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Encyclopedia > Richard III of England
Richard III
King of England; Lord of Ireland (more...)
Reign 20 June 148322 August 1485
Coronation 6 July 1483
Predecessor Edward V
Successor Henry VII
Consort Anne Neville
Issue
Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales
Titles and styles
The King
The Duke of Gloucester
Lord Richard Plantagenet
Royal house House of York
Father Richard, 3rd Duke of York
Mother Cecily Neville
Born 2 October 1452(1452-10-02)
Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire
Died 22 August 1485 (aged 32)
Bosworth Field, Leicestershire
Burial Greyfriars Abbey, Leicestershire[1]

Richard III (2 October 145222 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. He was the last king from the House of York, and his defeat at the Battle of Bosworth marked the culmination of the Wars of the Roses and the end of the Plantagenet dynasty. After the death of his brother King Edward IV, Richard briefly governed as regent for Edward's son King Edward V with the title of Lord Protector, but he placed Edward and his brother Richard in the Tower (see Princes in the Tower) and seized the throne for himself, being crowned on 6 July 1483. The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Anne Neville (June 11, 1456–March 16, 1485) was Queen consort of King Richard III of England 1483-1485. ... Edward of Middleham, also known as Edward Plantagenet (1473 - April 9, 1484) was the only son of King Richard III of England and his wife Anne Neville. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The House of York was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, three of whom became English kings in the late 15th century. ... Richard, Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end of the Hundred Years War, and in England during Henry VIs madness. ... Cecily Neville (3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495), Duchess of York, was called the Rose of Raby (because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, England) and Proud Cis (because of her pride and a temper that went with it). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October - English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight. ... Fotheringhay Church Fotheringhay is a village in Northamptonshire, England. ... Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or Nhants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Combatants King Richard III of England, Yorkist Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, Lancastrian Commanders Richard III of England† Earl of Richmond (nominally) Earl of Oxford (in practice) Strength 6,000 (king had 15,500 but Lord Stanley with 4,000 and his brother, Sir William Stanley with 2,500 betrayed... Leicestershire ( IPA: (RP), IPA: (locally)), abbreviation Leics. ... Leicestershire ( IPA: (RP), IPA: (locally)), abbreviation Leics. ... Richard III may refer to: King Richard III of England Richard III, a play by William Shakespeare about the king Richard III may also refer to motion pictures based on the Shakespeare play: Richard III, 1995 (UK/USA), starring Ian McKellen Richard III, 1986 (Soviet Union) Richard III, 1980 (France... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events October - English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... The House of York was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, three of whom became English kings in the late 15th century. ... Combatants King Richard III of England, Yorkist Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, Lancastrian Commanders Richard III of England† Earl of Richmond (nominally) Earl of Oxford (in practice) Strength 6,000 (king had 15,500 but Lord Stanley with 4,000 and his brother, Sir William Stanley with 2,500 betrayed... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... Angevin is the name applied to three distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York and 1st Duke of Norfolk (17 August 1473–1483?) was the second son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville and, thus, the younger brother of King Edward V. In January 1478, when he was about 4 years old, he married... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower, 1483 by Sir John Everett Millais, 1878, part of the Royal Holloway picture collection The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (November 4, 1470 – 1483?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (17 August 1473 – 1483... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ...


Two large-scale rebellions rose against Richard. The first, in 1483, was led by die-hard opponents of Edward IV and, most notably, Richard's own 'kingmaker', Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. The revolt collapsed and Buckingham was executed at Salisbury, near the Bull's Head Inn. However, in 1485, another rebellion arose against Richard, headed by Henry Tudor, 2nd Earl of Richmond (later King Henry VII) and his uncle Jasper. The rebels landed troops and Richard fell in the Battle of Bosworth Field, then known as Redemore or Dadlington Field, as the last Plantagenet king and the last English king to die in battle. An 18th century illustration of Henry Stafford. ... This article is about the city in the United Kingdom. ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford (ca 1431- December 21/26, 1495) was the uncle of King Henry VII of England and the architect of his successful conquest of England and Wales in 1485. ... Combatants King Richard III of England, Yorkist Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, Lancastrian Commanders Richard III of England† Earl of Richmond (nominally) Earl of Oxford (in practice) Strength 6,000 (king had 15,500 but Lord Stanley with 4,000 and his brother, Sir William Stanley with 2,500 betrayed...

Contents

Childhood

Richard was born at Fotheringhay Castle, the eighth and youngest, and fourth surviving, son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (who had been a strong claimant to the throne of King Henry VI) and Cecily Neville. Richard spent much of his childhood at Middleham Castle in Wensleydale, under the tutelage of his cousin Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick (known to history as "The Kingmaker" because of his strong influence on the course of the Wars of the Roses). Fotheringhay Church Fotheringhay is a village in Northamptonshire, England. ... Richard, Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end of the Hundred Years War, and in England during Henry VIs madness. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Cecily Neville (3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495), Duchess of York, was called the Rose of Raby (because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, England) and Proud Cis (because of her pride and a temper that went with it). ... Middleham Castle, now in the county of North Yorkshire, was build during the 12th century and later came into the hands of the Neville family, the most famous member of which was Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick - the Kingmaker. Under his ownership, improvements to the castle caused it to become... Wensleydale is the valley (dale) of the River Ure on the east side of the Pennines in North Yorkshire, England. ... Richard Neville, jure uxoris 16th Earl of Warwick and suo jure 6th Earl of Salisbury (22 November 1428 – April 14, 1471), is known as Warwick the Kingmaker. Warwick was the richest man in England outside of the Royal Family. ... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ...


At the time of the death of his father and older brother Edmund at the Battle of Wakefield, Richard, who was still a boy, was taken into the care of Warwick. While Richard was at Warwick's estate, he developed a close friendship with Francis Lovell, a friendship that would remain strong for the rest of his life. Another child in the household was Warwick's daughter Anne Neville, whom Richard would later marry. Edmund, Earl of Rutland (May 17, 1443 – December 31, 1460) was the fourth child and second surviving son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville. ... The Battle of Wakefield took place at Wakefield, in West Yorkshire, on December 30, 1460, and was one of the major actions of the Wars of the Roses. ... Francis Lovell, Viscount Lovell (1454 - 1487(?)), a supporter of Richard III and son of John, 8th Baron Lovell, probably knew Richard from a young age and was to be a life-long friend and supporter of the future king. ... Anne Neville (June 11, 1456–March 16, 1485) was Queen consort of King Richard III of England 1483-1485. ...


Reign of Edward IV

During the reign of his brother, King Edward IV, Richard demonstrated his loyalty and skill as a military commander. He was rewarded with large estates in northern England, awarded the title Duke of Gloucester and appointed as Governor of the North, becoming the richest and most powerful noble in England and a loyal aide to Edward IV. In contrast, the other surviving brother, George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, was executed by Edward for treason. Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Northern England, The North or North of England is a rather ill-defined term, with no universally accepted definition. ... King Richard III held the title of Duke of Gloucester from 1461 until his accession in 1483 The title Duke of Gloucester (pronounced gloss-ter) is a British royal title (after Gloucester), often conferred on one of the sons of the reigning monarch. ... George, Duke of Clarence (21 October 1449 – 18 February 1478) was the third son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the brother of kings Edward IV and Richard III of England. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ...


Richard controlled the north of England until Edward IV's death. In 1482 Richard recaptured Berwick-upon-Tweed from the Scots, and his administration was regarded as being fair and just, endowing universities and making grants to the church. Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ... This article is about the country. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...


Accession to the Throne

Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York
Children
   Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York
   Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge
   Constance, Countess of Gloucester
Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York
Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge
Children
   Isabel, Countess of Essex
   Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York
Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York
Children
   Anne, Duchess of Exeter
   Edward IV of England
   Edmund, Earl of Rutland
   Elizabeth, Duchess of Suffolk
   Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy
   George, Duke of Clarence
   Richard III of England
Edward IV of England
Children
   Elizabeth, Queen Consort of England
   Mary of York
   Cecily Kymbe
   Edward V of England
   Margaret of York
   Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York
   Anne, Countess of Surrey
   George, Duke of Bedford
   Catherine, Countess of Devon
   Bridget of York
George, Duke of Clarence
Children
   Margaret, Countess of Salisbury
   Edward, Earl of Warwick
Richard III of England
Children
   Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales

On the death of Edward IV, on 9 April 1483, the late King's sons (Richard's young nephews), King Edward V, aged 12, and Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, aged 9, were next in the order of succession. Richard, however, had the king's guardian, Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers (brother of Elizabeth Woodville, Edward IV's Queen Consort) and other advisors arrested and taken to Pontefract Castle, where they were later executed, allegedly for planning to assassinate Edward V. He then took Edward and his younger brother to the Tower of London. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (June 5, 1341 – August 1, 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of the five sons of the Royal couple who lived to adulthood. ... Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York and 1st Duke of Aumale (1373 - 25 October 1415) died by drowning in mud at the Battle of Agincourt, the major English casualty in that battle. ... Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (c. ... Constance of York (c. ... Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York and 1st Duke of Aumale (1373 - 25 October 1415) died by drowning in mud at the Battle of Agincourt, the major English casualty in that battle. ... Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (c. ... Isabel Plantagenet (1409-2 October 1484) was the only daughter of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge and Anne de Mortimer. ... Richard, Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end of the Hundred Years War, and in England during Henry VIs madness. ... Richard, Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end of the Hundred Years War, and in England during Henry VIs madness. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Edmund, Earl of Rutland (May 17, 1443 – December 31, 1460) was the fourth child and second surviving son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville. ... Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk (April 22, 1444, Rouen – after January, 1503, Wingfield, Suffolk) was the sixth child and third daughter of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville. ... Margaret of York (May 3, 1446 - November 23, 1503) - also by marriage known as Margaret of Burgundy- was a daughter to Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville, a sister of Kings Edward IV of England and Richard III of England, third wife to Charles the Bold, Duke... George, Duke of Clarence (21 October 1449 – 18 February 1478) was the third son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the brother of kings Edward IV and Richard III of England. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mary of York (August 11, 1467 - May 23, 1482) was the second daughter of Edward IV of England and his Queen consort Elizabeth Woodville. ... Cecily of York (March 20, 1469 - August 24, 1507) was the third daughter of Edward IV of England and his Queen consort Elizabeth Woodville. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York and 1st Duke of Norfolk (17 August 1473–1483?) was the second son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville and, thus, the younger brother of King Edward V. In January 1478, when he was about 4 years old, he married... Anne of York (November 2, 1475 - November 23, 1511) was the seventh child and fifth daughter of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville. ... George Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford (March, 1477 - March, 1479) was the eighth child and third son of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville. ... Catherine of York (August 14, 1479 - November 15, 1527) was the ninth child and sixth daughter of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville. ... Bridget of York (November 10, 1480 - 1517) was the tenth child and seventh daughter of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville. ... George, Duke of Clarence (21 October 1449 – 18 February 1478) was the third son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the brother of kings Edward IV and Richard III of England. ... Margaret Pole (14 August 1473 – 27 May 1541), Countess of Salisbury, was the daughter of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence and Isabella Neville. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Edward of Middleham, also known as Edward Plantagenet (1473 - April 9, 1484) was the only son of King Richard III of England and his wife Anne Neville. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York and 1st Duke of Norfolk (17 August 1473–1483?) was the second son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville and, thus, the younger brother of King Edward V. In January 1478, when he was about 4 years old, he married... An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death, resignation, or removal of its current occupant. ... Anthony Rivers, 2nd Earl Rivers (1442?- June 25, 1483) was an English nobleman, courtier, and writer. ... Elizabeth Woodville or Wydville (c. ... Pontefract Castle in the early 17th Century. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ...


On 22 June 1483, outside St Paul's Cathedral, a statement was read out on behalf of Richard declaring for the first time that he was taking the throne for himself on the grounds that Edward IV's marriage had been illegitimate and that, in consequence, the true heir to the throne was Richard and not Edward V. This proclamation was then supported by a bill passed by Parliament on the evidence of a bishop who testified to having married Edward to Lady Eleanor Butler, who was still living when Edward married Elizabeth Woodville. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... Titulus Regius (the Title of King in Latin) is a famous act of the English Parliament, issued in early 1484, by which the title of King of England was given to Richard III of England. ... Lady Eleanor Talbot (died 1468) was a daughter of John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury. ...


On 6 July 1483, Richard was crowned at Westminster Abbey. is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Although Richard III is popularly supposed to have killed Edward V and his brother, there is some controversy among historians about the actual circumstances of the boys' deaths: see Princes in the Tower for full coverage, and possible reasons for the support for Richard's accession. The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower, 1483 by Sir John Everett Millais, 1878, part of the Royal Holloway picture collection The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (November 4, 1470 – 1483?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (17 August 1473 – 1483...


Death at the Battle of Bosworth

On 22 August 1485, Richard met the Lancastrian forces of Henry Tudor at the Battle of Bosworth Field. During the battle Richard was abandoned by Lord Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby, Sir William Stanley, and Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland. The switching of sides by the Stanleys severely depleted the strength of Richard's army and had a material effect on the outcome of the battle. Accounts note that Richard fought bravely and ably during the battle, unhorsing a well-known champion, killing Henry's standard bearer and nearly reaching Henry himself before being finally surrounded and killed. is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1485 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... Combatants King Richard III of England, Yorkist Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, Lancastrian Commanders Richard III of England† Earl of Richmond (nominally) Earl of Oxford (in practice) Strength 6,000 (king had 15,500 but Lord Stanley with 4,000 and his brother, Sir William Stanley with 2,500 betrayed... Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby, KG (1435 - July 29, 1504), an English nobleman, inherited his fathers titles, including that of king of the Isle of Man, in 1459. ... Sir William Stanley ( ? - 1495) William Stanley was the younger brother of Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby Stanley fought with his troups in several battles of the Wars of the Roses. ... Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, (c. ...


Richard's naked body was then paraded through the streets before being buried at Greyfriars Church, Leicester. According to one tradition, during the Dissolution of the Monasteries his body was thrown into the nearby River Soar, although other evidence suggests that this may not be the case and that his burial site may currently be under a car park in Leicester. There is currently a memorial plaque on the site of the Cathedral where he may have once been buried. For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... The river in Leicester The River Soar is a tributary of the River Trent in the English East Midlands. ...


According to another tradition, Richard consulted a seer in the town of Leicester before the battle and the seer foretold that "where your spur should strike on the ride into battle, your head shall be broken on the return." On the ride into battle his spur struck the bridge stone of the Bow Bridge; legend has it that, as his corpse was being carried from the battle over the back of a horse, his head struck the same stone and was broken open [1]. Seer has several possible meanings: A fortune teller or prophet The fictional character on the television series Charmed The Seasonal energy efficiency ratio standard for air conditioning appliances This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article discusses Leicester in England. ...


Henry Tudor succeeded Richard to become Henry VII, and cemented the succession by marrying the Yorkist heiress, Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV. The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Succession

Following the decisive Yorkist victory over the Lancastrians at the Battle of Tewkesbury, Richard had married the younger daughter of the Earl of Warwick, Anne Neville on 12 July 1472. Anne's first husband had been Edward of Westminster (d 1471), son of Henry VI. Combatants House of York House of Lancaster Commanders Edward IV of England Edmund Beaufort†, Margaret of Anjou, Edward, Prince of Wales† Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Tewkesbury in Gloucestershire, which took place on May 4, 1471, completed one phase of the Wars of the Roses. ... Anne Neville (June 11, 1456–March 16, 1485) was Queen consort of King Richard III of England 1483-1485. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ... Edward of Westminster (October 13, 1453 – May 4, 1471) was the only Prince of Wales ever to die in battle. ...


Richard and Anne had one son, Edward Plantagenet (also known as Edward of Middleham, 14739 April 1484), who died not long after being created Prince of Wales. Richard also had a number of illegitimate children, including John of Gloucester and a daughter named Katharine who married William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke. It has been thought that their mother may have been one Katherine Haute, who is mentioned in household records. Both of these children survived Richard. Neither apparently left any descendant. The mysterious Richard Plantagenet (Richard of Eastwell) is also a possible offspring of Richard III. Edward of Middleham, also known as Edward Plantagenet (1473 - April 9, 1484) was the only son of King Richard III of England and his wife Anne Neville. ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1484 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... John of Gloucester (c. ... William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (March 5, 1451 - July 16, 1491), was the son of William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke, whom he succeeded to the earldom in 1469. ... Richard Plantagenet or Richard of Eastwell (died December 1550) is known only from a document entitled Desiderata Curiosa, which indicates that the reclusive bricklayer may have been a son of Richard III, the last Plantagenet King of England. ...


At the time of his last stand against the Lancastrians, Richard was a widower without a legitimate son. After his son's death, he had initially named his nephew, Edward, Earl of Warwick, Clarence's young son and the nephew of Queen Anne Neville, as his heir. After Anne's death, however, Richard named as his heir another nephew, John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, the son of his older sister Elizabeth. Edward (Plantagenet), Earl of Warwick, (February 25, 1475-November 28, 1499) was the son of George, Duke of Clarence, and a potential claimant to the throne during the reigns of both King Richard III of England (1483 - 1485) and his successor, Henry VII of England (1485 - 1509). ... John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln (1462/1464 - 1487) was the eldest son of John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk and Elizabeth of York. ... Elizabeth of York, Duchess of Suffolk (April 22, 1444, Rouen – after January, 1503, Wingfield, Suffolk) was the sixth child and third daughter of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville. ...


Legacy

Richard's death at Bosworth resulted in the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, which had ruled England since the succession of Henry II in 1154. The last male Plantagenet, Edward, Earl of Warwick (son of Richard III's brother Clarence) was executed by Henry VII in 1499. Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Richard's Council of the North greatly improved conditions for northern England, as commoners of that region were formerly without any substantial economic activity independent of London. Its descendant position was Secretary of State for the Northern Department. The Council of the North was an administrative body set up by Richard III of England in 1484 to improve government control over the northern counties. ... Northern England, The North or North of England is a rather ill-defined term, with no universally accepted definition. ... A commoner, in British law, is someone who is neither the Sovereign nor a noble. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Secretary of State for the Northern Department was a position in the Cabinet of the government of the Kingdom of Great Britain up to 1782. ...


Controversy and reputation

Much that was previously considered 'fact' about Richard III has been rejected by modern historians. For example, Richard was represented by Tudor writers as being physically deformed, which was regarded as evidence of an evil character. However, the withered arm, limp and crooked back of legend are nowadays believed to be fabrications, possibly originating from the questionable history attributed to Thomas More, which made a deep impression upon William Shakespeare, and was long taken as the authoritative history of events. The accusations against his moral character have proven more resistant to refutation than the slanders against his physical looks. For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The Richard III Society was established in the 20th century and has gathered considerable research material about his life and reign. Its aim is summed up by its Patron, the present Richard, Duke of Gloucester: The Richard III Society was founded in 1924 by Liverpool surgeon S. Saxon Barton. ... Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester (Richard Alexander Walter George; born 26 August 1944) is a member of the British Royal Family, a grandson of George V. He has been Duke of Gloucester since his fathers death in 1974. ...


"… the purpose and indeed the strength of the Richard III Society derive from the belief that the truth is more powerful than lies - a faith that even after all these centuries the truth is important. It is proof of our sense of civilised values that something as esoteric and as fragile as reputation is worth campaigning for."


The American Branch of the Richard III Society carries out its own review of all the suspects in the case of Richard III, in the on-line library "Whodunit?".[2]


The Society of Friends of King Richard III was also set up in the 20th century in order to rehabilitate Richard and to honour his memory. The society is based in the city of York, where following his death in 1485 it was proclaimed, that "King Richard, late reigning mercifully over us, was.... piteously slain and murdered, to the great heaviness of this city". The Society of Friends of King Richard III was created in 1978 to promote the life and memory of Richard III, King of England (1452-1485, reigned 1483-1485). ... York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John...


Richard III was found not guilty in a mock trial presided over by three Justices of the United States Supreme Court in 1997. Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist and Associate Justices Ruth Bader Ginsberg and Stephen G. Breyer, in a 3-0 decision, ruled that the prosecution had not met the burden of proof that "it was more likely than not" that the Princes in the Tower had been murdered; that the bones found in 1674 in the Tower were those of the Princes; and that Richard III had ordered or was complicitous in their deaths.


Horace Walpole, Josephine Tey and Valerie Anand are among writers who have argued strongly that King Richard was innocent of the death of the Princes. Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer and forerunner of the Gothic revival. ... Josephine Tey was a pseudonym of Elizabeth Mackintosh (1896-February 13, 1952), a Scottish author best known for her mystery novels. ... Valerie Anand is a British author of historical fiction. ...


Richard III appears in the 2002 List of "100 Great Britons" (sponsored by the BBC and voted for by the public), alongside such others as David Beckham and Johnny Rotten. The BBC History Magazine lists him under "doubtful entrants, based on special interest lobbying or 'cult' status", and comments: "On the list owing to the Ricardian lobby, but a minor monarch". (Redirected from 100 Great Britons) In 2002, the BBC conducted a vote to discover the 100 Greatest Britons of all time. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... David Beckham David Robert Joseph Beckham OBE (born May 2, 1975) is an English footballer born in Leytonstone, London. ... John Lydon John Joseph Lydon (born January 31, 1956), also known as Johnny Rotten (a nickname derived from the state of his teeth) was the iconoclastic lead singer of the Sex Pistols and Public Image Ltd (PiL) and an Irish individualist anarchist. ... This article is about the political effort. ... This article does not discuss cultist groups, personality cults, or cult in its original sense of religious practice. See cult (disambiguation) for more meanings of the term cult. A cult following is a group of fans devoted to a specific area of pop culture. ...


In spite of having died aged only 32, he is often depicted as being considerably older. Basil Rathbone and Peter Cook were both 46 when they played him, Laurence Olivier was 48, Vincent Price was 51, and Ian McKellen was 56. Basil Rathbone (13 June 1892 – 21 July 1967), Military Cross, was a British actor most famous for his portrayal of Sherlock Holmes and of suave villains in such swashbuckler films as The Mark of Zorro, Captain Blood, and The Adventures of Robin Hood. ... For other persons named Peter Cook, see Peter Cook (disambiguation). ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Vincent Leonard Price Jr. ... Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CBE (born May 25, 1939) is an English stage and screen actor, the recipient of a Tony Award and two Oscar nominations. ...


Ancestors

Richard III's ancestors in three generations
Richard III of England Father:
Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York
Paternal Grandfather:
Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York
Paternal Grandmother:
Anne de Mortimer
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Eleanor de Holland
Mother:
Cecily Neville
Maternal Grandfather:
Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland
Maternal Great-grandfather:
John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Maud Percy
Maternal Grandmother:
Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland
Maternal Great-grandfather:
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Katherine Swynford
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Richard III of England

Richard, Duke of York (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460) was a member of the English royal family, who served in senior positions in France at the end of the Hundred Years War, and in England during Henry VIs madness. ... Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (c. ... Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (June 5, 1341 – August 1, 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of the five sons of the Royal couple who lived to adulthood. ... Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York (c. ... Anne Mortimer (December 27, 1390 - September, 1411) was the daughter of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March (1373-1398) and Eleanor de Holland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eleanor de Holland ( c. ... Cecily Neville (3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495), Duchess of York, was called the Rose of Raby (because she was born at Raby Castle in Durham, England) and Proud Cis (because of her pride and a temper that went with it). ... Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland (c. ... John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby was born in 1328 at Castle Raby and died 17 October 1388. ... Beaufort coat of arms Joan Bearfort and mother, Katherine Swynfords tomb 1640 drawing of the tombs of Joan Bearfort and mother, Katherine Swynford in Lincoln Cathedral before the tombs were despoiled in 1644 by the Roundheads. ... John of Gaunt John of Gaunt John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (March 6, 1340 – February 3, 1399) was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... Coat of arms designed for Katherine Swynford: three gold Catherine wheels (roet means wheel) on a red background. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

See also

  • Cultural depictions of Richard III of England

Bibliography

Source material on all aspects of Richard's reign is neatly and impartially brought together by Keith Dockray in Richard III: A Reader in History (Sutton, 1988).

  • The Trial of Richard III by Richard Drewett & Mark Redhead (Sutton, 1984) (ISBN 0-86299-198-6)
  • Royal Blood: Richard III and the mystery of the princes by Bertram Fields (HarperCollins, ©1998) (ISBN 0-06-039269-X)
  • Richard III: The Road to Bosworth Field by Peter W. Hammond & Anne Sutton ( Constable, 1985) (ISBN 0-09-466160-X)
  • Richard the Third by Michael Hicks (Tempus, 2001) (ISBN 0-7524-2302-9)
  • Richard III: A Study in Service by Rosemary Horrox (Cambridge University Press, 1991) (ISBN 0-521-40726-5)
  • Richard III and the North edited by Rosemary Horrox (University of Hull, 1986) (ISBN 0-85958-066-0)
  • Bosworth 1485 by Michael K. Jones (Tempus Publishing, 2002) (ISBN 0-7524-2334-7) [2]
  • Richard III: The Great Debate edited by Paul Murray Kendall (W.W. Norton, 1992) (ISBN 0-393-00310-8)
  • Richard the Third by Paul Murray Kendall (W.W. Norton, 1956) (ISBN 0-393-00785-5)
  • The Betrayal of Richard III by V.B. Lamb (A. Sutton, 1991) (ISBN 0-86299-778-X)
  • Richard III and the Princes in the Tower by A.J. Pollard (St Martin's Press, 1991) (ISBN 0-312-06715-1)
  • Good King Richard? by Jeremy Potter (Constable, 1983) (ISBN 0-09-464630-9)
  • Richard III by Charles Ross (Methuen, 1981) (ISBN 0-413-29530-3)
  • Richard III: England's Black Legend by Desmond Seward (Penguin Books, 1997) (ISBN 0-14-026634-8)
  • The Coronation of Richard III: The Extant Documents by Anne Sutton & Peter W. Hammond (St Martin's Press, 1984) (ISBN 0312169795)
  • Richard III's Books by Anne Sutton & Livia Visser-Fuchs (Sutton Pub, 1997) (ISBN 0-7509-1406-8)
  • The Princes in the Tower by Alison Weir (Ballantine, 1995) (ISBN 0-345-39178-0)
  • Joan of Arc and Richard III: sex, saints, and government in the Middle Ages by Charles Wood (Oxford University Press) (ISBN 0-19-506951-X)
  • History of the English Speaking Peoples by Winston Churchill, Vol. 1, The Birth of Britain

Bertram Fields Bertram Fields is a Harvard-trained lawyer famous for his work in the field of entertainment law; he has represented many of the leading studios, as well as individual celebrities including The Beatles, Warren Beatty, James Cameron, Tom Cruise, Dustin Hoffman, and John Travolta. ... Michael Hicks (b. ... Paul Murray Kendall (1 March 1911 - 21 November 1973) was an American academic and historian. ... Charles Derek Ross (1924–1986) was an English historian of the Late Middle Ages, specialising on the Wars of the Roses. ... Alison Weir (born 1951) is a British writer of history books for the general public, mostly in the form of biographies about British kings and queens. ... Charles Wood may refer to: Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Churchill redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ Richard was originally buried at Greyfriars Abbey, but his body was disinterred and lost during the Dissolution of the Monasteries – its current location is unknown
  2. ^ Richard III Society - Maurer on Whodunit?

For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... Genealogics is a free genealogical, historical website run by Leo van de Pas [1] and Ian Fettes. ...

External links

Richard III of England
Cadet branch of the House of Plantagenet
Born: 2 October 1452 Died: 22 August 1485
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Edward V
King of England
Lord of Ireland

1483 – 1485
Succeeded by
Henry VII
Military offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Kent
Lord High Admiral
1462 – 1470
Succeeded by
The Earl of Warwick
Preceded by
The Earl of Warwick
Lord High Admiral
1471 – 1483
Succeeded by
The Duke of Norfolk
Peerage of England
New creation Duke of Gloucester
3rd creation
1461 – 1483
Merged in crown
Family information
Richard of Cambridge
House of York
Richard
Duke of York
Richard III of England
Anne de Mortimer
House of Mortimer
Ralph of Westmoreland
House of Neville
Cecily of Westmoreland
Joan Beaufort
House of Lancaster


  Results from FactBites:
 
Richard III of England - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3303 words)
Richard was born at Fotheringay Castle, the eighth and youngest and fourth surviving son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (who had been a strong claimant to the throne of King Henry VI) and Cecily Neville.
A lasting mystery surrounding the accession of Richard was the disappearance and presumed death of Richard's nephews, known as the Princes in the Tower.
Worth argues that Richard III's contribution to shaping a just society by improvements to the legal system was buried by the Tudors because it conflicted with the image of a villainous and hated monarch that they wished to present in their attempt to minimize hostility towards their regime.
Richard III (play) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2183 words)
Richard's language and undertones of self-remorse seem to indicate that, in the final hour, he is repentant for his evil deeds, however, it is too late.
Richard III is the culmination of the cycle of "Wars of the Roses" plays.
It is perhaps strange that in presenting the cycle of vengeance Shakespeare omitted the fact that the real-life Richard himself had a son who died prematurely, which some contemporary historians viewed as divine retribution for the fate of Edward's sons--which of course Margaret would claim as retribution for the fate of her son.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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