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Encyclopedia > Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon

In office
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
37th President
Vice President Spiro Agnew (1969-1973),
Gerald R. Ford (1973-1974)
Preceded by Lyndon B. Johnson
Succeeded by Gerald Ford
Born January 9, 1913
Yorba Linda, California
Died April 22, 1994
New York, New York
Political party Republican
Spouse Thelma Catherine Patricia Ryan (Pat) Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. He was also the 36th Vice President (1953–1961) serving under Dwight D. Eisenhower. Nixon redefined the office of Vice President, making it for the first time a high visibility platform and base for a presidential candidacy. He is the only person to have been elected twice to the Vice Presidency and twice to the Presidency, and the only president to have resigned that office. His resignation came in the face of imminent impeachment related to the Watergate first break-in and subsequent Watergate scandal. Richard Nixon Uploaded from the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996), born Spiros Anagnostopoulos in Towson, Maryland, was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1973 under President Richard M. Nixon. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Yorba Linda is a city located in Orange County, California, approximately 13 miles northeast of Downtown Santa Ana, and 40 miles southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... -1... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Largest city Albany New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi  (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Pat Nixon Thelma Catherine Patricia Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of Richard Nixon and First Lady of the United States from 1969-1974. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969, popularly known as Ike) was an American soldier and politician. ... A resignation occurs when a person holding a position gained by election or appointment steps down. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... The Watergate first break-in on May 28, 1972 has been cited in testimony, media accounts, and popular works on Watergate as the pivotal event that led ultimately to the Watergate Scandal. ... The term Watergate refers to a series of events, spanning from 1972 to 1974, that began with U.S. President Nixons administrations abuse of power toward the goal of undermining the Democratic Party and the opposition to the Vietnam War, and included burglaries of the headquarters of the...


Nixon is noted for his diplomatic foreign policy, especially relaxed with the Soviet Union and China, and ending the Vietnam War. He is also noted for his middle-of-the-road domestic policy that combined conservative rhetoric and, in many cases, liberal action, as in his environmental policy. President of the United States, George W. Bush (right) at Camp David in March 2003, hosting the British Prime Minister Tony Blair. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 230,000 South Vietnamese wounded: 300,000 US dead...


As president, Nixon imposed wage and price controls, indexed Social Security for inflation, and created Supplemental Security Income (SSI). The number of pages added to the Federal Register each year doubled under Nixon. He advocated gun control and eradicated the last remnants of the gold standard. Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and implemented the Philadelphia Plan, the first significant federal affirmative action program. As a party leader, Nixon helped build the GOP, but he ran his 1972 campaign separately from the party, which perhaps helped the GOP escape some of the damage from Watergate. (See History of United States Republican Party.) In economics, incomes policies are wage and price controls used to fight inflation. ... For specific national programs, see Social Security (United States), National insurance (UK), Social Security (Sweden) Social security primarily refers to a field of social welfare concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment, families with children and others. ... Supplemental Security Income is a monthly stipend provided to some citizens by the United States federal government. ... The Federal Register contains most routine publications and public notices of United States government agencies. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gun politics. ... This article is on the monetary principle. ... EPA redirects here. ... The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. ... The Revised Philadelphia Plan is a plan that required government contractors in Philadelphia to hire minority workers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Republican Party was born in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ...

The young Lt Commander Richard Nixon of the US Navy 1945
The young Lt Commander Richard Nixon of the US Navy 1945

Nixon attended Fullerton High School from 1926-28 and Whittier High School from 1928-30. He graduated first in his class; showing a penchant for Shakespeare and Latin. He won a full tuition scholarship from Harvard; but since it did not cover living expenses, Nixon's family was unable to afford to send him away to college. Nixon attended Whittier College, a local Quaker school where he co-founded the Orthogonian Society, a fraternity that competed with the already established Franklin Society. Nixon was elected student body president. A lifelong football buff, Nixon practiced with the team assiduously but spent most of his time on the bench. In 1934, he graduated second in his class from Whittier and went on to Duke University School of Law, where he received a full scholarship. Public photo of the young LT Commander Richard Nixon of the US Navy 1945 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Public photo of the young LT Commander Richard Nixon of the US Navy 1945 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Fullerton High School is a high school located in Fullerton, California, United States. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Tuition means instruction, teaching or a fee charged for educational instruction especially at a formal institution of learning. ... A scholarship is an award of access to an institution or a financial aid award for an individual (a scholar) for the purposes of furthering their education. ... Harvard University campus (old map) Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Hoover Hall and Library Whittier College is a private college in Whittier, California. ... The Orthogonian Society is a local fraternity at Whittier College, co-founded by Richard Nixon and primarily known for its football team heritage. ... Look up fraternity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Franklin Society is the first society founded at Whittier College in 1921. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Duke University is a private, coeducational, research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Officially founded as Duke University in 1924, Duke traces its institutional roots back to 1838. ... Duke University School of Law The School of Law is one of 10 schools and colleges at Duke University. ...


Nixon returned to California, passed the bar exam, and began working in the small-town law office of a family friend in nearby La Mirada. The work was mostly routine, and Nixon generally found it to be dull, although he was entirely competent. He later wrote that family law cases caused him particular discomfort, since his reticent Quaker upbringing was severely at odds with the idea of discussing intimate marital details with strangers. A bar association is a body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ... La Mirada is a city located in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ...


It was during this period that he met his wife Pat, a high school teacher; they were married on June 21, 1940. They had two daughters Tricia and Julie. Pat Nixon Thelma Catherine Patricia Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of Richard Nixon and First Lady of the United States from 1969-1974. ... High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Categories: Stub | 1946 births | Children of U.S. Presidents ... Julie Nixon Eisenhower (born July 5, 1948 in Washington, D.C.) is the daughter of Richard Nixon and his wife Patricia. ...


During World War II, Nixon served as an officer in the Navy. He received his training at Quonset Point, Rhode Island, and Ottumwa, Iowa, before serving in the supply corps in the South Pacific. There he was known as "Nick" and for his prowess in poker, banking a large sum that helped finance his first campaign for Congress. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations around the globe. ... Quonset Point is a small peninsula in Narragansett Bay in the U.S. state of Rhode Island. ... Ottumwa (pronounced Uh-tuhm-wa) is a city in Wapello County, Iowa. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... // Poker Room at the Trump Taj Mahal Poker is a card game, the most popular of a class of games called vying games, in which players with fully or partially concealed cards make wagers into a central pot, which is awarded to the player or players with the best combination... Congress in Joint Session. ...


Nixon was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1946, defeating Democratic incumbent Jerry Voorhis for California's 12th Congressional district. During his two terms, he became well known as a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee, particularly for his leading role in the Alger Hiss case. The chamber of the United States House of Representatives is located in the south wing of the Capitol building, in Washington, D.C.. This photograph shows a rare glimpse of the four vote tallying boards (the blackish squares across the top), which display each members name and vote as... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Jerry Voorhis (April 6, 1901-?) was a democratic politician from California. ... HUAC hearings House Committee on Un-American Activities or HUAC (or, rarely, HCUA) (1945-1975) was an investigating committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a U.S. State Department official and involved in the early United Nations. ...

Contents


Vice Presidency

Nixon and Eisenhower at a 1952 Campaign stop
Enlarge
Nixon and Eisenhower at a 1952 Campaign stop

Eisenhower Library File No. ... Eisenhower Library File No. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

Birth and early years

Richard Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California to Francis A. Nixon and Hannah Milhous Nixon in a house his father built from a kit purchased from Sears, Roebuck. He was raised by his mother as an evangelical Quaker. His upbringing is said to have been marked by such conservative evangelical Quaker observances as refraining from drinking, dancing and swearing. His father (known as Frank) was a former member of the Methodist Protestant Church who had sincerely converted to Quakerism but never fully absorbed its spirit, retaining instead a volatile temper. Richard Nixon's great-grandfather, George Nixon III, had been killed at the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War while serving in the 73rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Yorba Linda is a city located in Orange County, California, approximately 13 miles northeast of Downtown Santa Ana, and 40 miles southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. ... Sears, Roebuck and Company (NYSE: S) was founded in Chicago, Illinois as a catalog merchandiser in 1886 by Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a tendency in diverse branches of conservative Christianity, typified by an emphasis on evangelism, a personal experience of conversion, biblically-oriented faith, and a belief in the relevance of Christian faith to cultural issues. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... The Methodist Protestant Church was officially formed in 1828 as a church that was Wesleyan in doctrine, but rejected the episcopacy. ... Long Live NINJAMAN!!!! ... Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties KIA: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The...


In 1952 he was elected Vice President on Dwight D. Eisenhower's ticket, although he was only 39 years old. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969, popularly known as Ike) was an American soldier and politician. ...


One notable event of the campaign was Nixon's innovative use of television. Nixon was accused by nameless sources of misappropriating money out of a business fund for personal use. He went on TV and defended himself in an emotional speech, where he provided an independent third-party review of the fund's accounting along with a personal summary of his finances, which he cited as exonerating him from wrongdoing, and he charged that the Democratic Presidential candidate, Adlai Stevenson, also had a slush fund (see Memoirs of Richard Nixon, page 99). This speech would, however, become better known for its rhetoric, such as when he stated that his wife Pat did not wear mink, but rather "a respectable Republican cloth coat," and that although he had been given a cocker spaniel named "Checkers" in addition to his other campaign contributions, he was not going to give it back because his daughters loved it. As a result, this speech became known as the "Checkers speech" and it resulted in a flood of support, prompting Eisenhower to keep Nixon on the ticket. The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other one being the Republican Party. ... Adlai Stevenson Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American politician and statesman, noted for his skill in debate and oratory. ... Slush fund is, colloquially, a term which has come to mean an auxiliary monetary account or a reserve fund. ... Pat Nixon Thelma Catherine Patricia Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of Richard Nixon and First Lady of the United States from 1969-1974. ... Both types of Cocker Spaniel come in a variety of coat colors. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Checkers speech The Checkers speech was a speech given by Richard Nixon on September 23, 1952, when he was the Republican candidate for the Vice Presidency. ...


Nixon reinvented the office of Vice President. Although he had no formal power, he had the attention of the media and the Republican party. He demonstrated for the first time that the office could be a springboard to the White House; most Vice Presidents since have followed his lead and sought the presidency (exceptions being Nelson Rockefeller, and Spiro Agnew.) Nixon was the first Vice President to actually step in to temporarily run the government. He did that three times when Eisenhower was ill: on the occasions of Eisenhower's heart attack on September 24, 1955; his ileitis in June 1956; and his stroke on November 25, 1957. His quick thinking was on display on July 24, 1959, at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow where he and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had an impromptu "kitchen debate" about the merits of capitalism versus communism. Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979), was an American politician, philanthropist and businessman, and was Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973, the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977, and a leader of the liberal... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996), born Spiros Anagnostopoulos in Towson, Maryland, was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1973 under President Richard M. Nixon. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Crohns disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the alimentary tract and it can involve any part of it - from the mouth to the anus. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: ) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... Soviet redirects here. ... (Russian: ; surname commonly anglicized as Khrushchev, IPA: ; April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev and United States Vice President Richard Nixon Debate the merits of communism versus capitalism in a model American kitchen at the American National Exhibition in Moscow in July of 1959. ... Capitalism has been defined in various, but similar, ways by different theorists. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


During Nixon's vice-presidency, he became involved in several arguments with President Eisenhower, which later resulted in Eisenhower's hesitation to support Nixon during the 1960 presidential campaign.


1960 election and post-Vice Presidency

Vice President Nixon, right, and Senator John Kennedy during their TV debate prior to the 1960 presidential election
Vice President Nixon, right, and Senator John Kennedy during their TV debate prior to the 1960 presidential election

In 1960, he ran for President on his own but lost to John F. Kennedy. The race was very close all year long, and any number of small episodes could have tilted the results one way or the other, including the televised debates. [1] Nixon campaigned on his experience, but Kennedy said it was time for new blood and suggested the Eisenhower-Nixon administration had been soft on defense. It also didn't help that when asked of major policy decisions that Nixon had helped make, Eisenhower responded: "Give me a week and I might think of one." This hurt his standing early in the campaign, showing that he didn't necessarily have the experience to be president or Ike's firm backing. Public domain image, distributed widely. ... Public domain image, distributed widely. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ...


In 1962, Nixon lost a race for Governor of California. In his concession speech, Nixon accused the media of favoring his opponent Pat Brown, and stated that it was his "last press conference" and that "You don't have Dick Nixon to kick around any more." 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence) See also: List of pre-statehood governors of California, List of Governors of California The Governor of California is the highest executive authority... One might be looking for the academic discipline of communications. ... Edmund Gerald Brown Sr. ...


1968 Election

Nixon moved to New York City where he became a well-paid senior partner in a leading law firm, Nixon Mudge Rose Guthrie & Alexander. During the 1966 Congressional elections, he stumped the country in support of Republican candidates, rebuilding his base in the party. In the election of 1968, he completed a remarkable political comeback by taking the nomination. Nixon appealed to what he called the "silent majority" of socially conservative Americans who disliked the "hippie" counterculture and anti-war demonstrators. Nixon promised "peace with honor," and without claiming to be able to win the war, Nixon claimed that "new leadership will end the war and win the peace in the Pacific". He did not explain in detail his plans to end the war in Vietnam, leading Democratic nominee Hubert H. Humphrey and the media to allege that he must have some "secret plan." Nixon did not use the phrase, and stated in his memoirs that he had no such plan. He defeated Humphrey and independent candidate George Wallace to become the 37th President of the United States. Nickname: The Big Apple, The Capital of the World Official website: City of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ... The U.S. House election, 1966 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1966 which occurred in the middle of President Lyndon Johnsons second term. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Silent Majority is a term used by the U.S. President Richard Nixon in a 1969 speech. ... A singer dresses in a stereotypical hippie outfit. ... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe a cultural group whose values and norms are at odds with those of the social mainstream, a cultural equivalent of a political opposition. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 230,000 South Vietnamese wounded: 300,000 US dead... Hubert Horatio Humphrey II (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was the 38th Vice President of the United States, serving under President Lyndon Johnson. ... An election promise is a promise made to the public by a politician who is trying to win an election. ... Governor George Wallace (in front of door) standing defiantly against desegregation while being confronted by Deputy U.S. Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach at the University of Alabama. ...


Presidency 1969-1974

Policies

Once in office, he proposed the Nixon Doctrine to establish a strategy of turning over the fighting of the war to the Vietnamese. In July 1969 he visited South Vietnam, and met with President Nguyen Van Thieu and with U.S. military commanders. American involvement in the war declined steadily until all American troops were gone in 1973. After the withdrawal of U.S. troops, fighting was left to the South Vietnamese army, which was well supplied with modern arms, but whose fighting capability was in question due to inadequate funding, low morale, and corruption. The lack of funding was primarily due to large funding cutbacks by the US Congress. The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809 km² N/A Population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... President Nguyen Van Thieu Nguyá»…n Văn Thiệu, (April 5, 1923 – September 29, 2001) was a former General and President of South Vietnam. ...


Nixon ordered secret bombing campaigns in Cambodia in March, 1969 (code-named Menu) to destroy what were believed to be the headquarters and large numbers of soldiers of the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam. Viet Cong (NLF) flag The Viet Cong, also known as the National Front for the Liberation of Southern Vietnam (Vietnamese Mặt Trận Dân Tộc Giải Phóng Miền Nam), (VC), or the National Liberation Front (NLF), was an insurgent (partisan) organization fighting the Republic...

President Nixon greets released POW (and future Republican Senator) Navy officer John McCain (on crutches) after years of imprisonment in North Vietnam, 1973.
President Nixon greets released POW (and future Republican Senator) Navy officer John McCain (on crutches) after years of imprisonment in North Vietnam, 1973.

In ordering the bombings, Nixon realized he would be extending an unpopular war as well as breaching Cambodia's "official" (but false) neutrality. During deliberations over Nixon's impeachment, his unorthodox use of executive powers over the ordering of these bombings was considered as an article of impeachment, but the charge was dropped as not a violation of Constitutional powers. Public photo of President Richard M. Nixon greeting released US officer and POW and future US Senator John McCain (R-Arizona) after Vietnam war File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Public photo of President Richard M. Nixon greeting released US officer and POW and future US Senator John McCain (R-Arizona) after Vietnam war File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Alternative meanings: John S. McCain, Sr. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ...


On July 20, 1969, Nixon addressed Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin during their historic moonwalk, live via radio. Nixon also made the world's longest distance phone call to Neil Armstrong on the moon. On January 5, 1972, Nixon approved the development of the Space Shuttle program, a decision that profoundly influenced U.S. efforts to explore and develop space for several decades thereafter. July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Neil Alden Armstrong (born August 5, 1930) is a former American astronaut, test pilot, and naval aviator famous as the first human ever to set foot on the Moon. ... Buzz Aldrin Colonel Buzz Aldrin, Sc. ... Walking on the Moon is a song by The Police which appeared on the 1979 album Reggatta de Blanc. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1972 calendar). ... The Space Shuttle Columbia seconds after engine ignition, April 12, 1981 (NASA). ...

President Nixon greets Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao (left) in China visit 1972
President Nixon greets Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao (left) in China visit 1972

Relations between the Western and Eastern power blocs changed dramatically in the early 70s. In 1960, the People's Republic of China ended the alliance with its biggest ally, the Soviet Union, in the Sino-Soviet Split. As tensions between the two communist nations reached its peak in 1969 and 1970, Nixon decided to use their conflict to shift the balance of power towards the West in the Cold War. In what later would be known as the "China Card", Nixon deliberately improved relations with China in order to blackmail the Soviet Union. In 1971 a move was made to improve relationships when China invited an American table tennis team to China; hence the term "Ping Pong Diplomacy". The US’s response was to support China’s entry into the U.N., something it had always vetoed. In October 1971, China entered the U.N. In 1972, Richard Nixon became the first US president to visit "Red" China though the USA kept a massive naval fleet off of Taiwan. Fearing the possibility of a Sino-American alliance, the Soviet Union yielded to Nixon immediately. The first Strategic Arms Limitation Talks were finally concluded the same year. US President Richard Nixon meeting Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao in 1972 during Nixons visit to Peking, China. ... US President Richard Nixon meeting Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao in 1972 during Nixons visit to Peking, China. ... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: Zhōnggu ngchǎndǎng) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... Richard Nixon met with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ...


Nixon was also very vocal in supporting General Yahya Khan of Pakistan despite escalating violence in East Pakistan. Subsequently declassified documents reveal the extent of support offered by Nixon to the dictator notwithstanding the widespread human rights violations. [2] He was also vocal in abusing Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi as an "old witch" in private conversations with Henry Kissinger, who is also recorded as making derogatory comments against Indians. Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the government of India. ... Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (इन्दिरा प्रियदर्शिनी गान्धी) (November 19, 1917 – October 31, 1984) was Prime Minister of India from January 19, 1966 to March 24, 1977, and again from January 14, 1980 until her assassination on October 31, 1984. ... This article is part of the Witchcraft series. ...


Nixon supported the wave of military "golpes de Estado" in South America. Through Henry Kissinger, he gave at least an implicit help to Augusto Pinochet's coup, in 1973, and then helped set up operation Condor (as evidenced by CIA documents released in 2000, following Pinochet's arrest in 1998). A US-intelligence base in Panama Canal coordinated the acts of the various Latino secret services (DINA, DISIP, etc.) A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment that mostly replaces just the top power figures. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Henry Kissinger circa 1970s. ... General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (born November 25, 1915) was head of the military that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A canal tug, making its way down to the Caribbean end of the canal, waits to be joined by a ship in the uppermost chamber of the Gatun Locks. ... For the Biblical Dina, see Dinah. ... The Dirección de los Servicios de Inteligencia y Prevención (Directorate of Intelligence and Prevention Services, DISIP) is the national intelligence agency of Venezuela. ...


He established the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on December 2, 1970. EPA redirects here. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ...


In 1972 Nixon was re-elected in one of the biggest landslide election victories in U.S. political history, defeating George McGovern and garnering over 60% of the popular vote. He carried 49 of the 50 states, losing only in Massachusetts. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George McGovern Dr. George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922) was a United States Congressman, Senator, and Democratic presidential candidate, losing the 1972 presidential election to incumbent Richard Nixon. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Boston Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq. ...


On January 2, 1974, Nixon signed a bill that lowered the maximum U.S. speed limit to 55 MPH (90 km/h) in order to conserve gasoline during the 1973 energy crisis. This law remained in effect until the late 1980s. January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... A speed limit is the maximum speed allowed by law for vehicles on a road. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Gasoline (or petrol) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... (Redirected from 1973 energy crisis) United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ...


On April 3, 1974, Nixon announced he would pay $432,787.13 in back taxes plus interest after a Congressional committee reported that he had inadvertently underpaid his 1969 and 1972 taxes. April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ...


In light of the near certainty of both his impeachment (due to the Watergate scandal) by the House of Representatives and his conviction by the Senate, Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974. August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ...


Major initiatives

Image File history File links Mobutu_Nixon. ... Image File history File links Mobutu_Nixon. ... Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965 – 1997). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Sino-American relations (Simplified Chinese: 中美关系; Pinyin: Zhōng-MÄ›i Guānxì) refers to interstate relations between the United States and China. ... Motto: None Anthem: National Anthem of the ROC Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (in law) 1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (Guoyü) Government President Vice President Premier Multiparty democracy Chen Shui-bian Annette Lu Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution Declared  October 10, 1911 Established  January... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics) is a term used to describe politics based on strictly practical rather than idealistic notions, and practiced without any sentimental illusions. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... EPA redirects here. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ... Supplemental Security Income is a monthly stipend provided to some citizens by the United States federal government. ... The Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that promotes growth and competitiveness of the United States minority-owned businesses. ... SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. ... The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM treaty or ABMT) was a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia seconds after engine ignition, 1981 (NASA). ...

Administration and Cabinet

The Nixon Administration was comprised of an impressive array of talent both in the cabinet and in the White House staff. Among the many people who came to Washington to serve in the administration were one future president (George H. W. Bush); a vice-president (Dick Cheney); six secretaries of state (Henry Kissinger, Alexander Haig, George Shultz, James Baker, Lawrence Eagleburger, and Colin Powell); five secretaries of defense (James Schlesinger, Donald Rumsfeld, Casper Weinberger, Frank Carlucci, and Cheney); a chairman of the joint chiefs of staff (Powell), two secretaries of the treasury (William Simon and Baker); a secretary of energy (Schlesinger); and three chiefs of staff (Rumsfeld, Cheney, and Baker). Indeed a member of the Nixon Administration has held a cabinet post or been a senior advisor within the subsequent six administrations. That so many key figures of the Ford, Reagan, Bush (41), and Bush (43) Administrations first entered government service in the Nixon White House is arguably the most profound and long-lasting legacy of Richard Nixon. George Herbert Walker Bush, GCB, (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is the 46th Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Henry Kissinger circa 1970s. ... Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930), American politician and diplomat, was Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W... Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (born August 1, 1930), is an American statesman and diplomat who served under Presidents Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born 15 February 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1974 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is currently serving as the 21st United States Secretary of Defense, since January 20, 2001, under President George W. Bush. ... Caspar Willard Weinberger (born August 18, 1917) is best known as United States Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from 1982 through 1987, and for his related roles in the Strategic Defense Initiative program (popularly known as Star Wars), and in the Iran-Contra Affair. ... Frank Carlucci Frank Charles Carlucci III (born October 18, 1930) was a government official in the United States, associated with the Republican Party. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is the 46th Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... William Edward Simon (November 27, 1927–June 3, 2000) became the 63rd Secretary of the Treasury on May 8, 1974, during the Nixon administration. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930), American politician and diplomat, was Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W... James Rodney Schlesinger (born 15 February 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1974 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is currently serving as the 21st United States Secretary of Defense, since January 20, 2001, under President George W. Bush. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is the 46th Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930), American politician and diplomat, was Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... George Herbert Walker Bush, GCB, (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States and a former governor of Texas. ...

Enlarge
Official Portrait of President Richard Nixon.
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Richard Nixon 1969–1974
Vice President Spiro T. Agnew 1969–1973
  Gerald R. Ford 1973–1974
State William P. Rogers 1969–1973
  Henry A. Kissinger 1973–1974
Treasury David M. Kennedy 1969–1971
  John B. Connally 1971–1972
  George P. Shultz 1972–1974
  William E. Simon 1974
Defense Melvin R. Laird 1969–1973
  Elliot L. Richardson 1973–1973
  James R. Schlesinger 1973–1974
Justice John N. Mitchell 1969–1972
  Richard G. Kleindienst 1972–1973
  Elliot L. Richardson 1973–1974
  William B. Saxbe 1974
Postmaster General Winton M. Blount 1969–1974
Interior Walter J. Hickel 1969–1971
  Rogers C. B. Morton 1971–1974
Agriculture Clifford M. Hardin 1969–1971
  Earl L. Butz 1971–1974
Commerce Maurice H. Stans 1969–1972
  Peter George Peterson 1972–1973
  Frederick B. Dent 1973–1974
Labor George P. Shultz 1969–1970
  James D. Hodgson 1970–1973
  Peter J. Brennan 1973–1974
HEW Robert H. Finch 1969–1970
  Elliot L. Richardson 1970–1973
  Caspar W. Weinberger 1973–1974
HUD George Romney 1969–1973
  James T. Lynn 1973–1974
Transportation John A. Volpe 1969–1973
  Claude S. Brinegar 1973–1974


WHPO-MPF-C6779(04) Richard Nixon, Official Presidential Photograph, 07/08/1971 NARA ARC Holdings, Nixon Presidential Materials Photographer: Hartmann File links The following pages link to this file: Richard Nixon Madman theory Categories: Executive Office of the President images ... WHPO-MPF-C6779(04) Richard Nixon, Official Presidential Photograph, 07/08/1971 NARA ARC Holdings, Nixon Presidential Materials Photographer: Hartmann File links The following pages link to this file: Richard Nixon Madman theory Categories: Executive Office of the President images ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew, born Spiro Anagnostopoulos (November 9, 1918–September 17, 1996), was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1973 under President Richard M. Nixon. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. ... William Pierce Rogers (June 23, 1913 – January 2, 2001) was an American politician, who served as a Cabinet officer in the administrations of two U.S. Presidents in the third quarter of the 20th century. ... Henry Kissinger Henry Alfred Kissinger (born May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat and Nobel Peace Prize winner who played an important part in foreign affairs through the positions he held in several Republican administrations between 1969 and 1977. ... John W. Snow, the current Secretary of the Treasury. ... For the American historian, see David M. Kennedy (historian). ... John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... William Edward Simon (November 27, 1927–June 3, 2000) became the 63rd Secretary of the Treasury on May 8, 1974, during the Nixon administration. ... Seal of the United States Department of Defense The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate, and is a member of the Cabinet. ... Secretary Laird on the cover of Time in 1969. ... Elliot Lee Richardson Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 - December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of President Richard Nixon, but he managed to avoid being tainted by the Watergate Scandal. ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born 15 February 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1974 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Mitchell (far left) meeting with Nixon, J. Edgar Hoover, and John Ehrlichman on May 26, 1971. ... Richard Gordon Kleindienst (August 5, 1923–February 3, 2000) was an American lawyer and politician. ... Elliot Lee Richardson Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 - December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of President Richard Nixon, but he managed to avoid being tainted by the Watergate Scandal. ... William Bart Saxbe (born June 24, 1916) was an American politician of the Republican Party, who served as a U.S. Senator from Ohio and as U.S. Attorney General under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald R. Ford. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Winton Malcolm Red Blount, Junior (born February 1, 1921 in Union Springs, Alabama - died October 24, 2002 in Highlands, North Carolina) was the United States Postmaster General from 1969-1971. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Categories: People stubs | 1919 births | Governors of Alaska | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Secretaries of Commerce | 1914 births | 1979 deaths | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior ... Clifford Morris Hardin (born October 9, 1915) served as United States Secretary of Agriculture from 1969 to 1971. ... Earl Lauer Butz (born July 3, 1909) is a former United States government official who served as Secretary of Agriculture under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Maurice Stans Maurice Hubert Stans (March 22, 1908 - April 14, 1998) was the finance chairman for the commmittee to re-elect United States President Richard Nixon (CREEP). ... This article is about the Pete Peterson who was a U.S. government official during the Nixon administration; there is also a Pete Peterson who was a former Florida Congressman and ambassador to Vietnam. ... Frederick Baily Dent United States Secretary of Commerce from February 2, 1973 to March 26, 1975. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... James D. Hodgson (born December 3, 1915, in Dawson, Minnesota) is an American politican. ... Peter Joseph Brennan (May 24, 1918 - October 2, 1996) was United States Secretary of Labor under President Nixon and President Ford. ... The United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare was the head of the United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. ... Robert Hutchison Finch (October 9, 1925 - October 10, 1995) was a Republican politician from Southern California. ... Elliot Lee Richardson Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 - December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and politician who was a member of the cabinet of President Richard Nixon, but he managed to avoid being tainted by the Watergate Scandal. ... Caspar Willard Weinberger (born August 18, 1917) is best known as United States Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from 1982 through 1987, and for his related roles in the Strategic Defense Initiative program (popularly known as Star Wars), and in the Iran-Contra Affair. ... The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... George Wilcken Romney (July 8, 1907–July 26, 1995) was chairman of the American Motors Corporation from 1954 to 1962 and was elected three times as the Republican Governor of Michigan from 1963 to 1969. ... James Thomas Lynn (born 1927) was a U.S. administrator. ... John Anthony Volpe (December 8, 1908 - September 11, 1994) was a Governor of Massachusetts and a U.S. Secretary of Transportation. ... Claude Brinegar was Secretary of Transportation in the Cabinet of U.S. President Gerald R. Ford from 1974 to 1975. ...


Administration Notables

Chiefs of Staff

H.R. Haldeman, January 21, 1971. ... Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. ...

Undersecretaries

  • Frank Carlucci - undersecretary of Health, Education and Welfare
  • Dick Cheney - special assistant to the Director of the OEO, White House staff assistant, assistant director of the Cost of Living Council, and Deputy Assistant to the President.

Frank Carlucci Frank Charles Carlucci III (born October 18, 1930) was a government official in the United States, associated with the Republican Party. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is the 46th Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ...

Assistants

Andrew Lamar Alexander (born July 3, 1940) is the junior United States Senator from Tennessee and a member of the Republican Party. ... Alexander Porter Butterfield (born April 6, 1926) was the deputy assistant to Richard Nixon from 1969 until 1973. ... Dwight L. Chapin (born December 2, 1940) was Deputy Assistant to the President Richard M. Nixon. ... Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (born August 1, 1930), is an American statesman and diplomat who served under Presidents Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush. ... John D. Ehrlichman as Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs, May 13, 1969. ... Jeb Magruder, January 31, 1970. ... Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ...

White House Counsel

John Dean, May 7, 1972. ... Booking photos of Charles Colson, 1974. ...

Communications Office

  • Ken Clawson - Director of White House Communications
  • Herbert G. Klein - Communications Director for the Executive Branch

Press Secretary

  • Ron Ziegler - White House Press Secretary (1969 - 1974), Assistant to the President (1974)

Ronald Louis Ziegler (May 12, 1939 – February 10, 2003) was White House Press Secretary during United States President Richard Nixons administration, from 1969–1974, and Assistant to the President in 1974. ...

Speech Writers

  • Aram Bakshian, Jr. - speech writer
  • Patrick Buchanan - speech writer
  • David Gergen - speech writer
  • Lee Heubner - special assistant to the president and associate director, White House writing and research staff
  • Jim Keogh - speech writer
  • John McLaughlin - speech writer
  • Ray Price - speech writer [first and second inaugural addresses]
  • William Safire - speech writer
  • Ben Stein - speech writer

Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American author, syndicated columnist, and television commentator. ... David Richmond Gergen (born May 9, 1942) is a political consultant and presidential advisor during the Republican administrations of Nixon, Ford, and Reagan; he also was a campaign staffer for George H.W. Bushs 1980 presidential campaign. ... John McLaughlin (born March 29, 1927) is the creator, executive producer, and host of The McLaughlin Group, a weekly public affairs television program broadcast in the United States since 1982, and of McLaughlins One on One, an interview program. ... William L. Safire on NBCs Meet The Press with Tim Russert. ... Ben Stein speaks to a crowd at UC Santa Barbara. ...

Others

Robert Bork Robert Heron Bork (born March 1, 1927 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is a conservative American legal scholar who advocates the judicial philosophy of originalism. ... Richard (Dick) Gordon Darman was born May 10, 1943. ... Carla Anderson Hills (born January 3, 1934) is an American lawyer and public figure. ... Everette Howard Hunt (born October 9, 1918 in East Hamburg, New York, United States) worked for the White House under President Richard Nixon. ... G. Gordon Liddy George Gordon Battle Liddy (born November 30, 1930) was the chief operative for President Richard Nixons White House Plumbers unit. ... Categories: People stubs ... Henry Paulson, Jr. ... John D. Ehrlichman as Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs, May 13, 1969. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... The White House Fellows program was established by American President Lyndon B. Johnson in October 1964. ... William Doyle Ruckelshaus (born July 24, 1932) is an attorney and civil servant in the United States. ...

Supreme Court appointments

Nixon appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the U.S. and leads the judicial branch of the U.S. federal government. ...

Nixon also made the following unsuccessful Supreme Court nominations: Warren Earl Burger (September 17, 1907 – June 25, 1995) was Chief Justice of the United States from 1969 to 1986. ... The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the Supreme Court of the United States. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Harold Andrew Blackmun (November 12, 1908 - March 4, 1999) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1970 to 1994. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... Official portrait of Justice Powell, 1976. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1972 calendar). ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist and political figure, who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and Chief Justice of the United States. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1972 calendar). ...

George Harrold Harold Carswell (December 22, 1919 – July 13, 1992) was a Federal Judge and an unsuccessful nominee to the United States Supreme Court. ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Clement Furman Haynsworth, Jr. ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Herschel Friday was an Arkansas lawyer whom President Richard Nixon considered appointing to the United States Supreme Court. ... Official portrait of Justice Powell, 1976. ... American Bar Associations Washington, DC office The American Bar Association (ABA) is a voluntary bar association of lawyers which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. ... Mildred Lillie (January 25, 1915–October 27, 2001) was a California judge whom President Richard Nixon announced as the first female nominee for the United States Supreme Court. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist and political figure, who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and Chief Justice of the United States. ... American Bar Associations Washington, DC office The American Bar Association (ABA) is a voluntary bar association of lawyers which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. ...

Watergate

Main article: Watergate scandal
Nixon's letter of resignation
Nixon's letter of resignation
Nixon departing the White House on August 9, 1974
Enlarge
Nixon departing the White House on August 9, 1974

In October 1972, The Washington Post reported the FBI had determined Nixon aides had spied on and sabotaged numerous Democratic presidential candidates as a part of the operations that led to the infamous Watergate scandal. During the campaign five burglars were arrested on June 17, 1972 in the Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate office complex. They were subsequently linked to the White House. This became one of a series of major scandals involving the Committee to Re-Elect the President (known as CRP but referred to by outsiders as CREEP), including the White House enemies list and assorted "dirty tricks." The ensuing Watergate scandal exposed the Nixon administration's rampant corruption, illegality, and deceit. Nixon himself downplayed the scandal as mere politics, but when his aides resigned in disgrace, Nixon's role in ordering an illegal cover-up came to light in the press, courts, and congressional investigations. Nixon evaded taxes, accepted illicit campaign contributions, ordered secret bombings, and harassed opponents with executive agencies, wiretaps, and break-ins. Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned in October 1973 for accepting bribes, but Nixon hung on to power, claiming, "I am not a crook." His secret recordings of White House conversations were subpoenaed, and revealed details of his complicity in the cover-up. Nixon was named by the grand jury investigating Watergate as "an unindicted co-conspirator" in the Watergate Scandal. He lost support from some in his own party as well as much popular support after what became known as the Saturday Night Massacre of October 20, 1973 in which he ordered Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor in the Watergate case, to be fired, as well as firing several of his own subordinates who objected to this move. The House Judiciary Committee opened formal and public impeachment hearings against Nixon on May 9, 1974. Despite his efforts, one of the secret recordings, known as the "smoking gun" tape, was released on August 5, 1974 and revealed that Nixon authorized hush money to Watergate burglar E. Howard Hunt, and also revealed that Nixon arranged for the blackmailing of the CIA into telling the FBI to stop investigating certain topics because of "the Bay of Pigs thing". Several of the Watergate burglars were involved in the Bay of Pigs operation. Haldeman would later claim that when Nixon used the phrase "the Bay of Pigs thing," he was actually referring to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. In light of his loss of political support and the near certainty of both his impeachment by the House of Representatives and his conviction by the Senate, he resigned on August 9, 1974, after addressing the nation on television the previous evening. He never admitted wrongdoing, though he later conceded errors of judgment. The term Watergate refers to a series of events, spanning from 1972 to 1974, that began with U.S. President Nixons administrations abuse of power toward the goal of undermining the Democratic Party and the opposition to the Vietnam War, and included burglaries of the headquarters of the... Richard Nixons letter of resignation to Henry Kissinger. ... Richard Nixons letter of resignation to Henry Kissinger. ... Image File history File links Richard Nixon delivering the V sign outside Army One upon his final departure from the White House Photograph by Robert L. Knudsen, August 9, 1974, National Archives (http://www. ... Image File history File links Richard Nixon delivering the V sign outside Army One upon his final departure from the White House Photograph by Robert L. Knudsen, August 9, 1974, National Archives (http://www. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... The Washington Post is the largest and oldest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ... The term Watergate refers to a series of events, spanning from 1972 to 1974, that began with U.S. President Nixons administrations abuse of power toward the goal of undermining the Democratic Party and the opposition to the Vietnam War, and included burglaries of the headquarters of the... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1972 calendar). ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The Watergate building. ... The southern side of the White House The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States of America. ... The Committee to Re-elect the President, often abbreviated to CRP or CREEP (which was also the way it was pronounced), was a Nixon White House fund-raising organization headed by John N. Mitchell, who had previously served as United States Attorney General. ... Nixons Enemies List is the informal name of what started as a list of the Nixon administrations major political opponents compiled by Charles Colson and sent in memorandum form to John Dean on September 9, 1971. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Campaign finance refers to the means by which money is raised for political election campaigns. ... An Executive Agency is a British public institution that carries out some part of the executive functions of the United Kingdom government, Scottish Executive, Welsh Assembly and Northern Ireland Executive. ... Telephone tapping or Wire tapping/ Wiretapping (in US) describes the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996), born Spiros Anagnostopoulos in Towson, Maryland, was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1973 under President Richard M. Nixon. ... Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ... The southern side of the White House The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States of America. ... A subpoena is a writ commanding a person to appear under penalty (from Latin). ... The term Watergate refers to a series of events, spanning from 1972 to 1974, that began with U.S. President Nixons administrations abuse of power toward the goal of undermining the Democratic Party and the opposition to the Vietnam War, and included burglaries of the headquarters of the... The Saturday night massacre (October 20, 1973) was the term given by political commentators to U.S. President Richard Nixons executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the forced resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus during the controversial and drawn-out... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Archibald Cox, Jr. ... A special prosecutor is a lawyer from outside the government appointed by the attorney general or Congress to investigate a federal official for misconduct while in office. ... U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, or (more commonly) the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... Everette Howard Hunt (born October 9, 1918 in East Hamburg, New York, United States) worked for the White House under President Richard Nixon. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The Bay of Pigs (Spanish: Bahía de Cochinos) is a bay on the southern coast of the Matanzas Province in Cuba. ... H.R. Haldeman, January 21, 1971. ... John F. Kennedy The assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 PM Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC). ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... Nixon Resign. ...


On September 8, 1974, a blanket pardon from President Gerald R. Ford, who served as Nixon's second vice president, effectively ended any possibility of indictment. The pardon was highly controversial and Nixon's critics claimed that the blanket pardon was quid pro quo for his resignation. No evidence of this "corrupt bargain" has ever been proven, and many modern historians dismiss any claims of overt collusion between the two men concerning the pardon. The pardon hurt Ford politically, and it was one of the major reasons cited for Ford's defeat in the election of 1976. Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... Quid pro quo (Latin for something for something, many times understood by English speakers as what for what or tit for tat) is used to mean, in the English speaking world, a favor for a favor (in other linguistic contexts, such as Portuguese and French, it means a misunderstanding, a... Two deals cut in contested United States presidential elections have been known as Corrupt Bargains. ...


Later years and death

In his later years Nixon worked to rehabilitate his public image, and enjoyed considerably more success than could have been anticipated at the time of his resignation. He gained great respect as an elder statesman in the area of foreign affairs, being consulted by both Democratic and Republican successors to the Presidency.


Further tape releases, however, removed any doubt of Nixon's involvement both in the Watergate cover-up and also the illegal campaign finances and intrusive government surveillance that were at the heart of the scandal.


Nixon wrote many books after his departure from politics, including his memoirs.


On April 18, 1994, Nixon, 81, suffered a major stroke at his home in Park Ridge, New Jersey, and died four days later on April 22. He was buried beside his wife Pat Nixon (who had died ten months earlier, on June 22, 1993, of lung cancer) on the grounds of the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California. April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Map highlighting Park Ridges location within Bergen County. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... Pat Nixon Thelma Catherine Patricia Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of Richard Nixon and First Lady of the United States from 1969-1974. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Lung cancer is a cancer of the lungs characterized by the presence of malignant tumours. ... The Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace is the presidential library of Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th President of the United States, located at 18001 Yorba Linda Boulevard in Yorba Linda, California. ... Yorba Linda is a city located in Orange County, California, approximately 13 miles northeast of Downtown Santa Ana, and 40 miles southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. ...


President Bill Clinton, former secretary of state Henry Kissinger, Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole and California Republican Governor Pete Wilson spoke at the April 27 funeral, the first for an American president since that of Lyndon Johnson on January 25, 1973, a ceremony Nixon presided over when president; also in attendance were former presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush and their respective first ladies. Nixon was survived by his two daughters, along with his four grandchildren. William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Henry Kissinger circa 1970s. ... Robert Joseph Bob Dole (born July 22, 1923) is best known as a former Republican United States Senate Majority Leader and Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996. ... Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23, 1933) is an American Republican politician from California. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... For the submarine, see USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23). ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... George Herbert Walker Bush, GCB, (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ...


The Nixon Library contains only Nixon's pre- and post-presidential papers, as his presidential papers have been retained as government evidence. Nixon's attempts to protect his papers and gain tax advantages from them had been one of the important themes of the Watergate affair. Due to disputes over the papers, the library is privately funded and does not, like the other presidential libraries, receive support from the National Archives. The Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace is the presidential library of Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th President of the United States, located at 18001 Yorba Linda Boulevard in Yorba Linda, California. ... The Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum is on the campus of the University of Texas at Austin. ... The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ...


Media

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Richard Nixon

Nixon Resignation. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ... For help with sound or video, see Wikipedia:Media help. ... Vorbis is an open and free lossy audio compression (codec) project headed by the Xiph. ... Nixon Resign. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1024 or 1000 bytes. ... For help with sound or video, see Wikipedia:Media help. ... Vorbis is an open and free lossy audio compression (codec) project headed by the Xiph. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Quotations

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Richard M. Nixon
  • "You don't have Nixon to kick around anymore. Because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference." 1962 after losing the race for Governor of California.
  • "This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the Creation, because as a result of what happened in this week, the world is bigger, infinitely." (concerning the Apollo Moon landing)
  • "I made my mistakes, but in all my years of public life, I have never profited from public service. I've earned every cent. And in all of my years in public life I have never obstructed justice. And I think, too, that I can say that in my years of public life that I welcome this kind of examination because people have got to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook. I've earned everything I've got." (in response to the Watergate scandal)

Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq. ... Apollo 11 was the fifth human spaceflight of the Apollo program, the third human voyage to the moon, and the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ...

Foreign policy

  • "People react to fear, not love- they don't teach that in Sunday School, but it's true." (concerning fear and paranoia in the Cold War)
  • "No event in American history is more misunderstood than the Vietnam War. It was misreported then, and it is misremembered now." (1985 looking back at the Vietnam War)
  • On his secret war in Cambodia even after it became public knowledge. "Publicly, we say one thing....Actually, we do another."

This article is about the year. ...

On race

  • “But by God, they're exceptions. But Bob, generally speaking, you can't trust the bastards. They turn on us.” (On Jews, to Bob Haldeman) [3]
  • “Jewish families are close, but there's this strange malignancy that seems to creep among them - radicalism.”
  • “You can never put, John, any person who is a Jew on a civil rights kind of case, or freedom of the press kind of case, and get even a ten percent chance. . . . Basically, who the hell are these people that stole the papers? It's too bad. I'm sorry. I was hoping one of them would be a gentile.”
  • "You know, it's a funny thing, every one of the bastards that are out for legalizing marijuana is Jewish. What the Christ is the matter with the Jews, Bob? What is the matter with them? I suppose it is because most of them are psychiatrists." 26th May 1971
  • “What about the rich Jews? The IRS is full of Jews, Bob.” 14th of September 1971
  • "The Jews are irreligious, atheistic, immoral bunch of bastards." 1st of February 1972, Nixon telling Bob Haldeman
  • “I have the greatest affection for them [blacks], but I know they're not going to make it for 500 years. They aren't. You know it, too. The Mexicans are a different cup of tea. They have a heritage. At the present time they steal, they're dishonest, but they do have some concept of family life. They don't live like a bunch of dogs, which the Negroes do live like.”

Harry Robbins (Bob) Haldeman (October 27, 1926 - November 12, 1993) was a U.S. political aide and businessman, best known for his service in the Nixon White House, and for his role in the Watergate scandal, for which he was convicted and imprisoned. ... Harry Robbins (Bob) Haldeman (October 27, 1926 - November 12, 1993) was a U.S. political aide and businessman, best known for his service in the Nixon White House, and for his role in the Watergate scandal, for which he was convicted and imprisoned. ...

On Watergate

Presidents Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton watched over Nixon's funeral in 1994. He was the first president to die since Lyndon Johnson in the 70's while Nixon was still president.
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Presidents Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton watched over Nixon's funeral in 1994. He was the first president to die since Lyndon Johnson in the 70's while Nixon was still president.
  • "When you get in these people when you...get these people in, say: "Look, the problem is that this will open the whole, the whole Bay of Pigs thing, and the President just feels that" ah, without going into the details... don't, don't lie to them to the extent to say there is no involvement, but just say this is sort of a comedy of errors, bizarre, without getting into it, "the President believes that it is going to open the whole Bay of Pigs thing up again. And, ah because these people are plugging for, for keeps and that they should call the FBI in and say that we wish for the country, don't go any further into this case", period!" The 'smoking gun tape' on June 23, 1972. Nixon was telling Haldeman to tell the CIA to stop the FBI investigation, by telling the CIA that it would 'open the whole Bay of Pigs thing.' Haldeman did give Nixon's order to the CIA's Richard Helms, who exploded into a rage of fury when told, according to Haldeman. Haldeman would later write that Nixon used the expression 'the Bay of Pigs thing' when he was referring to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
  • "I want to say this to the television audience. I made my mistakes, but in all of my years of public life, I have never profited, never profited from public service. I have earned every cent. And in all of my years of public life, I have never obstructed justice. And I think, too, that I can say that in my years of public life, that I welcome this kind of examination because people have got to know whether or not their President's a crook. Well, I'm not a crook. I've earned everything I've got." November 17, 1973 Televised press conference with 400 Associated Press Managing Editors at Walt Disney World, Florida, Nixon summarized his responses to journalists' questions regarding speculation and criticism of his personal finances and the Watergate scandal.
  • "I don't give a shit what happens. I want you all to stonewall it, let them plead the Fifth Amendment, cover up or anything else, if it'll save it, save this plan. That's the whole point. We're going to protect our people if we can." (to Haldeman, tapes ordered released for the trial of Haldeman, Ehrlichman and Mitchell)
  • "I recognize that this additional material I am now furnishing may further damage my case," (after the ordered release of the White House tapes August 5, 1974)
  • "Well, when the President does it, that means that it's not illegal." (explaining his interpretation of Executive Privilege to interviewer David Frost on television, May 19, 1977) [4]
  • "I was under medication when I made the decision not to burn the tapes."
  • "Well, I screwed it all up real good, didn't I?"
  • "The greatness comes not when things go always good for you, but the greatness comes and you are really tested, when you take some knocks, some disappointments, when sadness comes, because only if you have been in the deepest valley can you ever know how magnificent it is to be on the highest mountain... Always remember, others may hate you. Those who hate you don't win unless you hate them. And then you destroy yourself." Farewell to White House staff August 8, 1974.
  • "I think that the ability of the American people to review all that there is to know about their president using a microscope is wonderful. Still, I think some people get a little carried away when they take out their proctoscopes." (regarding the intense scrutiny which he was forced to endure.)

Download high resolution version (934x578, 121 KB)Five presidents and first ladies attended the funeral of Richard Nixon on April 27, 1994, in Nixons hometown of Yorba Linda, California. ... Download high resolution version (934x578, 121 KB)Five presidents and first ladies attended the funeral of Richard Nixon on April 27, 1994, in Nixons hometown of Yorba Linda, California. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... For the submarine, see USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23). ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... George Herbert Walker Bush, GCB, (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ... William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1972 calendar). ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Cinderella Castle, at the center of the Magic Kingdom, is Walt Disney World Resorts most recognizable icon Introduction Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company, the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida, USA is home to four theme parks, two water parks, several resort hotels and golf courses... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,794 sq. ... Personal finance is the application of the principles of financial economics to an individuals (or a familys) financial decisions. ... Amendment V (the Fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, is related to legal procedure. ... H.R. Haldeman, January 21, 1971. ... John D. Ehrlichman as Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs, May 13, 1969. ... Mitchell (far left) meeting with Nixon, J. Edgar Hoover, and John Ehrlichman on May 26, 1971. ... The southern side of the White House The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States of America. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... Frost interviewing Donald Rumsfeld in 2005 Sir David Paradine Frost, OBE (born April 17, 1939) is a British television presenter. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... A proctoscope, also known as a rectoscope, is a medical instrument used to open and look into the anal cavity, rectal cavity or [[sigmoid colon], in a procedure that is called proctoscopy and is standard in physical examinations of older people. ...

On peace

  • "Any nation that decides the only way to achieve peace is through peaceful means is a nation that will soon be a piece of another nation." (from his book No More Vietnams)
  • "The greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker." (From his 1969 inaugural; later used as Nixon's epitaph)

See Epitaph Records for the record label An epitaph (literally: on the gravestone in ancient Greek) is text honoring the deceased, most commonly inscribed on a tombstone or plaque. ...

Miscellaneous

  • "Sock it to me?" (cameo on the television comedy series Laugh-In during the 1968 election)
  • "I don't know a lot about politics, but I do know a lot about baseball."
  • "Solutions are not the answer."
  • "I would have made a good pope."
  • "Let me say this about that."
  • "cookie pushers and faggots in striped pants", referring to the Peace Corps and the State Dept. Foreign Service.
  • "McCarthy goes after Communists with a shotgun; I go after them with a rifle."
  • "We are all Keynesians now."
  • "Bunch of big 'ol flag-mangling traitors," referring to the Democratic Party after the nomination of George McGovern.
  • "In all the decisions I have made in my public life, I have always tried to do what was best for the nation. I have never been a quitter."
  • "Any man who has had power, has been a lonely man."
  • "I am not a crook."

Rowan & Martins Laugh-In was a United States comedy television show broadcast from January 22, 1968 through 1973 over the NBC Network. ... Baseball is a team sport in which a player on one team (the pitcher) attempts to throw a hard, fist-sized ball within a zone over home plate while a player on the other team (the batter) attempts to hit the baseball with a tapered, smooth, cylindrical bat that can... The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Peace Corps volunteers usually serve for two years. ... The United States Foreign Service is a personnel system established under the Foreign Service Act. ... Joseph Raymond McCarthy Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908–May 2, 1957) was a Republican Senator from the state of Wisconsin between 1947 and 1957. ... John Maynard Keynes (right) and Harry Dexter White at the Bretton Woods Conference John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB (pronounced kānz / kAnze) (June 5, 1883 – April 21, 1946) was a British economist whose ideas had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on...

Nixon's image and media portrayals

Nixon's career was frequently dogged by Nixon's personality, and the public perception of it. Editorial cartoonists such as Herblock and comedians had fun exaggerating Nixon's appearance and mannerisms, to the point where the line between the human and the caricature version of him became increasingly blurred. He was often portrayed as a sullen loner, with unshaven jowls, slumped shoulders, and a furrowed, sweaty brow. He was also characterized as the very epitome of a "square" and the personification of unpleasant adult authority. Nixon tried to shed these perceptions by staging photo-ops with young people, and even cameo appearances on popular TV shows such as Laugh-In and Hee Haw (before he was president). He also frequently brandished the two-finger V sign (alternately viewed as the "Victory sign" or "peace sign") using both hands, an act which became one of his best-known trademarks. Once the transcripts of the White House tapes were released, people were shocked at the amount of swearing and vicious comments about opponents that Nixon issued. This did not help the public perception, and fed the comedians even more. Nixon's sense of being persecuted by his "enemies," his grandiose belief in his own moral and political excellence, and his commitment to utilize ruthless power at all costs led some experts to describe him as having a narcissistic and paranoid personality. [5] During the Watergate Scandal, Nixon's approval rating had fallen to 25%. Herbert Lawrence Block, commonly known as Herblock (October 13, 1909 – October 7, 2001), was a U.S. editorial cartoonist. ... A photo op, short for photo opportunity, is a carefully planned human event that results in a memorable and effective photograph. ... Rowan & Martins Laugh-In was a United States comedy television show broadcast from January 22, 1968 through 1973 over the NBC Network. ... Hee Haw was a long-running U.S. television variety show hosted by Buck Owens and Roy Clark and featuring country music and humor with rural Kornfield Kounty as a backdrop. ... The V sign is a hand gesture in which the first and second fingers are raised and parted, whilst the remaining fingers are clenched. ... Narcissism is the pattern of traits and behaviors which involve infatuation and obsession with ones self to the exclusion of others and the egotistic and ruthless pursuit of ones gratification, dominance and ambition. ... Paranoid redirects here. ...

Nixon meets Elvis Presley in December 1970
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Nixon meets Elvis Presley in December 1970
  • The book and movie All the President's Men tell Woodward and Bernstein's story of the Watergate affair.
  • Best-selling historian-author Stephen Ambrose wrote a three-volume biography (Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913-1962, Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician, 1962-1972, Nixon: Ruin and Recovery 1973-1990) considered the definitive work among many Nixon biographies. The detailed accounts were mostly favorably regarded by both liberal and conservative reviewers.
  • Conservative author Victor Lasky published a book in 1977 called It Didn't Start With Watergate. The book points out that past presidents may have used wiretaps and engaged in other activities that Nixon was accused of, but were never pursued by the press or the subject of impeachment hearings.
  • Chuck Colson gives an insider account of the Watergate affair in Born Again.
  • H.R. Haldeman also provides an insider's perspective in the books The Ends of Power and The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House
  • G. Gordon Liddy, gives his version of the Watergate Scandal in his autobiography Will.
  • The movie Nixon directed by Oliver Stone.
  • Nixon in China is an opera dealing with Nixon's visit there.
  • The comedy Dick (film) tells the tale of the watergate scandal by saying that Deep Throat (Watergate) was two teenage girls. They choose the name because their older brother saw Deep Throat (film) at the theater. They get in the White House since they are presidential dogwalkers.
  • From 1976 to 1979, Nixon was portrayed on NBC's Saturday Night Live by Dan Aykroyd.
  • Richard Nixon was elected president of the world in Matt Groening's cartoon series Futurama, claiming that the Constitution stated that nobody may run more than twice, and he is now just a head in a jar. Many other people are heads in jars on Futurama, but Nixon's is the one with the biggest role. He also appears in The Simpsons in flashbacks or on television.

Elvis Presley meeting Richard Nixon. ... Elvis Presley meeting Richard Nixon. ... Elvis redirects here. ... All the Presidents Men is a 1974 non-fiction book by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, the two journalists investigating the Watergate scandal for the Washington Post. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premier of Band of Brothers Dr. Stephen Edward Ambrose, Ph. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Telephone tapping or Wire tapping/ Wiretapping (in US) describes the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... Charles Wendell Chuck Colson was the chief counsel for President Richard Nixon from 1969 to 1973. ... Born again is a term used originally and mainly in Christianity, where it is associated with salvation, conversion and spiritual rebirth. ... Harry Robbins (Bob) Haldeman (October 27, 1926 - November 12, 1993) was a U.S. political aide and businessman, best known for his service in the Nixon White House, and for his role in the Watergate scandal, for which he was convicted and imprisoned. ... G. Gordon Liddy George Gordon Battle Liddy (born November 30, 1930) was the chief operative for President Richard Nixons White House Plumbers unit. ... Nixon is a 1995 film which tells the story of the political and personal life of former President Richard Nixon. ... Oliver Stone William Oliver Stone (born September 15, 1946), known simply as Oliver Stone, is an Academy Award-winning American film director and screenwriter. ... Nixon in China (1985-87) is an opera, with music by the American composer John Adams and a libretto by Alice Goodman, about the visit of Richard Nixon to China in 1972, where he met with Mao Zedong and other Chinese officials. ... Sydney Opera House: one of the worlds most recognizable opera houses and landmarks Opera refers to a dramatic art form, originating in Europe, in which the emotional content or primary entertainment is conveyed to the audience as much through music, both vocal and instrumental, as it is through the... Movie poster Dick is a 1999 US comedy movie directed by Andrew Fleming from a script by himself and Sheryl Longin. ... W. Mark Felt, on the set of CBSs Face the Nation in 1976. ... Deep Throat is an American pornographic movie released in the summer of 1972, written and directed by Gerard Damiano and starring Linda Lovelace (the pseudonym of Linda Susan Boreman). ... The southern side of the White House The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States of America. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... NBC, the National Broadcasting Company, is an American television and radio network based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... Saturday Night Live (SNL) is a weekly late-night 90-minute comedy-variety show based in New York City which has been broadcast by NBC nearly every Saturday night since its debut on October 11, 1975. ... Dan Aykroyd (left) with John Belushi in The Blues Brothers Daniel Edward Aykroyd (born July 1, 1952) is an Academy Award-nominated Canadian comedian, actor, screenwriter and musician. ... Matt Groening Matthew Abram Groening (born February 15, 1954 in Portland, Oregon; his family name is pronounced /greɪnɪŋ/, rhyming with gaining and raining) is an American cartoonist and the creator of the American animated television series The Simpsons [1] and Futurama. ... Futurama is an American animated television series created by Matt Groening (creator of The Simpsons) and David X. Cohen (also a writer for The Simpsons). ... The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for the President of the United States, providing that No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President... The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening. ...

Trivia

  • The very first Kennedy-Nixon debate took place on April 21, 1947, when Democratic Congressman Frank Buchanan selected freshman congressmen Nixon and John F. Kennedy to debate the Taft-Hartley Act at a public meeting.
  • In 1952, Nixon became the first native-born Californian to appear on a presidential ticket when he became running mate to Dwight Eisenhower.
  • On June 14, 1959, Vice-President Nixon and his family inaugurated the Disneyland Monorail System, the first daily operating monorail in the western hemisphere.
  • On December 22, 1968, Julie Nixon (Richard's daughter) and David Eisenhower (Dwight's grandson) were married.
  • From January 22, 1973, when his predecessor Lyndon Johnson died, until his resignation on August 9, 1974, Nixon was the only living current or former U.S. President.
  • Nixon financed much of his first congressional campaign with the poker winnings he accumulated in the U.S. Navy during World War II.
  • Nixon was an accomplished pianist, as was Harry S. Truman.
  • Nixon was the first U.S. President to visit the People's Republic of China.
  • Nixon was the second U.S President to visit the Soviet Union (the first was President Franklin Roosevelt at the Yalta Conference in 1945).
  • Nixon was granted a coat of arms by the short-lived American College of Heraldry and Arms.
  • Nixon was an avid bowler and allegedly once bowled a perfect game.
  • Nixon was a knowledgable sports fan, with a particular interest in football and baseball. During his presidency, he even had the odd habit of calling the losing team after the Super Bowl to offer his condolences and support.
  • Nixon was the first president to visit all 50 states.
  • Nixon played golf frequently, as did Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy.
  • Nixon's last public appearance was at a Conestoga High School performance of Into the Woods. His granddaughter Jennie Eisenhower, great-granddaughter of Dwight D. Eisenhower, played the role of Little Red Riding Hood. [6]

April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Disneyland Monorail System is an attraction and transportation system at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Julie Nixon Eisenhower (born July 5, 1948 in Washington, D.C.) is the daughter of Richard Nixon and married to David Eisenhower, grandson of the 34th president, Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... David Eisenhower (born 1948) is the grandson of the supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II and the 34th President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-fourth Vice President (1945) and the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953), succeeding to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... Heraldry is the science and art of designing, displaying, describing and recording coats of arms and badges, as well as the formal ceremonies and laws that regulate the use and inheritance of arms. ... A seal bearing the arms of The American College of Heraldry and Arms The American College of Heraldry and Arms, Inc. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Conestoga High School in 2006 Conestoga High School, located in Devon-Berwyn, a community in Tredyffrin Township, Pennsylvania, is the only high school in the Tredyffrin/Easttown School District. ... Into the Woods is an award-winning musical featuring a score by Stephen Sondheim and book by James Lapine. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969, popularly known as Ike) was an American soldier and politician. ... A depiction by Gustave Dore Little Red Riding Hood (French: Le petit chaperon rouge; lit. ...

See also

Main article: Category:Richard Nixon

Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... // Civil rights The assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963 changed the political mood of the country. ... The Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace is the presidential library of Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th President of the United States, located at 18001 Yorba Linda Boulevard in Yorba Linda, California. ...

References

Primary sources

  • Nixon, Richard. (1960). The Challenges We Face: Edited and Compiled from the Speeches and Papers of Richard M. Nixon ISBN 0195457626.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1962). Six Crises. Doubleday. ISBN 0385001258.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1978). RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (Reprint). Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671707418.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1980). Real War. Sidgwich Jackson. ISBN 0283986506.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1982). Leaders. Random House. ISBN 0446512494.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1987). No More Vietnams. Arbor House Publishing. ISBN 0877956685.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1988). 1999: Victory Without War. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671627120.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1990). In the Arena: A Memoir of Victory, Defeat, and Renewal. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671723189.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1992). Seize The Moment: America's Challenge In A One-Superpower World. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671743430.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1994). Beyond Peace. Random House. ISBN 0679433236.

Secondary sources

  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913–1962 (1987).
  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician, 1962–1972 (1989).
  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Nixon: Ruin and Recovery 1973–1990 (1991).
  • Flippen, J. Brooks. Nixon and the Environment (2000).
  • Friedman, Leon and William F. Levantrosser, eds. Watergate and Afterward: The Legacy of Richard M. Nixon (1992), essays.
  • Friedman, Leon and William F. Levantrosser, eds. Richard M. Nixon: Politician, President, Administrator (1991), essays.
  • Gellman, Irwin. The Contender: Richard Nixon: The Congress Years, 1946 to 1952 (1999).
  • Genovese, Michael A. The Nixon Presidency: Power and Politics in Turbulent Times (1990).
  • Greenberg, David. Nixon's Shadow: The History of an Image (2003).
  • Hoff, Joan. Nixon Reconsidered (1994).
  • Kissinger, Henry. Memoirs. 2 vols. (1979-1982).
  • Kutler, Stanley I. "'The Wars of Watergate: The Last Crisis of Richard Nixon. (1990).
  • Levantrosser, William F. ed. Cold War Patriot and Statesman, Richard M. Nixon (1993), essays by scholars and senior officials.
  • Morris, Roger. Richard Milhous Nixon: The Rise of an American Politician (1990).
  • Parmet, Herbert S. Richard Nixon and His America. (1990).
  • Reeves, Richard. President Nixon: Alone in the White House (2002).
  • Reichley, A. James. Conservatives in an Age of Change: The Nixon and Ford Administrations (1981), detailed narrative.
  • Small, Melvin. The Presidency of Richard Nixon (2003).
  • Summers, Anthony. The Arrogance of Power The Secret World of Richard Nixon (2000).
  • Thornton, Richard C. The Nixon-Kissinger Years: Reshaping America's Foreign Policy (1989).
  • Wicker, Tom. One of Us: Richard Nixon and the American Dream (1991).

Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premier of Band of Brothers Dr. Stephen Edward Ambrose, Ph. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premier of Band of Brothers Dr. Stephen Edward Ambrose, Ph. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premier of Band of Brothers Dr. Stephen Edward Ambrose, Ph. ... Henry Kissinger circa 1970s. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Kennedy-Nixon Presidential Debates, 1960 - Erika Tyner Allen, Museum of Broadcast Communications, accessed April 4, 2006
  2. ^ The Tilt: The U.S. and the South Asian Crisis of 1971 - Sajit Gandhi, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 79, December 16, 2002
  3. ^ Nixon: I Am Not an Anti-Semite - Timothy Noah, Slate, October 7, 1999
  4. ^ Nixon's Views on Presidential Power: Excerpts from an Interview with David Frost - Landmark Supreme Court Cases, United States v. Nixon, interview on May 19, 1977
  5. ^ Nixon: A Psychobiography - Vamik D. Volkan, Norman Itzkowitz, and Andrew W. Dod, book review by Michael A. Ingall, accessed April 4, 2006
  6. ^ Choosing theater over politics - Ruth Rovner, Main Line Times, December 11, 2003

The Museum of Broadcast Communications is located in Chicago, Illinois. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Security Archive is an independent organization located within the George Washington University. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Richard M. Nixon

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of source texts, along with translations into any language and other supporting materials. ... Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about actors, films, television shows, television stars, video games and production crew personnel. ... The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all members of both houses of the United States Congress, past and present. ...

Speeches

  • First Inaugural Address
  • Second Inaugural Address
  • Audio recordings of Nixon's speeches
  • Checkers speech
  • Resignation speech
Preceded by:
Jerry Voorhis
Member of the United States House of Representatives for California's 12th District
1947 – 1950
Succeeded by:
Patrick J. Hillings
Preceded by:
Sheridan Downey
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from California
1951 – 1953
Served alongside: William F. Knowland
Succeeded by:
Thomas Kuchel
Preceded by:
Earl Warren
Republican Party Vice Presidential nominee
1952 (won), 1956 (won)
Succeeded by:
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Preceded by:
Alben W. Barkley
Vice President of the United States
January 20, 1953January 20, 1961
Succeeded by:
Lyndon B. Johnson
Preceded by:
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican Party Presidential nominee
1960 (lost)
Succeeded by:
Barry Goldwater
Preceded by:
Barry Goldwater
Republican Party Presidential nominee
1968 (won), 1972 (won)
Succeeded by:
Gerald Ford
Preceded by:
Lyndon B. Johnson
President of the United States
January 20, 1969August 9, 1974
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