which Nixon was confident they would. Watergate, however, made it impossible to carry this out. Nixon, along with his National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger also sought a 'decent interval' solution to the problem of South Vietnam, so that the country would survive for long enough for him not to be personally blamed for its ultimate collapse. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... // Milestones of U.S. involvement under President Truman 9 March 1945 — Japan overthrows nominal French authority in Indochina and declares an independent Vietnamese puppet state. ... Public photo of President Richard M. Nixon greeting released US officer and POW and future US Senator John McCain (R-Arizona) after Vietnam war File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Public photo of President Richard M. Nixon greeting released US officer and POW and future US Senator John McCain (R-Arizona) after Vietnam war File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... In the Royal Navy, United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, a lieutenant commander (lieutenant-commander or Lt Cdr in the RN) is a commissioned officer superior to a lieutenant and inferior to a commander. ... For McCains grandfather and father, see John S. McCain, Sr. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyen Van Thieu, (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor, serves as the chief advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ...


Nixon ordered secret bombing campaigns in Cambodia in March 1969 (code-named Operation Menu) to destroy what was believed to be the headquarters of the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam, and later escalated the conflict with secretly bombing Laos before Congress cut the funding for the conflict in Vietnam. Another goal of the bombings was to interdict the Ho Chi Minh trail that passed through Laos and Cambodia. In ordering the bombings, Nixon realized he would be extending an unpopular war as well as breaching Cambodia's stated neutrality. In a televised speech on April 30, 1970, Nixon announced the incursion of U.S. troops into Cambodia to disrupt so-called North Vietnamese sanctuaries. Combatants United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Operation Menu was the codename of a covert U.S. Strategic Air Command (SAC) bombing campaign conducted in eastern Cambodia from 18 March 1969 until 26 May 1970, during the Vietnam Conflict. ... Viet Cong (NLF) flag The Viet Cong, also known as the National Front for the Liberation of Southern Vietnam (Vietnamese Mặt Trận Dân Tộc Giải Phóng Miền Nam), VC, or the National Liberation Front (NLF), was an insurgent (partisan) organization fighting the Republic... Air interdiction (AI) is the use of aircraft to attack tactical ground targets that are not in close proximity to friendly ground forces. ... oooo lalala The Ho Chi Minh trail was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) through the neighboring kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam, United States National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Lu Lan (ARVN, II Corps), Do Cao Tri (ARVN, III Corps), Nguyen Viet Thanh (ARVN, IV Corps), Creighton W. Abrams (U.S.) Pham Hung (political), Hoang Van Thai (military) Strength 58...


During deliberations over Nixon's impeachment, his unorthodox use of executive powers in ordering the bombings was considered as an article of impeachment, but the charge was dropped as not a violation of constitutional powers. In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ...


China and the Soviet Union

President Nixon greets Chinese Party Chairman Mao Zedong (left) in a historic visit to the People's Republic of China, 1972
President Nixon greets Chinese Party Chairman Mao Zedong (left) in a historic visit to the People's Republic of China, 1972

Relations between the Western powers and Eastern Bloc changed dramatically in the early 1970s. In 1960, the People's Republic of China publicly split from its main ally, the Soviet Union, in the Sino-Soviet Split. As tension along the border between the two communist nations reached its peak in 1969 and 1970, Nixon decided to use their conflict to shift the balance of power towards the West in the Cold War. In what later would be known as the "China Card", the Nixon administration deliberately improved relations with China in order to gain a strategic advantage over the Soviet Union, but also gave Moscow a chance to improve relations so as not to be squeezed by a U.S.-China détente. In 1971, a move was made to improve relations when China invited an American table tennis team to China; hence the term "Ping Pong Diplomacy". Nixon sent Henry Kissinger on a secret mission to China in July 1971, after which a stunned world was told that Nixon intended to visit Communist China in 1972. As a result, many countries that had previously opposed the People's Republic's entry into the United Nations changed their stance. Despite frantic lobbying by the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, George H.W. Bush, in October 1971 the U. N. General Assembly voted to give to the Chinese seat, hitherto held by America's ally, the Republic of China, to the People's Republic and expel the Republic of China from the U. N. In February 1972 Nixon grabbed the world's attention by himself going to China to have direct talks with Mao. During this visit he privately stated that he believed “There is one China, and Taiwan is a part of China.”[8] Fearing the possibility of a Sino-American alliance, the Soviet Union yielded to American pressure for détente. File links The following pages link to this file: Cold War (1962-1991) Sino-Soviet split Categories: U.S. history images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Cold War (1962-1991) Sino-Soviet split Categories: U.S. history images ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... Mao redirects here. ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Mao redirects here. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ...


Nixon used the improving international environment to address the topic of nuclear peace. The first Strategic Arms Limitation Talks were finally concluded the same year with the SALT I treaty. To win American friendship both China and the Soviet Union cut back on their diplomatic support for North Vietnam and advised Hanoi to come to terms. They did not, however, cut back their military aid to North Vietnam — in fact Chinese military aid to North Vietnam increased during this period.[9] Nixon later explained his strategy: The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. ...

I had long believed that an indispensable element of any successful peace initiative in Vietnam was to enlist, if possible, the help of the Soviets and the Chinese. Though rapprochement with China and détente with the Soviet Union were ends in themselves, I also considered them possible means to hasten the end of the war. At worst, Hanoi was bound to feel less confident if Washington was dealing with Moscow and Beijing. At best, if the two major Communist powers decided that they had bigger fish to fry, Hanoi would be pressured into negotiating a settlement we could accept.[10]

—Richard Nixon

Indo-Pakistan War of 1971

The Nixon administration backed Pakistani President Yahya Khan during the 1971 crisis in East Pakistan

Nixon strongly supported General Yahya Khan of Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 despite widespread human rights violations against the Bengalis, particularly Hindus, by the Pakistan Army. Though Nixon claimed that his objective was to prevent a war, and safeguard Pakistan's interests (including the issue of refugees), in reality the U.S. President was fearful of an Indian invasion of West Pakistan that would lead to Indian domination of the sub-continent and strengthen the position of the Soviet Union, which had recently signed a Treaty of Friendship with India. He also sought to demonstrate his reliability as a partner to the People's Republic of China, with whom he had been negotiating a rapprochement, and where he planned to visit just a few months later. President Nixon and his national security adviser Henry Kissinger downplayed reports of Pakistani genocide in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and risked a confrontation with Moscow to look tough.[11] Many, including Kissinger,[12] have mentioned that the foreign policy "tilt" towards Pakistan had more to do with Nixon's personal like for the dictator and the support to Pakistan was influenced by sentimental considerations and a long standing anti-Indian bias.[13] The Nixon administration was also responsible for illegally providing military supplies to the Pakistani military despite Congressional objections,[14] and against American public opinion, which was concerned with the atrocities against East Pakistanis.[15] His decision to help Pakistan in a war at any cost prompted him to send the nuclear-equipped USS Enterprise to the Indian Ocean to try to threaten the Indian military. Though it did little to turn the tide of war, it has been viewed as the trigger for India's subsequent nuclear program.[16] During the crisis Nixon was vocal in abusing the Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi as an "old witch" in private conversations with Henry Kissinger, who is also recorded as making derogatory comments against Indians.[17] Ultimately Nixon's foreign policy initiatives in this matter largely failed as his attempt at a show of strength to impress China was at the cost of dismembering their mutual ally, Pakistan, who felt that once again United States had fallen short as an ally in failing to prevent Bangladeshi independence.[18] Image File history File links Yahya_and_Nixon. ... Image File history File links Yahya_and_Nixon. ... The President of Pakistan (Urdū: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mamlikat) is the head of state of Pakistan. ... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Pakistan Commanders Col. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military conflict between India and Pakistan. ... This is false story,never been established by any scientific survey. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... West Pakistan was the popular and sometimes official (1955–1970) name of the western wing of Pakistan until 1971, when the eastern wing (East Pakistan) became independent as Bangladesh. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... The French for bring together. Used in English to describe the theory (that) says that children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need. See Attachment theory This article is a stub. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Military of Pakistan (Urdu: پاک عسکریہ) is the principal defence organization of Pakistan. ... Enterprise Logo The supercarrier, USS Enterprise (CVN-65), formerly CVA(N)-65, is the worlds first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the eighth U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name. ... The military of India, officially known as the Indian armed forces, is the primary military organisation responsible for the territorial security and defense of India. ... India is believed to possess an arsenal of nuclear weapons and maintains intermediate-range ballistic missiles to deliver them. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the Government of India. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) She was the Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ...


Other wars and crises

Nixon encouraged Augusto Pinochet's military overthrow of the elected socialist government of Chile in 1973. Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile as a military dictator [2] from 1974 to 1990, and head of the military junta from 1973 to 1974. ... Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup détat of September 11, 1973. ...


Israel, a powerful American ally in the Middle East, was supported by the Nixon administration during the Yom Kippur War. When an Arab coalition led by Egypt and Syria — allies to the Soviets — attacked in October 1973 Israel suffered initial losses and pressed European powers for help, but the Europeans responded with inaction. Not so with Nixon, who, cutting through inter-departmental squabbles and bureaucracy, initiated an air lift of American arms. By the time the U.S. and the Soviet Union negotiated a truce, Israel had penetrated deep into enemy territory. A long term effect was the movement of Egypt away from the Soviets toward the U.S. But the victory for its ally and the support provided to them by the U.S. came at the cost of the 1973 oil crisis. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum...

President Hafez al-Assad of Syria greets President Nixon on his arrival at Damascus airport in 1974
President Hafez al-Assad of Syria greets President Nixon on his arrival at Damascus airport in 1974

On October 10, 1973, Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned amidst charges of bribery, tax evasion and money laundering. Nixon chose Representative Gerald Ford to replace Agnew. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,600 × 1,757 pixels, file size: 1,020 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,600 × 1,757 pixels, file size: 1,020 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


Domestic policies

Although often viewed as a conservative by his contemporaries, Nixon's domestic policies often appear centrist, or even liberal, to later observers. As President, Nixon imposed wage and price controls, indexed Social Security for inflation, and created Supplemental Security Income (SSI). The number of pages added to the Federal Register each year doubled under Nixon. He eradicated the last remnants of the gold standard, created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), promoted the Legacy of parks program and implemented the Philadelphia Plan, the first significant federal affirmative action program, and dramatically improved salaries for US federal employees worldwide. In the wake of racial tensions that had sometimes erupted into urban violence before he assumed the Presidency, Nixon's policy on race relations and civil rights was perceived to be influenced by a doctrine commonly referred to as "benign neglect." As a party leader, Nixon helped build the Republican Party (GOP), but he ran his 1972 campaign separately from the party, which perhaps helped the GOP escape some of the damage from Watergate. The Nixon White House was the first to organize a daily press event and daily message for the media, a practice that all subsequent staffs have performed. In economics, incomes policies are wage and price controls used to fight inflation. ... Social Security, in the United States, currently refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... Supplemental Security Income is a monthly stipend provided to some citizens by the United States federal government. ... The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ... For other uses, see Gold standard (disambiguation). ... EPA redirects here. ... OSHA logo The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Revised Philadelphia Plan is a plan that required government contractors in Philadelphia to hire minority workers. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Benign neglect, also called salutary neglect, is a term that has been used in retrospect to describe many historical actions, including Britains hands-off attitude toward many of its colonies. ... The Republican Party was born in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ...


Nixon is credited with creating the modern day Imperial Presidency, in which the presidency retains a high level of control over government policy and decisions. In the early 1970s, Nixon impounded billions of dollars in federal spending and expanded the power of the Office of Management and Budget. These encroachments on the power of Congress led to the passage of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974. The Imperial Presidency is a term used from the 1960s and made popular by the historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. ... Impoundment is the refusal of Presidents to spend money that has been appropriated by Congress. ... The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States which is tasked with coordinating United States Federal agencies. ... The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 is a U.S. federal law passed by the United States Congress specifying that the President may propose to Congress that funds be rescinded. ...


On January 2, 1974, Nixon signed a bill that lowered the maximum U.S. speed limit to 55 miles per hour (90 km/h) in order to conserve gasoline during the 1973 energy crisis. This law remained in effect until 1995, though states had been allowed to raise the limit to 65 miles per hour in rural areas since 1987. is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... 55 mph speed limit being erected in response to the National Maximum Speed Law. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Petrol redirects here. ... (Redirected from 1973 energy crisis) United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ...


Committed to wide-ranging bureaucratic reforms, in a last-minute bid to save his presidency, Nixon signed a significant reform of the federal budgeting process and granted wide authority to Congress in shaping the final budget.


School integration

The Nixon years witnessed the first large-scale integration of public schools in the South, after the region had stalled in compliance with the 1954 Supreme Court's Brown ruling. Strategically, Nixon sought a middle way between the segregationist George C. Wallace and liberal Democrats, whose support of integration was alienating some Southern white Democrats. His plan has since been known as the Southern strategy. Nixon concentrated on the principle that the law must be color-blind. "I am convinced that while legal segregation is totally wrong, forced integration of housing or education is just as wrong."[19] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... George Corley Wallace (August 25, 1919–September 13, 1998) was an American politician who was elected Governor of Alabama (as a Democrat) four times (1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982) and ran for U.S. President (in 1964, 1968, 1972 and 1976). ... In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to the focus of the Republican party on winning U.S. Presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of the U.S. Southern states. ... Race-blind (sometimes called Color-blind in a pun with color blindness) is a term describing activities undertaken and services provided without regard to the racial characteristics of those who participate in an activity or receive a service. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ...


Though Nixon thought of appealing to southern whites by slowing school desegregation, he decided to enforce the law after the Supreme Court, in Alexander v. Holmes County (1969), prohibited further delays. Nixon's Cabinet committee on school desegregation, under the leadership of Labor Secretary George P. Shultz, quietly set up local biracial committees to assure smooth compliance without violence or political grandstanding. By fall of 1970, two million southern black children enrolled in newly created unitary fully integrated school districts. "In this sense, Nixon was the greatest school desegregator in American history," historian Dean Kotlowski concluded.[20] Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ...

Mobutu Sese Seko and Richard Nixon at Washington, D.C. in 1973.

Image File history File links Mobutu_Nixon. ... Image File history File links Mobutu_Nixon. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...

U.S. space program

On July 20, 1969, Nixon addressed Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin live via radio during their historic Apollo 11 moonwalk. Nixon also made humanity's longest distance phone call to Neil Armstrong on the moon. (All U.S. Project Apollo moon landings, and the attempted moon landing of Apollo 13, took place during Nixon's first term.) On January 5, 1972, Nixon approved the development of NASA's Space Shuttle program, a decision that profoundly influenced American efforts to explore and develop space for several decades thereafter. is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... This article is about the former American astronaut. ... Colonel Buzz Aldrin, Sc. ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961 – 1975. ... Original crew photo. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsə]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ...


Under the Nixon Administration, NASA's budget declined. NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine was drawing up ambitious plans for the establishment of a permanent base on the Moon by the end of the 1970s and the launch of a manned expedition to Mars as early as 1981. Nixon, however, rejected these ideas. Thomas Otten Paine (November 9, 1921 - May 4, 1992), American scientist, was the third Administrator of NASA, serving from March 21, 1969 to September 15, 1970. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...


Landslide re-election

In 1972, Nixon was re-elected in one of the biggest landslide election victories in US political history, defeating Senator George McGovern and garnering over 60% of the popular vote. He carried 49 of the 50 states, losing only in Massachusetts and the District of Columbia. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, Ph. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... ...


Major initiatives

During the Nixon Administration, the United States established many government agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Supplemental Security Income program, and the Office of Minority Business Enterprise; the Post Office Department was abolished as a cabinet department and reorganized as a government-owned corporation: the U.S. Postal Service. Nixon proposed in 1971 to create four new government departments superseding the current structure: departments organized for the goal of efficient and effective public service as opposed the thematic bases of Commerce, Labor, Transportation, Agriculture, et al. Departments like State, Treasury, Defense and Justice would remain under this proposal.[21] Nixon also suspended the converting of the US dollar into gold, a central point of the Bretton Woods system, allowing its value to float in world markets. EPA redirects here. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Amtrak is the name of an intercity passenger train system created on May 1, 1971 in the United States. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... Supplemental Security Income is a monthly stipend provided to some citizens by the United States federal government. ... The Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that promotes growth and competitiveness of the United States minority-owned businesses. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ... For other uses, see Gold standard (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A floating currency is a currency that uses a floating exchange rate as its exchange rate regime. ...


In international affairs, President Nixon normalized diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, enacted détente, or the peaceful pause in the Cold War, with the Soviet Union (later abolished by President Ronald Reagan). He signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, following the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (also known as SALT I). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM treaty or ABMT) was a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. ... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. ...


On April 3, 1974, Nixon announced he would pay $432,787.13 in back taxes plus interest after a Congressional committee reported that he had inadvertently underpaid his 1969 and 1972 taxes. is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Universal health insurance

In his 1974 State of the Union address, Nixon called for universal health care. On 6 February 1974, he introduced the Comprehensive Health Insurance Act with the following remarks: Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...

"I shall propose a sweeping new program that will assure comprehensive health-insurance protection to millions of Americans who cannot now obtain it or afford it, with vastly improved protection against catastrophic illnesses."

Nixon's plan had the following bullet points:

  • build on existing employer-sponsored insurance plans
  • provide government subsidies to the self-employed and small businesses
  • ensure universal access to health insurance
  • no new federal bureaucracy

The AFL-CIO and the United Auto Workers lobbied to kill the plan, not because they were fundamentally opposed to universal health care, but because they hoped for an even better plan after the next election. With the collapse of the Nixon presidency, however, followed by his successor Ford's overarching concerns with the economy and government spending, the plan was put on the back burner and forgotten for a generation. (Hillary Clinton proposed a very similar plan in 2007 when running for president.) [22] REDIRECT Hillary Rodham Clinton   This is a redirect from a title with another method of capitalisation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Resignation

After the U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary Committee gave a favorable vote on articles of impeachment, (due to the Watergate scandal), Nixon resigned, on August 9, 1974. Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Administration and Cabinet

Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
The Nixon Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Richard Nixon 1969–1974
Vice President Spiro Agnew 1969–1973
  Gerald Ford 1973–1974
State William P. Rogers 1969–1973
  Henry Kissinger 1973–1974
Treasury David M. Kennedy 1969–1971
  John Connally 1971–1972
  George Shultz 1972–1974
  William Simon 1974
Defense Melvin R. Laird 1969–1973
  Elliot Richardson 1973
  James Schlesinger 1973–1974
Justice John N. Mitchell 1969–1972
  Richard Kleindienst 1972–1973
  Elliot Richardson 1973–1974
  William B. Saxbe 1974
Postmaster General Winton M. Blount 1969–1971 1
Interior Walter Joseph Hickel 1969–1971
  Rogers Morton 1971–1974
Agriculture Clifford M. Hardin 1969–1971
  Earl Butz 1971–1974
Commerce Maurice Stans 1969–1972
  Peter Peterson 1972–1973
  Frederick B. Dent 1973–1974
Labor George Shultz 1969–1970
  James D. Hodgson 1970–1973
  Peter J. Brennan 1973–1974
HEW Robert Finch 1969–1970
  Elliot Richardson 1970–1973
  Caspar Weinberger 1973–1974
HUD George Romney 1969–1973
  James Thomas Lynn 1973–1974
Transportation John A. Volpe 1969–1973
  Claude Brinegar 1973–1974
1. Postmaster General removed from the Cabinet on July 1, 1971.
Winton M. Blount was continued as Postmaster General until December 31, 1971.


Portrait of Richard M. Nixon (1913-1994). ... Portrait of Richard M. Nixon (1913-1994). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... William Pierce Rogers (June 23, 1913 – January 2, 2001) was an American politician, who served as a Cabinet officer in the administrations of two U.S. Presidents in the third quarter of the 20th century. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... For the American historian, see David M. Kennedy (historian). ... John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... William Edward Simon (November 27, 1927–June 3, 2000) became the 63rd Secretary of the Treasury on May 8, 1974, during the Nixon administration. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... Melvin Laird Melvin Robert (Bam) Laird was born September 1, 1922 and nicknamed Bambino (shortened to Bam and pronounced like the word bomb) by his mother. ... Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 – December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born 15 February 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1974 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... John Newton Mitchell (September 15, 1913 – November 9, 1988) was the first United States Attorney General ever to be convicted of illegal activities and imprisoned. ... Richard Gordon Kleindienst (August 5, 1923–February 3, 2000) was an American lawyer and politician. ... Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 – December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... William Bart Saxbe (born June 24, 1916) was an American politician of the Republican Party, who served as a U.S. Senator from Ohio and as U.S. Attorney General under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald R. Ford. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... A bronze sculpture of Winton M. Blount by Charles Parks stands in the Blount Cultural Park in Montgomery, Alabama. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Categories: People stubs | 1919 births | Governors of Alaska | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1914 births | 1979 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior ... Clifford Morris Hardin (born October 9, 1915) served as United States Secretary of Agriculture from 1969 to 1971. ... Earl Lauer Butz (born July 3, 1909) is a former United States government official who served as Secretary of Agriculture under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Maurice Stans Maurice Hubert Stans (March 22, 1908 - April 14, 1998) was the finance chairman for the commmittee to re-elect United States President Richard Nixon (CREEP). ... This article is about the Pete Peterson who was a U.S. government official during the Nixon administration; there is also a Pete Peterson who was a former Florida Congressman and ambassador to Vietnam. ... Frederick Baily Dent United States Secretary of Commerce from February 2, 1973 to March 26, 1975. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... James D. Hodgson (born December 3, 1915, in Dawson, Minnesota) is an American politican. ... Peter Joseph Brennan (May 24, 1918 - October 2, 1996) was United States Secretary of Labor under President Nixon and President Ford. ... The United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare was the head of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. ... Robert H. Finch Robert Hutchison Finch (October 9, 1925-October 10, 1995) was a Republican politician from Southern California. ... Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 – December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Caspar Willard Cap Weinberger, GBE (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006), was an American politician and Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987, making him the third longest-serving defense secretary to date, after Robert McNamara and Donald Rumsfeld. ... The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... George Wilcken Romney (July 8, 1907 – July 26, 1995) was chairman of the American Motors Corporation from 1954 to 1962 and was elected three times as the Republican Governor of Michigan from 1963 to 1969. ... James Thomas Lynn (born 1927) was a U.S. administrator. ... John Anthony Volpe (December 8, 1908 - November 11, 1994) was a Governor of Massachusetts and a U.S. Secretary of Transportation. ... Claude Stout Brinegar (born December 16, 1926) was the third United States Secretary of Transportation, serving from February 2, 1973 to February 1, 1975. ...


The Nixon Administration comprised an impressive array of talent both in the cabinet and in the White House staff. Among the many people who came to Washington to serve in the administration were one future President (George H. W. Bush); two future Vice Presidents (Dick Cheney and Bush again); six future secretaries of state (Henry Kissinger, Alexander Haig, George P. Shultz, James Baker, Lawrence Eagleburger and Colin Powell); five future secretaries of defense (James Schlesinger, Donald Rumsfeld, Casper Weinberger, Frank Carlucci and Cheney again); a future chairman of the joint chiefs of staff (Powell again), two future secretaries of the treasury (William Simon and Baker again); a future secretary of energy (Schlesinger again); and three future chiefs of staff (Rumsfeld, Cheney and Baker again). Indeed a member of the Nixon Administration has held a cabinet post or been a senior advisor within the subsequent six presidential administrations. That so many key figures of the Ford, Reagan, Bush (41) and Bush (43) Administrations first entered government service in the Nixon White House is arguably the most profound and long-lasting legacy of Richard Nixon. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... For other persons named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W. Bush. ... Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (born August 1, 1930), is an American statesman and diplomat who served as The United States Secretary of State under President George H. W. Bush. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born 15 February 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1974 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Caspar Willard Weinberger (born August 18, 1917) is best known as United States Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from 1982 through 1987, and for his related roles in the Strategic Defense Initiative program (popularly known as Star Wars), and in the Iran-Contra Affair. ... Frank Carlucci Frank Charles Carlucci III (born October 18, 1930) was a government official in the United States, associated with the Republican Party. ... William Edward Simon (November 27, 1927–June 3, 2000) became the 63rd Secretary of the Treasury on May 8, 1974, during the Nixon administration. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Nixon appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the...

Warren Earl Burger (September 17, 1907 – June 25, 1995) was Chief Justice of the United States from 1969 to 1986. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch... Harold Andrew Blackmun (November 12, 1908 - March 4, 1999) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1970 to 1994. ... Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ...

Watergate

Main article: Watergate scandal
Nixon's letter of resignation

The term Watergate has come to encompass an array of illegal and secret activities undertaken by Nixon or his aides during his administration. Some of these began as early as 1969, when Nixon and Kissinger tapped the phones of numerous journalists and administration officials in an effort to stop internal administration information leaks to the press. Other major or well-known episodes of wrongdoing included the 1971 burglary of Dr. Lewis Fielding in search of the psychiatric records of Daniel Ellsberg, who leaked the Pentagon Papers to the press; Nixon's order to have the FBI investigate CBS News reporter Daniel Schorr after he reported critically on the administration; and talk by Nixon's aide G. Gordon Liddy about having the newspaper columnist Jack Anderson assassinated. Watergate redirects here. ... Richard Nixons letter of resignation to Henry Kissinger. ... Richard Nixons letter of resignation to Henry Kissinger. ... Daniel and Patricia Marx Ellsberg - 2006 Jacob Appelbaum Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national uproar in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, the U.S. militarys account of activities during the Vietnam War... The Pentagon Papers is the colloquial term for United States-Vietnam Relations, 1945-1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, a 47 volume, 7,000-page, top-secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945... Schorr (left) and NPRs Scott Simon prepare for Saturday broadcast. ... George Gordon Battle Liddy (born November 30, 1930) was the chief operative for U.S. President Richard Nixons White House Plumbers unit. ... jack donald anderson (september 156, 1995 and wasted himself with a gun; december19, 1999) was an American newspaper columnist and is considered one of the fathers of modern investigative journalism. ...


These episodes did not come to light until several of Nixon's men were caught breaking into Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate Hotel in Washington, DC in June 1972. In October 1972, The Washington Post reported that the FBI had determined Nixon's aides had spied on and sabotaged numerous Democratic presidential candidates as a part of the operations that led to the Watergate scandal. The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Watergate complex is an office-apartment-hotel complex built in 1967 in northwest Washington, D.C., best known for being the site of burglaries that led to the Watergate scandal and the resignation of President Richard Nixon. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...

The Fords escort the Nixons across the South Lawn of the White House to the waiting presidential helicopter before Gerald Ford takes the oath of office, August 9, 1974
The Fords escort the Nixons across the South Lawn of the White House to the waiting presidential helicopter before Gerald Ford takes the oath of office, August 9, 1974

During the campaign five burglars were arrested on June 17, 1972 in the Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate office complex. They were subsequently linked to the White House. This became one of a series of major scandals involving the Committee to Re-Elect the President (known as CRP, but referred to by his opponents as CREEP), including the White House enemies list and assorted "dirty tricks." The ensuing Watergate scandal exposed the corruption, illegality and deceit displayed by some of those within the Nixon Administration.[23] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of the United States oath of office. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The Committee to Re-elect the President, often abbreviated to CRP or CREEP, was a Nixon White House fundraising organization. ... Nixons enemies list was compiled by Charles Colson and sent to John Dean Nixons Enemies List is the informal name of what started as a list of President Richard Nixons major political opponents compiled by Charles Colson, written by George T. Bell [1] (assistant to Colson, special... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Nixon himself downplayed the scandal as mere politics, but when his aides resigned in disgrace, Nixon's role in ordering an illegal cover-up came to light in the press, courts, and congressional investigations. Nixon owed back taxes,[24] had accepted illicit campaign contributions,[25] and had harassed opponents with executive agencies, wiretaps, and break-ins. In addition, he had ordered the secret bombing of Cambodia.[26] Unlike the tape recordings by earlier Presidents, his secret recordings of White House conversations were revealed and subpoenaed and showed details of his complicity in the cover-up. Nixon was named by the grand jury investigating Watergate as "an unindicted co-conspirator" in the Watergate scandal. Campaign finance refers to the means by which money is raised for political election campaigns. ... An Executive Agency is a British public institution that carries out some part of the executive functions of the United Kingdom government, Scottish Executive, Welsh Assembly and Northern Ireland Executive. ... Telephone tapping (or wire tapping/wiretapping in the US) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... Combatants United States Democratic Republic of Vietnam National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Operation Menu was the codename of a covert U.S. Strategic Air Command (SAC) bombing campaign conducted in eastern Cambodia from 18 March 1969 until 26 May 1970, during the Vietnam Conflict. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... A subpoena is a command to appear at a certain time and place to give testimony upon a certain matter. ...


One piece of evidence, an audio tape of conversations held in the White House between the President and various aides on the 20 June 1972, features an unexplained 18½ minute gap,[27] which appears to be divided into two distinct portions (suggesting that the tape had been recorded over on two separate occasions). The first deleted section, of about five minutes, has been attributed to human error on the part of Rose Mary Woods, the President's personal secretary, who admitted accidentally wiping the section while transcribing the tape. No definitive explanation has been offered for the deletion of the second section, but contextual evidence suggests that Nixon and then-Chief of Staff Bob Haldeman discussed the Watergate problem in the conversation obliterated. The gap, while not conclusive proof of wrong-doing on the part of the President, cast doubt on Nixon's claim that he was unaware of the cover-up at this stage. Although not discovered until several years after he had left office, transcripts of an earlier June 20, 1972 conversation between Nixon and White House Special Counsel Charles Colson clearly show Nixon's early involvement in obstructing justice in the Watergate investigation.[28] is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harry Robbins (Bob) Haldeman (October 27, 1926 - November 12, 1993) was a U.S. political aide and businessman, best known for his service in the Nixon White House, and for his role in the Watergate scandal, for which he was convicted and imprisoned. ... This article is about a short-lived television series. ... Charles (Chuck) Wendell Colson (born October 16, 1931, in Boston, Massachusetts) was the chief counsel for President Richard Nixon from 1969 to 1973 and was one of the Watergate Seven, jailed for Watergate-related charges. ...

Nixon departing the White House aboard a H-3 Sea King helicopter after resigning
Nixon departing the White House aboard a H-3 Sea King helicopter after resigning

He lost support from some in his own party as well as much popular support after what became known as the Saturday Night Massacre of October 20, 1973, in which his demand that independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox be dismissed, was refused to be carried out by Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus, who both resigned in protest. The then Solicitor General, the most senior officer remaining at the Department of Justice, Robert Bork, dismissed Cox. Image File history File links Richard Nixon delivering the V sign outside Army One upon his final departure from the White House Photograph by Robert L. Knudsen, August 9, 1974, National Archives (http://www. ... Image File history File links Richard Nixon delivering the V sign outside Army One upon his final departure from the White House Photograph by Robert L. Knudsen, August 9, 1974, National Archives (http://www. ... The Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King (company designation S-61) is a twin-engined anti-submarine warfare (ASW)helicopter. ... The Saturday night massacre (October 20, 1973) was the term given by political commentators to U.S. President Richard Nixons executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the forced resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus during the controversial and drawn-out... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... A special prosecutor is a lawyer from outside the government appointed by the attorney general or Congress to investigate a federal official for misconduct while in office. ... Archibald Cox, Jr. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 – December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Deputy Attorney General is a high ranking government official, usually second to the Attorney General (AG). ... William Doyle Ruckelshaus (born July 24, 1932) is an attorney and civil servant in the United States. ... The United States Solicitor General is the individual appointed to argue for the Government of the United States in front of the Supreme Court of the United States, when the government is party to a case. ... Robert Heron Bork (born March 1, 1927) is a conservative American legal scholar who advocates the judicial philosophy of originalism. ...


As the Watergate story continued to dominate headlines, Nixon tried to reassure a suspicious public by continuing to deflect himself from any wrong doing. On November 17, 1973, at a televised question and answer session with the press, Nixon said,

People have got to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook. I've earned everything I've got.

The House Judiciary Committee controlled by Democrats opened formal and public impeachment hearings against Nixon on May 9, 1974. Despite his efforts, one of the secret recordings, known as the "smoking gun" tape, was released on August 5, 1974, and revealed that Nixon authorized hush money to Watergate burglar E. Howard Hunt, and also revealed that Nixon ordered the CIA to tell the FBI to stop investigating certain topics because of "the Bay of Pigs thing." In light of his loss of political support and the near certainty of both his impeachment by the House of Representatives and his probable conviction by the Senate, he resigned on August 9, 1974, after addressing the nation on television the previous evening. listen  He never admitted to criminal wrongdoing, although he later conceded errors of judgment. U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly) the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Hush money is an informal term for financial incentives or rewards offered in exchange for not divulging information. ... Everette Howard Hunt, Jr. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Nixon Resign. ...


On September 8, 1974, a blanket pardon from President Ford, who served as Nixon's second Vice President, ended any possibility of indictment. The pardon was highly controversial and Nixon's critics claimed that the blanket pardon was quid pro quo for his resignation. No evidence of this "corrupt bargain" has ever been proven, and many modern historians dismiss any claims of overt collusion between the two men concerning the pardon. The pardon of Richard Nixon hurt Ford politically, and it was one of the many reasons cited for Ford's defeat in the election of 1976.[citation needed] The Democratic win in the 1974 mid-term elections provided a governing House majority that continued for two more decades. is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Quid pro quo (Latin for something for something [1]) indicates a more-or-less equal exchange or substitution of goods or services. ... Three deals cut in connection with the Presidency of the United States, two in contested United States presidential elections and one involving a Presidential appointment of a Vice President, have been described as Corrupt Bargains. ...


Later years and death

Then-President Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan at the White House with former President Nixon, 1988
Then-President Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan at the White House with former President Nixon, 1988

In 1976, Nixon was disbarred by the State of New York,[29] and soon resigned his other law licenses. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution‎ (907 × 600 pixels, file size: 91 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution‎ (907 × 600 pixels, file size: 91 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ...


In his later years Nixon worked hard to rehabilitate his public image. He gained great respect as an elder statesman in the area of foreign affairs, being consulted by both Democratic and Republican successors to the presidency. He made many foreign visits in his post-presidential years, including his final one, to Russia in March 1994 just one month before his death.


Nixon continued to author books after his departure from politics, writing ten, including his most-recent memoirs.


Presidential Library and Museum

Official White House portrait of Richard Nixon
Official White House portrait of Richard Nixon
Main article: Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum

The Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace opened as a private institution on July 19, 1990, with President Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon in attendance, as well as former Presidents Gerald Ford and Ronald Reagan, as well as the current President at the time George H.W. Bush, and their First Ladies: Betty, Nancy, and Barbara.[30] From the time of its original dedication until July 11, 2007, the property was owned and operated by a private foundation and was not part of NARA's Presidential Libraries system. In January 2004, Congress passed legislation that provided for the establishment of a federally operated Nixon Presidential Library in Yorba Linda. In March 2005, the Archivist of the United States and the Reverend John H. Taylor, Executive Director of the privately run Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace Foundation, exchanged letters on the requirements that will allow the Nixon Library and Birthplace to become the twelfth federally funded Presidential Library operated and staffed by NARA. On October 16, 2006, Dr. Timothy Naftali began his tenure as director of the Materials Project; he assumed the directorship of the newly renamed Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum on July 11, 2007 when the institution was officially welcomed into the federal presidential library system. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... View from birthplace looking across gardens to Nixon Library Museum. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... Betty Fords official White House portrait, painted in 1977 by Felix de Cossio Elizabeth Anne Bloomer Warren Ford (born April 8, 1918) is the widow of former United States President Gerald R. Ford and was the First Lady from 1974 to 1977. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... For the daughter of President George W. Bush, see Barbara Pierce Bush. ... View from birthplace looking across gardens to Nixon Library Museum. ...


Pat Nixon's death

First Lady Pat Nixon died June 22, 1993 of health problems, including two strokes and lung cancer. Her funeral services were held on the grounds of the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California during the week until her burial on June 26. Richard Nixon was in deep sadness the entire time, but was comforted by his family as well as former presidents Gerald Ford and Ronald Reagan, and their First Ladies, Betty and Nancy, respectively. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ... Motto: Land of Gracious Living Location of Yorba Linda within Orange County, California. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... Betty Fords official White House portrait, painted in 1977 by Felix de Cossio Elizabeth Anne Bloomer Warren Ford (born April 8, 1918) is the widow of former United States President Gerald R. Ford and was the First Lady from 1974 to 1977. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ...


Death and funeral

President Nixon's funeral on April 27, 1994 was attended by then incumbent US President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, accompanied by former US presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and George H.W. Bush, with Betty Ford, Rosalynn Carter, Nancy Reagan and Barbara Bush respectively
President Nixon's funeral on April 27, 1994 was attended by then incumbent US President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, accompanied by former US presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and George H.W. Bush, with Betty Ford, Rosalynn Carter, Nancy Reagan and Barbara Bush respectively

Nixon suffered a severe stroke at 5:45 p.m. EDT on Monday, April 18, 1994, while preparing to eat dinner in his Park Ridge, New Jersey home. It was determined that a blood clot resulting from his heart condition had formed in his upper heart, then broken off and traveled to his brain. He was rushed by ambulance to New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center in Manhattan, initially alert, but unable to speak or to move his right arm or leg. His vision was reportedly also impaired, but he was able to greet his private doctor and daughters on separate occasions with strong squeezes from his left hand and his renowned thumbs-up salute.[31] Nixon was reportedly also visited by longtime friend Reverend Billy Graham and New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani the day after his stroke. Download high resolution version (934x578, 121 KB)Five presidents and first ladies attended the funeral of Richard Nixon on April 27, 1994, in Nixons hometown of Yorba Linda, California. ... Download high resolution version (934x578, 121 KB)Five presidents and first ladies attended the funeral of Richard Nixon on April 27, 1994, in Nixons hometown of Yorba Linda, California. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is the junior United States Senator from New York, and is a candidate for the Democratic nomination in the 2008 presidential election. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... Betty Fords official White House portrait, painted in 1977 by Felix de Cossio Elizabeth Anne Bloomer Warren Ford (born April 8, 1918) is the widow of former United States President Gerald R. Ford and was the First Lady from 1974 to 1977. ... Eleanor Rosalynn Smith Carter (born August 18, 1927) is the wife of former President Jimmy Carter and was First Lady of the United States from 1977 to 1981. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... For the daughter of President George W. Bush, see Barbara Pierce Bush. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Park Ridge is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. ... New York-Presbyterian Hospital is a prominent university hospital in New York City, composed of two medical centers, Columbia University Medical Center and New York Weill Cornell Medical Center. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Billy Graham, see Billy Graham (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Rudolph William Louis Rudy Giuliani III, KBE (born May 28, 1944) served as the Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2001. ...


Doctors initially claimed Nixon's stroke was minor, but the damage to the brain caused swelling (cerebral edema). Less than 24 hours after his arrival at the hospital, Nixon's level of consciousness began falling sharply, and on Thursday, April 21, 1994, he slipped into a deep coma. Nixon's living will stipulated that he was not to be placed on a ventilator to sustain his life. On Friday, April 22, 1994, he died at 9:08 p.m., with his daughters at his bedside; he was 81. Cerebral edema (cerebral oedema in British English) is an excess accumulation of water in the intra- and/or extracellular spaces of the brain. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... A living will, also called will to live, advance health directive, or advance health care directive, is a specific type of power of attorney or health care proxy or advance directive. ... A medical ventilator is a device designed to provide mechanical ventilation to a patient. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...

The graves of President and Mrs. Nixon
The graves of President and Mrs. Nixon

Nixon's funeral took place on April 27, 1994, the first for an American President since that of Lyndon B. Johnson in 1973, which was presided over by Nixon during his presidency. Speakers at the service, held at the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace (now Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum), included then-President Bill Clinton, former secretary of state Henry Kissinger, Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole, California Governor Pete Wilson, and the Reverend Billy Graham. Also in attendance were former Presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush and their respective first ladies. Nixon was buried beside his wife, Pat (also 81 when she died ten months earlier, on June 22, 1993, of lung cancer), on the grounds of the Richard Nixon Presidential Library in Yorba Linda. He was survived by his two daughters, Tricia and Julie, and four grandchildren. The funeral was not a state funeral, therefore his body did not lie in state in the Rotunda of the United States Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... LBJ redirects here. ... View from birthplace looking across gardens to Nixon Library Museum. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... For others named Pete Wilson, see Peter Wilson. ... The Reverend is an honorary prefix added to the names of Christian clergy and ministers. ... For other persons named Billy Graham, see Billy Graham (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Thelma Catherine Pat Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of former President Richard Nixon and the First Lady of the United States of America from 1969 to 1974. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... The south facade of the United States Capitol Capitol Hill redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Legacy

Presidential scholars, both liberal and conservative, generally agree that Nixon presents a special problem when seeking to evaluate and determine his presidential ranking because his foreign policy and domestic policy successes stand in dramatic contradiction to the corrupt elements in his administration. Political scientist Walter Dean Burnham noted the "dichotomous or schizoid profiles. On some very important dimensions both Wilson and L.B. Johnson were outright failures in my view; while on others they rank very high indeed. Similarly with Nixon." Historian Alan Brinkley said: "There are presidents who could be considered both failures and great or near great (for example, Wilson, Johnson, Nixon)." James MacGregor Burns observed of Nixon, "How can one evaluate such an idiosyncratic President, so brilliant and so morally lacking?"[32] Even George McGovern, eleven years after Nixon defeated him for the presidency, commented: "President Nixon probably had a more practical approach to the two superpowers, China and the Soviet Union, than any other president since World War II. ... I think, with the exception of his inexcusable continuation of the war in Vietnam, Nixon really will get high marks in history."[33] Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and Presidents Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, Ph. ...


Public perception

Nixon meets Elvis Presley in December 1970
Nixon meets Elvis Presley in December 1970

Nixon's career was frequently dogged by his personality, and the public perception of it. Editorial cartoonists such as Herblock and comedians had fun exaggerating Nixon's appearance and mannerisms, to the point where the line between the human and the caricature version of him became increasingly blurred. He was often portrayed as a sullen loner, with unshaven jowls, slumped shoulders, and a furrowed, sweaty brow. He was also characterized as the epitome of a "square" and the personification of unpleasant adult authority. Elvis Presley meeting Richard Nixon. ... Elvis Presley meeting Richard Nixon. ... Elvis redirects here. ... Herbert Lawrence Block, commonly known as Herblock (October 13, 1909 – October 7, 2001), was a U.S. editorial cartoonist. ...


Nixon tried to shed these perceptions by staging photo-ops with young people and even cameo appearances on popular TV shows such as Laugh-In and Hee Haw (before he was President). He also frequently brandished the two-finger V sign (alternately viewed as the "Victory sign" or "peace sign") using both hands, an act that became one of his best-known trademarks. Due to his uptight image, many Americans were shocked to hear that the President had a much gruffer, aggressive side, revealed by the sheer amount of swearing and vicious comments seen on the transcripts of the president's White House tapes. This did not help the public perception and fed the comedians even more. Nixon's sense of being persecuted by his "enemies," his grandiose belief in his own moral and political excellence, and his commitment to use ruthless power at all costs led some experts to describe him as having a narcissistic and paranoid personality.[34] During the Watergate scandal, Nixon's approval rating had fallen to 23%.[35] A photo op, short for photograph opportunity, is a carefully planned human event that results in a memorable and effective photograph. ... Rowan & Martins Laugh-In was a United States comedy television show broadcast from January 22, 1968 through 1973 over the NBC Network. ... For the EP from the musical band Birthday Party, see Hee Haw (EP). ... The V sign is a hand gesture in which the first and second fingers are raised and parted, whilst the remaining fingers are clenched. ... This article is about narcissism as a word in common use. ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ... An approval rating is a polling term which reflects the percent of respondents to an opinion poll who approve of a particular person or program. ...


Miscellaneous information

  • It has been alleged that Nixon was an alcoholic[36] who, in 1968, received a supply of the anti-convulsant Dilantin from his friend Jack Dreyfus.[37] Nixon supposedly took this drug without a prescription for several years. However, two Nixon aides have disputed these claims, leaving a number of questions about Nixon's purported drug use. [3] By contrast, in 1979, close friend and advisor the Reverend Billy Graham remarked about the former President: "He took all those sleeping pills, and through history, drugs and demons have gone together."[38]
  • Nixon is one of only two men to have run on five National tickets for a major party (the other one is Roosevelt again) for Vice President in 1952 and 1956 and for the presidency in 1960, 1968, and 1972. He was nominated as a resident of two different states: between his 1960 and 1968 presidential campaigns, he moved from California to New York.
  • Nixon's last public appearance was in April of 1994 at a Conestoga High School performance of Into the Woods. His granddaughter Jennie Eisenhower, also the great-granddaughter of Dwight D. Eisenhower, played the role of Little Red Riding Hood.[39]
  • The last picture taken of Nixon was on April 16, 1994 at the wedding of family friend Marie Abplanalp just two days before his stroke and six days before his death.
  • In the final four days of Nixon's life after suffering his ultimately fatal stroke he was at the same hospital (New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center) as Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, who was suffering from cancer and died less than a month after Nixon.
  • Nixon is the only American to have been honoured with the Nishan-e-Pakistan, Pakistan's highest civil decoration.
  • Nixon applied for the Special Agent position in the FBI.
  • Gonzo journalist and counter-culture figure Hunter S. Thompson considered Nixon to be his greatest foe, and made a habit of bashing him in his writings. Thompson wrote this of Nixon: "Richard Nixon has never been one of my favorite people anyway. For years I've regarded his existence as a monument to all the rancid genes and broken chromosomes that corrupt the possibilities of the American Dream; he was a foul caricature of himself, a man with no soul, no inner convictions, with the integrity of a hyena and the style of a poison toad. The Nixon I remembered was absolutely humorless; I couldn't imagine him laughing at anything except maybe a paraplegic who wanted to vote Democratic but couldn't quite reach the lever on the voting machine." [40]
  • Nixon's favorite politician was the French President Charles De Gaulle.[citation needed]
  • Nixon's favorite dinner was a chicken casserole dish. His favorite breakfast included cottage cheese ketchup and/or black pepper. [4]
  • Nixon was a distant cousin of Leka, Crown Prince of Albania. [5]
  • Three of his predecessors died during his term in office: Dwight D. Eisenhower on March 28, 1969, Harry S. Truman on December 26, 1972 and Lyndon B. Johnson on January 22, 1973. From Johnson's death, until Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974, he was the only living current or former U.S. President.
  • In The Book of Lists, Ashley Montagu included Nixon in a list of the worst well-known people in history--along with Adolf Hitler, Stalin and Heinrich Himmler.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Phenytoin sodium (marketed as Dilantin® in the USA and as Epanutin® in the UK, by Parke-Davis, now part of Pfizer) is a commonly used antiepileptic. ... Jack Dreyfus, was the founder of the Dreyfus Fund, and is widely publicized for being the man who invented the commonplace mutual fund[citation needed]. After selling the fund during the early 1970s he became a major proponent of phenytoin as a means to control nervousness and depression when... This article is about the state. ... Conestoga High School, located in Devon-Berwyn, a community in Tredyffrin Township, Pennsylvania, is the only high school in the Tredyffrin/Easttown School District. ... Into the Woods is an award-winning musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by James Lapine. ... Jennie Eisenhower (born August 15, 1978) is an American actress. ... A depiction by Gustave Doré. Little Red Riding Hood is a famous folktale about a young girls encounter with a wolf. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... “Jacqueline Bouvier” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... // Any federal criminal or non-criminal investigator or detective in the 1811, 1801, 2501 or similar job series as so titled according to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) handbook. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Hunter Stockton Thompson (July 18, 1937 – February 20, 2005) was an American journalist and author. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... In cooking, a casserole (from the French for stew pan) is a large, deep, covered pot or dish used both in the oven and as a serving dish. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The Book of Lists actually refers to any one of a series of books compiled by bestselling author Irving Wallace, his son David Wallechinsky, and daughter Amy Wallace. ... Ashley Montagu (June 28, 1905, London, England - November 26, 1999, Princeton, New Jersey), was an English anthropologist and humanist who popularized issues such as race and gender and their relation to politics and development. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ...

Nixon's travels

  • Nixon was the first President to visit all 50 states.
  • Nixon was the second U.S. President to visit the Soviet Union (the first one was Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Yalta Conference in 1945).
  • Nixon is the only President to fly commercially while in office (source: Executive One article).

The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Executive One is the call sign designated for any civilian aircraft when the President of the United States is onboard. ...

Views on "Jewish controlled media"

Tape recordings that were made public in 2002 reveal that Nixon saw widespread Jewish engagement in American media as a problem for the country. In a conversation with Billy Graham he remarked that: Also see: 2002 (number). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...

Newsweek is totally - it's all run by Jews and dominated by them in their editorial pages. The New York Times, The Washington Post, totally Jewish, too. The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ...

As a response Graham said that "This stranglehold has got to be broken, or the country's going to go down the drain". Nixon agreed, though he stated he could never say so publicly.[41]


Nixon portrayals in film, television, and music

Actors who have played Nixon include Philip Baker Hall in Secret Honor (1984), Dan Hedaya in Dick (1999), Rip Torn in Blind Ambition (1979), Bob Gunton in Elvis Meets Nixon (1997) and Frank Langella in Frost/Nixon. Anthony Hopkins received an Oscar nomination for playing the title role in Nixon (1995). Philip Baker Hall (born September 10, 1931) is an American actor. ... Secret Honor is a 1984 film written by Donald Freed and Arnold M. Stone, and directed by Robert Altman and starring Philip Baker Hall as former president Richard M. Nixon, a fictional account attempting to gain insight into Nixons personality, life, attitudes and behavior. ... Dan Hedaya Dan Hedaya is a prolific character actor who was born on July 24, 1940, in Brooklyn, New York to a Sephardic Jewish family. ... Dick is a 1999 US comedy movie directed by Andrew Fleming from the script he co-wrote with Sheryl Longin. ... Rip Torn (born February 6, 1931) is an American Academy Award-nominated and Emmy Award-winning television and film actor, who is perhaps best known for his role as Artie on the HBO comedy series The Larry Sanders Show. ... Bob Gunton (born November 15, 1945 in Santa Monica, California) is an American actor who is known for his role as the evil Warden Norton in the 1994 movie The Shawshank Redemption. ... Elvis Meets Nixon is a 1997 mockumentary film about the true story of Elvis Presley meeting then-President Richard Nixon on December 21, 1970. ... Frank A. Langella, Jr. ... Frost/Nixon is a play by the British screenwriter and dramatist Peter Morgan. ... For the composer, see Antony Hopkins. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Nixon is a 1995 film directed by Oliver Stone for Cinergi Pictures that tells the story of the political and personal life of former President Richard Nixon. ...


On the animated sitcom The Simpsons, the character Milhouse is named in reference to Nixon's middle name. There are also a large number of episodes where Nixon has been portrayed, almost always in a bad light. Simpsons redirects here. ... Milhouse Mussolini Van Houten is a fictional character featured in the animated television series The Simpsons, voiced by Pamela Hayden. ...


On the animated sitcom Futurama, Nixon becomes earth President in the year 3000, claiming that he can have a third term as he has a new body. This article is about the television series. ... Futurama has a large number of recurring characters which help add comic energy to the series. ...


In the movie Big Lewbowski, a poster of Richard Nixon bowling can be seen on a wall in The Dude's apartment. The Big Lebowski is a 1998 film written and directed by Joel and Ethan Coen starring Jeff Bridges as the The Dude, or Jeff Lebowski. ...


In the movie Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, Mr. Spock claims there is an old Vulcan proverb that states; "Only Nixon could go to China." Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (Paramount Pictures, 1991; see also 1991 in film) is the sixth feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... Spock, commonly called Mr. ... The Forge of Vulcan, by Diego Velázquez. ...


James Taylor's song Line ’Em Up is based on Richard Nixon. The opera Nixon In China was based on his 1972 trip to that country. James Vernon Taylor (born March 12, 1948) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, born in Belmont, Massachusetts. ... Promotional flier for the Nixon in China opera. ...


John Lennon's song "Gimme Some Truth" on "Imagine" album - refers to Nixon in "No short haired yellow bellied son of Tricky Dicky's gonna mother hubbard soft soap me..."


At the end of the Bob & Tom album "With a Little Help from Our Friends," B&T troupe player Hadji sings a few short lines from "Here Comes Santa Claus," but with a change: The Bob & Tom Show is a radioshow established by Bob Kevoian and Tom Griswold at radio station WFBQ in Indianapolis, Indiana in 1983. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ...


Here comes Tricky Dick,
Here comes Tricky Dick,
[shave-and-a-haircut riff played]
Pardon me!


Richard Nixon was also portrayed as quite a controversial character in the opening to Elton John's album 'Captain and the Kid', the song: "Postcards from Richard Nixon".


The Band Lambchop released an album called "Nixon" with recommendations of books to read about Richard Nixon in the sleeve.


Hobbies

Nixon went target shooting as a favorite hobby. He played golf frequently. Nixon was an avid bowler and allegedly once bowled a perfect game. Nixon was also an accomplished pianist and played violin as a youth. He once played a composition he wrote on a March 1963 episode of The Tonight Show. A bowler releases the ball. ... A 300-point game in bowling is the best score possible. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


He was a knowledgeable sports fan, with a particular interest in football and baseball. During his presidency, he had the habit of calling the losing team after the Super Bowl to offer his condolences and support. Nixon took a particular interest in the NFL's 1971 season. During the playoffs, he contacted George Allen to suggest he tell his Washington Redskins team that Nixon designed a play for them. He did not actually design the play. Once the Redskins were eliminated, he began to root for the Miami Dolphins. He called Dolphins coach Don Shula on January 3, 1972, to suggest the team use a quick slant pass in the Super Bowl. NFL logo For other uses of the abbreviation NFL, see NFL (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Allen (April 29, 1918 – December 31, 1990) was an American football coach in the NFL. // Allen was born in Detroit, Michigan, where his father, Earl Raymond Allen, was recorded in the 1920 and 1930 U. S. census records for Wayne County, Michigan as working as a chauffeur to... For other uses, see Redskins (disambiguation). ... City Miami Gardens, Florida Other nicknames The Fins Team colors Aqua, Coral, White and Navy Head Coach liljimjim Owner Wayne Huizenga General manager Randy Mueller Mascot T.D. League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1966-1969) Eastern Division (1966-1969) National Football League (1970–present) American Football Conference (1970-present... Donald Francis Shula (born January 4, 1930 in Grand River, Ohio) is a former professional football coach for the National Football League. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ...


Nixon became close friends with legendary Ohio State coach Woody Hayes. Nixon gave the eulogy at Hayes' funeral in 1987. Hayes was both a staunch Republican, and a very conservative individual. During the eulogy at Hayes' funeral, Nixon gave the story of when he first met Hayes at a party: "I wanted to talk about football, he wanted to talk about foreign policy. You know Woody — we talked about foreign policy!" This article is about Ohio State; there is also an Ohio University. ... Wayne Woodrow “Woody” Hayes (February 14, 1913 â€“ March 12, 1987) was a college football coach who is best remembered for his 28-year tenure at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio. ... GOP redirects here. ...


Nixon had a Yorkshire Terrier named Pasha and an Irish Setter named King Timahoe.[42] The Yorkshire Terrier, (often called simply the Yorkie), is a breed of small dog in the toy category. ... The Irish Setter, also known as the Red Setter, is a breed of gundog and family dog. ...


See also

Main article: :Category:Richard Nixon

The history of the United States from 1964 through 1980 includes the continuation of the African American Civil Rights Movement; the Vietnam War and protests involved with it; and a continuation of the Cold War, which prompted the United States to send the first man to the Moon. ... View from birthplace looking across gardens to Nixon Library Museum. ... A typical Richard Nixon mask. ... The Imperial Presidency by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

Sources

Further information: Richard Nixon Bibliography

The Richard Nixon Bibliography includes major books and articles about President Richard Nixon and his policies. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Steel, Ronald (April 26, 1987) "I Had to Win": Review of 'Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913-1962,' by Stephen E. Ambrose." New York Times Knowledge Network.
  2. ^ Hove, Duane T. American Warriors: Five Presidents in the Pacific Theater of WWII, Burd Street Press, 2003 ISBN 1-57249-307-0; summary accessed at [1] August 2, 2006
  3. ^ "Diplomat in High Heels: Thelma Ryan Nixon", The New York Times, 28 July 1959, page 11
  4. ^ Kennedy-Nixon Presidential Debates, 1960 — Erika Tyner Allen, Museum of Broadcast Communications, accessed April 4, 2006
  5. ^ Foner, Eric (2006). Give Me Liberty!: An American History, Vol. 2. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 843. ISBN 0-3939-2784-9. 
  6. ^ William A. De Gregorio, "The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents" (2005) 6th edition, Barricade Books
  7. ^ "Real peace", Little Brown & Co (T) (January 1984), ISBN-10: 0316611492, ISBN-13: 978-0316611497, 107 pages
  8. ^ Victor S. Kaufman; Confronting Communism: U.S. and British Policies toward China (2001), 228–31; Anthony Kubek, "The 'Opening' of China: President Nixon's 1972 Journey." American Asian Review 1992 10(4): 1–22. ISSN 0737-6650; Nancy Bernkopf Tucker, "Taiwan Expendable? Nixon and Kissinger Go to China," Journal of American History (2005) 92(1): 109–135. ISSN 0021-8723
  9. ^ John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment (1982), pp. 294 and 299; Ang Cheng Guan, Ending the Vietnam War: The Vietnamese Communists' Perspective (2003), pp. 61, 69 and 77–79; Qiang Zhai China and the Vietnam Wars, p. 136
  10. ^ Nixon, No More Vietnams (1987), pp. 105–106.
  11. ^ NSA archives on South Asia crisis
  12. ^ Harold H. Saunders, “Memorandum of Conversation: Kenneth Keating, Henry A. Kissinger and Harold H. Saunders,” June 3, 1971, The National Security Archive
  13. ^ Detente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan, — Raymond L Garthodd, p 298
  14. ^ The Tilt: The U.S. and the South Asian Crisis of 1971 — Sajit Gandhi, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 79, December 16, 2002
  15. ^ Thornton, The Nixon-Kissinger Years: Reshaping American’s Foreign Policy, pp.113–115
  16. ^ Sharma, Dhirendra (May 1991). "India's lopsided science". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist 47 (4): 32–36.  http://www.thebulletin.org/article.php?art_ofn=may91sharma
  17. ^ Nixon's dislike of 'witch' IndiraBBC News.
  18. ^ Shirin R. Tahir-Kheli, The United States and Pakistan: the Evolution of an Influence Relationship, pp.49
  19. ^ Kotlowski (2001) p. 8
  20. ^ Kotlowski (2001) p. 37
  21. ^ The American Presidency Project archives
  22. ^ Hall, K. G. (28 November 2007). Democrats' health plans echo Nixon's failed GOP proposal. Retrieved on 2007-11-28 from http://www.mcclatchydc.com/226/story/22163.html.
  23. ^ Dean, John. Blind Ambition, Simon and Shuster, New York, 1976. ISBN 978-0671224387.
  24. ^ President Nixon's Troublesome Tax Returns The Tax History Project, April 11, 2005. Retrieved May 5, 2007.
    A quote from this reference:
    "Nixon's greatest concern with the IRS audit and the JCT investigation was that fraud might be charged, thereby imposing a civil fraud penalty of 50 percent of the tax deficiency, increasing his chances for impeachment. Amazingly, fraud was not mentioned either by the IRS or by the committee report. However, the House Judiciary Committee, which was considering the impeachment of Nixon, stated that it might investigate the possibility of tax fraud. By agreeing to pay $465,000, Nixon's wealth was reduced to half of the previous $988,522."
  25. ^ Stans, Maurice H. The Terrors of Justice: The Untold Side of Watergate (W. Clement Stone, PMA Communications, Inc. Northbrook, IL, U.S.A.) 1978. ISBN 978-0895268280
  26. ^ William Shawcross, Sideshow: Kissinger, Nixon, and the Destruction of Cambodia (New York: Simon and Schuster). 1979. ISBN 978-0671230708
  27. ^ Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, The Final Days (London: Simon and Schuster) 1976 (repr. 2006). ISBN 978-1-4165-2236-2
  28. ^ "This Will Be Forgotten" June 20, 1972 White House conversation of Richard Nixon and Charles Colson. Presidenital Recordings Program, University of Virginia Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved on 2000-09-16.
  29. ^ "Richard M. Nixon: Before and After Watergate", The History Channel
  30. ^ The Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace Foundation: Museum store
  31. ^ "[2]", A daughters reflection on Fathers Day: "he squeezed my hand one last time, let go, and gave me a jaunty thumbs-up salute.".
  32. ^ * Skidmore, Max J. "Ranking and Evaluating Presidents: The Case of Theodore Roosevelt" White House Studies. Volume: 1. Issue: 4. 2001. pp. 495+.
  33. ^ William Greider, The McGovern factor, Rolling Stone, 10 Nov. 1983, p.13.
  34. ^ Nixon: A Psychobiography — Vamik D. Volkan, Norman Itzkowitz, and Andrew W. Dod, book review by Michael A. Ingall, accessed April 4, 2006
  35. ^ Presidential Job Approval for Richard Nixon. The American Presidency Project. Retrieved on 2007-09-16.
  36. ^ Davidson, Connor, Swartz, "Mental Illness In U.S. Presidents Between 1776 and 1974", Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, January 2006, pp. 47–51
  37. ^ Richard Davenport-Hines, The Pursuit of Oblivion, 2001, pp. 420–421
  38. ^ Anthony Summers, The Arrogance of Power, 2000, pp. 317–318 and 449
  39. ^ Choosing theater over politics — Ruth Rovner, Main Line Times, December 11, 2003
  40. ^ http://www.durham21.co.uk/archive/archive.asp?ID=2499
  41. ^ Billy Graham Apologizes to Jews For His Remarks on Nixon Tapes
  42. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/president/holiday/historicalpets3/04.html

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External links

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Biographies

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all members of both houses of the United States Congress, past and present. ...

Watergate

  • Judiciary Committee Hearings Appendix I: Presidential Statements on the Watergate Break-in and Its Investigation
  • Articles of Impeachment
  • The Watergate Tapes

Speeches

is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...

Campaign videos

  • The Living Room Candidate — 1972 Nixon vs. McGovern
  • The Living Room Candidate — 1956 Eisenhower vs. Stevenson

Eulogies

  • Remarks by Governor Pete Wilson of California at Richard Nixon's funeral April 27, 1994
  • Eulogy by Hunter S. Thompson (not actually delivered at his funeral)
Political offices
Preceded by
Alben W. Barkley
Vice President of the United States
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
Succeeded by
Lyndon B. Johnson
Preceded by
Lyndon B. Johnson
President of the United States
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
Succeeded by
Gerald Ford
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Jerry Voorhis
Member from California's 12th congressional district
1947 – 1950
Succeeded by
Patrick J. Hillings
United States Senate
Preceded by
Sheridan Downey
Senator from California (Class 3)
1950 – 1953
Served alongside: William F. Knowland
Succeeded by
Thomas Kuchel
Party political offices
Preceded by
Earl Warren
Republican Party vice presidential candidate
1952, 1956
Succeeded by
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Preceded by
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party presidential candidate
1960
Succeeded by
Barry Goldwater
Preceded by
William F. Knowland
Republican Party nominee for Governor of California
1962
Succeeded by
Ronald Reagan
Preceded by
Barry Goldwater
Republican Party presidential candidate
1968, 1972
Succeeded by
Gerald Ford
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Willy Brandt
Time's Man of the Year
1971
Succeeded by
Himself
Henry Kissinger
Preceded by
Himself
Time's Men of the Year
1972
with Henry Kissinger
Succeeded by
John Sirica
Preceded by
Lyndon B. Johnson
Oldest U.S. President still living
January 22, 1973 – January 20, 1981
Succeeded by
Ronald Reagan
Persondata
NAME Nixon, Richard Milhous
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Richard Nixon
SHORT DESCRIPTION American politician, 37th President of the United States (1969–1974)
DATE OF BIRTH 9 January 1913
PLACE OF BIRTH Yorba Linda, California, United States
DATE OF DEATH 22 April 1994
PLACE OF DEATH New York City, New York, United States

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For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... [1] Died in office. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... [1] Died in office. ... The United States presidential election of 1960 marked the end of Dwight D. Eisenhowers two terms as President. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... William Fife Knowland (June 26, 1908 – February 23, 1974) was a U.S. politician and newpaperman. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... Reagan redirects here. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... [1] Died in office. ... The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Judge John Joseph Sirica (March 19, 1904 – August 14, 1992) was the Chief Judge for the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. ... LBJ redirects here. ... This is a chronology of who was the oldest living President of the United States, former or current, at any given time. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), was an American politician and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... For other persons named James Monroe, see James Monroe (disambiguation). ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. President. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was a major general in the United States Army, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the twentieth President of the United States. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908), the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States, was the only President to serve non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908), the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States, was the only President to serve non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the twenty-ninth President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... FDR redirects here. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... LBJ redirects here. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image File history File links Seal_Of_The_President_Of_The_Unites_States_Of_America. ... [1] Died in office. ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was a major general in the United States Army, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the twentieth President of the United States. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the twenty-ninth President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Alf Landon Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, who was defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1954) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... This article discusses Aaron Burr (1756-1836), the American politician. ... George Clinton (July 26, 1739 – April 20, 1812) was an American soldier and politician. ... Elbridge Thomas Gerry (pronounced ) (July 17, 1744 – November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. ... Daniel D. Tompkins (June 21, 1774 – June 11, 1825) was an entrepreneur, jurist, Congressman, Governor of New York, and the sixth Vice President of the United States. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century, at the center of the foreign policy and financial disputes of his age and best known as a spokesman for... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Richard Mentor Johnson (October 17, 1780 – November 19, 1850) was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... For other persons named George Dallas, see George Dallas (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... William Rufus DeVane King William Rufus DeVane King (April 7, 1786–April 18, 1853) was a U.S. Representative from North Carolina, a Senator from Alabama, and the thirteenth Vice President of the United States. ... John C. Breckinridge This article is about the politician and Confederate General. ... Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other persons named Henry Wilson, see Henry Wilson (disambiguation). ... William Almon Wheeler (June 30, 1819 – June 4, 1887) was a Representative from New York and the nineteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885)[1] was a U.S. Representative and a Senator from Indiana, a Governor of Indiana, and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States (serving with Grover Cleveland). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about Grover Clevelands Vice-President. ... Garret Augustus Hobart (June 3, 1844–November 21, 1899) was the twenty-fourth Vice President of the United States. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... James Schoolcraft Sherman (October 24, 1855 – October 30, 1912) was a Representative from New York and the 27th Vice President of the United States. ... Thomas R. Marshall Thomas Riley Marshall (March 14, 1854 – June 1, 1925) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Vice President of the United States of America under Woodrow Wilson from 1913 to 1921. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... John Nance Garner IV (November 22, 1868 – November 7, 1967) was a Representative from Texas and the thirty-second Vice President of the United States (1933-41). ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate from Kentucky, and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ... LBJ redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... James Danforth Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the forty-fourth Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989–1993). ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... [1] Died in office. ... William Lewis Dayton (February 17, 1807 – December 1, 1864) was an American lawyer from Freehold Borough, New Jersey. ... Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other persons named Henry Wilson, see Henry Wilson (disambiguation). ... William Almon Wheeler (June 30, 1819 – June 4, 1887) was a Representative from New York and the nineteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... For other persons with similar names, see John Logan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Whitelaw Reid Whitelaw Reid (October 27, 1837 - December 15, 1912) was a U.S. politician and newspaper editor, as well as the author of a popular history of Ohio in the Civil War. ... Garret Augustus Hobart (June 3, 1844–November 21, 1899) was the twenty-fourth Vice President of the United States. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... James Schoolcraft Sherman (October 24, 1855 – October 30, 1912) was a Representative from New York and the 27th Vice President of the United States. ... Nicholas Murray Butler Nicholas Murray Butler (April 2, 1862 – December 7, 1947) was an American philosopher, diplomat, and educator. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... Charles L. McNary Charles Linza McNary (June 12, 1874 - February 25, 1944) was a U.S. Republican politician from Oregon, best known for serving as Minority Leader of the United States Senate from 1933 to 1944. ... John William Bricker (September 6, 1893 – March 22, 1986) was a United States politician from Ohio. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... William Edward Miller (March 22, 1914 – June 24, 1983), was an American politician. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... James Danforth Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the forty-fourth Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989–1993). ... Jack French Kemp Jr. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into U.S. Congressional Delegations from California. ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... John B. Weller (February 22, 1812–August 17, 1875) was Governor of California from January 8, 1858 to January 9, 1860 and a Congressman from Ohio, U.S. Senator from California and Ambassador. ... David C. Broderick David Colbreth Broderick (February 4, 1820 – September 16, 1859) was a United States Senator and an anti-slavery advocate. ... Henry Peter Haun (January 18, 1815–June 6, 1860) was a U.S. Senator from California. ... Milton Latham 6th Governor of California Milton Slocum Latham (May 23, 1827–March 4, 1882) was Governor of California for five days: January 9–January 14, 1860. ... John Conness (September 22, 1821 – January 10, 1909) was a first-generation Irish-American businessman who served as a U.S. Senator from California. ... Eugene Casserly (November 13, 1820–June 14, 1883) was a journalist and lawyer who served in the United States Senate from California. ... John Sharpenstein Hager (March 12, 1818–March 19, 1890) was a U.S. Senator from California. ... Senator Newton Booth Newton Booth (December 30, 1825 – July 14, 1892) was an American politician. ... John Franklin Miller (November 21, 1831–March 8, 1886) was a lawyer, politician and soldier. ... George Hearst George Hearst (September 3, 1820–February 28, 1891) was a wealthy American businessman, United States Senator and father of famed newspaperman William Randolph Hearst. ... Abram Pease Williams (February 3, 1832–October 17, 1911) was a teacher, businessman and U.S. Senator from California. ... George Hearst George Hearst (September 3, 1820–February 28, 1891) was a wealthy American businessman, United States Senator and father of famed newspaperman William Randolph Hearst. ... Charles Norton Felton (January 1, 1832–September 13, 1914) was a U.S. Senator from California. ... Stephen Mallory White (January 19, 1853–February 21, 1901) was a U.S. Senator from California. ... Thomas Robert Bard (December 8, 1841–March 5, 1915) was a political leader in California, assisting in the organization of Ventura County and representing the state in the United States Senate from 1900 to 1905. ... Frank Putnam Flint (July 15, 1862–February 11, 1929) was a politician and banker. ... John Downey Works (March 29, 1847–June 6, 1928) was a U.S. Senator representing California from 1911 to 1917. ... Hiram Johnson Hiram Warren Johnson (September 2, 1866 – August 6, 1945) was a leading American progressive politician from California; he served as Governor from 1911 to 1917, and as a United States Senator from 1917 to 1945. ... William Fife Knowland (June 26, 1908 – February 23, 1974) was a U.S. politician and newpaperman. ... Clair Engle (September 21, 1911–July 30, 1964) was an American politician. ... Pierre Salinger. ... George Lloyd Murphy (July 4, 1902–May 3, 1992) was an American dancer, actor, and politician. ... John Varick Tunney (born June 26, 1934), American politician, is a former U.S. Senator and Representative. ... Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa (July 18, 1906–February 27, 1992) was an English professor and academic who served as a United States Senator from California from 1977 to 1983. ... For others named Pete Wilson, see Peter Wilson. ... John F. Seymour (born December 3, 1937) is an American real estate investor and politician. ... Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (born June 22, 1933) is the senior U.S. Senator from California, having held office as a senator since 1992. ... William McKendree Gwin William McKendree Gwin (October 9, 1805 – September 3, 1885) was an American medical doctor and politician. ... James Alexander McDougall (November 19, 1817–September 3, 1867) was an American politician. ... Cornelius Cole (September 17, 1822 - November 3, 1924) served a single term in the United States House of Representatives as a Republican representing California from 1863 to 1865, and another term in the United States Senate from 1867 to 1873. ... Aaron Augustus Sargent (September 28, 1827–August 14, 1887) was an American journalist, lawyer and politician. ... James Thompson Farley (August 6, 1829–January 22, 1886) was an American politician. ... Amasa Leland Stanford (March 9, 1824 – June 21, 1893) was an American tycoon, politician and founder of Stanford University. ... George Perkins 14th Governor of California George Clement Perkins (August 23, 1839–February 26, 1923), was the fourteenth Governor of California from January 8, 1880 to January 10, 1883. ... James Duval Phelan (April 20, 1861 San Francisco, California - August 7, 1930) was an American politician and banker. ... Samuel M. Shortridge (1861-1952) was a Republican Senator from California. ... William Gibbs McAdoo (October 31, 1863–February 1, 1941) was a U.S. Senator and United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... Thomas More Storke (November 23, 1876–October 12, 1971) was an American politician, rancher and journalist. ... Sheridan Downey (1884-1961) was a Democratic Senator from California. ... Categories: People stubs | 1910 births | 1994 deaths | United States Senators ... Alan MacGregor Cranston (June 19, 1914 – December 31, 2000) was a U.S. journalist and politician. ... Barbara Levy Boxer (born November 11, 1940) is an American politician and the current junior U.S. Senator from the State of California. ... Image File history File links Senate_cap. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (traditional... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Combatants  United Nations:  Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium  Canada  Colombia  Ethiopia  France Greece  Luxembourg  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea  Peoples Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisors Cuban exiles trained by United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead[1] to 5,000... President Kennedy in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... The overthrow of Sukarno and the violence that followed it was a conflict in Indonesia from 1965 to 1966 between forces loyal to then-President Sukarno and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and forces loyal to a right-wing military faction led by General Abdul Haris Nasution and Maj. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Combatants USSR DRA Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet forces: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45,000 (in 1983) 150... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... // Browder, Golos and Peters By the mid to late 1920s, there were three elements of Soviet power operating in the United States, despite the absence of formal diplomatic relations, the Comintern, military intelligence or GRU, and the forerunner of the KGB, the GPU. The Comintern was the dominant arm, though... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logotype of the DDRs Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Yorba Linda is a city located in Orange County, California. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Richard Nixon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7117 words)
Richard Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California to Francis A. Nixon and Hannah Milhous Nixon in a house his father built from a kit purchased from Sears, Roebuck.
Nixon was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1946, defeating Democratic incumbent Jerry Voorhis for California's 12th congressional district.
Nixon's sense of being persecuted by his "enemies," his grandiose belief in his own moral and political excellence, and his commitment to utilize ruthless power at all costs led some experts to describe him as having a narcissistic and paranoid personality.
Nixon, Richard Milhous. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1077 words)
Nixon’s Southern strategy, through which he hoped to woo the South into the Republican party, led him to weaken the federal government’s commitment to racial equality and to sponsor antibusing legislation in Congress.
Soon after his reelection Nixon’s popularity plummeted as the growing revelations of the Watergate affair indicated pervasive corruption in his administration, and there was widespread criticism of the amount of government money spent on his private residences.
Nixon refused to relinquish these, basing his refusal on claims of “executive privilege,” i.e., the confidentiality of executive communications whose release might endanger national security.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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