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Encyclopedia > Richard II of England
Richard II
By the Grace of God, King of England
and France and Lord of Ireland
Image:Richard II of England.jpg
Reign 22 June 1377 - 29 September 1399
Coronation 16 July 1377
Born 6 January 1367(1367-01-06)
Bordeaux
Died 14 February 1400 (aged 33)
Pontefract Castle
Buried Westminster
Predecessor Edward III
Successor Henry IV
Consort Anne of Bohemia (1366-1394)
Isabella of Valois (1389-1410)
Issue Died without posterity
Royal House Plantagenet
Father Edward, the Black Prince
(1330-1376)
Mother Joan of Kent (1328-1385)

Richard II (January 6, 1367February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Battle of Najera, Peter I of Castile restored as King. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Pontefract Castle in its heyday Pontefract Castle in West Yorkshire near to the town of Pontefract, was constructed in approximately 1070 by a knight, Ilbert de Lacy (who is also responsible for the construction of Kirkstall Abbey), on land which had been granted to him by William the Conqueror as... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Anne of Bohemia Anne of Bohemia (1366 - 1394) was the daughter of Emperor Charles IV, King of Bohemia and Elisabeth of Pomerania. ... Events Births Anne of Bohemia, Queen consort of Richard II of England. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Isabella of Valois (9 November 1389 – 13 September 1409) was a Princess of France, daughter of King Charles VI and Isabella of Bavaria-Ingolstadt. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Edward, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... Joan, Countess of Kent, Princess of Wales (September 29, 1328 – August 7, 1385) is known to history as The Fair Maid of Kent, and was the wife and cousin of Edward, the Black Prince. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Year 1385 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Battle of Najera, Peter I of Castile restored as King. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician. ... Events September 30 - Accession of Henry IV of England October 13 - Coronation of Henry IV of England November 1 - Accession of John VI, Duke of Brittany Births William Canynge, English merchant (approximate date; died 1474) Zara Yaqob, Emperor of Ethiopia (died 1468) Deaths January 4 - Nicolau Aymerich, Catalan theologian and...

Contents

Early life

Richard II watches Wat Tyler's death and addresses the peasants in the background
Richard II watches Wat Tyler's death and addresses the peasants in the background

Richard was born in Bordeaux at the feast of Epiphany, with three kings present at his birth. His father was Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and his mother was Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent". After Richard's elder brother had died in infancy, he became heir to the throne of England (and was created Prince of Wales) in 1376, when the Black Prince died after a wasting illness. The following year his grandfather King Edward III of England also died, making Richard king at the age of 10. Image File history File links Death_of_Wat_Tyler_Froissart. ... Image File history File links Death_of_Wat_Tyler_Froissart. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Christian feast. ... Edward the Black Prince - illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902 Effigy on the Black Princes tomb in Canterbury Cathedral Edward, Prince of Wales, known as the Black Prince (June 15, 1330 - June 8, 1376) was the eldest son of King Edward III of England. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... Joan, Countess of Kent, Princess of Wales (September 29, 1328 – August 7, 1385) is known to history as The Fair Maid of Kent, and was the wife and cousin of Edward, the Black Prince. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... This article is about the King of England. ...


During his minority, three 'continual councils' lasting from June 1377 to January 1380 were responsible for the general governing of the country. In reality John of Gaunt, his uncle, exerted considerable influence on matters of importance (despite not being a member of any of the three councils) especially with regard to foreign policy. During that time, the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 brought Richard to prominence at the age of 14. It fell to him personally to negotiate with Wat Tyler, the other rebel leaders, and their massed armed ranks of several thousand. He promised pardon to the leaders of the rebellion, but the promise was not honoured - they were arrested and executed. Although it is now generally accepted that Richard was not sympathetic to the rebels' demands, it remains doubtful whether Richard intended the arrests to occur, or if he was forced to go against his word by militant sections of the English nobility. Either way, his tactics dispersed the rebel forces from the streets of London back to their homes in the country, thus ending the disorder. But as the young king matured into adulthood he revealed an inability to make the deals and compromises essential to 14th century politics and diplomacy, leading eventually to his deposition in 1399. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 - February 3, 1399), the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, gained his name because he was born at Ghent in 1340. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe and is a... Wat Tylers Death Walter Tyler, commonly known as Wat Tyler (died June 15, 1381) was the leader of the English Peasants Revolt of 1381. ... The word militant can refer to any individual engaged in warfare, a fight, combat, or generally serving as a soldier. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about negotiations. ...


At St Stephen's Chapel, Westminster on c.January 22, 1383, he married Anne of Bohemia, daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Elizabeth of Pomerania; but they had no children, and she died on June 7, 1394. On c.October 31, 1396 at St Nicholas' Church, Calais, he married the seven-year-old Princess Isabella of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau de Bavière; that marriage was also without issue. St. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1383 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Anne of Bohemia Anne of Bohemia (1366 - 1394) was the daughter of Emperor Charles IV, King of Bohemia and Elisabeth of Pomerania. ... Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Elizabeth of Pomerania (1347-1393) was the fourth and final wife of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia. ... Pommern redirects here. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Isabella of Valois (9 November 1389 – 13 September 1409) was a Princess of France, daughter of King Charles VI and Isabella of Bavaria-Ingolstadt. ... Charles VI Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Isabeau de Bavière (also Isabella of Bavaria-Ingolstadt) (about 1369 – September 24, 1435) was a Queen Consort of France (1385 - 1422) after marrying Charles VI of France, a member of the Valois Dynasty, on July 17, 1385. ...


First crisis of 1387-88

English Royalty
House of Plantagenet

Armorial of Plantagenet
Edward III
   Edward, Prince of Wales
   Lionel, Duke of Clarence
   John, Duke of Lancaster
   Edmund, Duke of York
   Thomas, Duke of Gloucester
   Joan of England
   Isabella, Countess of Bedford
Grandchildren
    Richard II
    Philippa, Countess of Ulster
    Philippa, Queen of Portugal
    Elizabeth, Baroness Fanhope and Milbroke
    Henry IV
    Katherine, Queen of Castile
    Edward, Duke of York
    Richard, Earl of Cambridge
    Constance of York
    Anne, Countess of Eu
Richard II

As Richard began to take over the business of government himself, he sidelined many of the established nobles, such as Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel, and Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester. These individuals, not surprisingly, would help to plot the downfall of Richard II. After having exiled the current council, Richard turned to his inner circle of favourites for his council, men such as Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford and Michael de la Pole, whom Richard created Earl of Suffolk and made chancellor of England. It is possible that Richard had a homosexual relationship with de Vere; Thomas Walsingham called it 'obscene' [1] and 'not without a degree of improper intimacy' [2]. The nobles he had snubbed formed the head of a group of the disaffected who called themselves the Lords Appellant. The central tenet of their appeal was continued war with France against Richard's policy of peace, an aim that many of them pursued in the interests of personal gain rather than the interests of the nation. This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (730x808, 430 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Richard II of England Armorial of Plantagenet ... // Categories: | ... This article is about the King of England. ... Edward, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, (November 29, 1338 – October 7, 1368) was the second son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 – February 3, 1399) was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York (June 5, 1341 – August 1, 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of the five sons of the Royal couple who lived to adulthood. ... Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester (January 7, 1355 – September 8 (or 9), 1397) was the thirteenth and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Queen Philippa. ... Joan of England (1335-1348) was the daughter of King Edward III of England and his queen, Philippa of Hainault. ... Isabella Plantagenet, also known as Dame Isabella de Coucy (16 June 1332- either April 1379, or 1382), was the daughter of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... Philippa Plantagenet, (16 August 1355 – 5 January 1380/1381), Countess of Ulster sui juris, was the daughter and only child of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence and Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster. ... Philippa of Lancaster (1359 - July 19, 1415) was an English princess, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster by his wife and cousin Blanche of Lancaster. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Katherine of Lancaster (also known as Catherine Plantagenet and as Queen Catalina of Castile and Leon) (1372/1373 – 2 June 1418) was the daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his second wife, Constance of Castile. ... Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York and 1st Duke of Aumale (1373 - 25 October 1415) died by drowning in mud at the Battle of Agincourt, the major English casualty in that battle. ... Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (c. ... Constance of York (c. ... Anne of Gloucester (1383-October 16, 1438) was the eldest daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester and Eleanor de Bohun. ... Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick (March 16, 1338/1339 – 1401) was an English medieval nobleman, and one of the primary opponents of Richard II. // He was the son of Thomas de Beauchamp, 11th Earl of Warwick and Catherine Mortimer, a daughter of the Roger Mortimer, the 1st Earl... Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel and 10th Earl of Surrey (1346 – September 21, 1397, beheaded) was an English nobleman and military commander. ... Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester (January 7, 1355 - September 8 (or 9), 1397) was the thirteenth and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Queen Philippa. ... King Richard III held the title of Duke of Gloucester from 1461 until his accession in 1483 The title Duke of Gloucester (pronounced gloss-ter) is a British royal title (after Gloucester), often conferred on one of the sons of the reigning monarch. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford (d. ... Michael de la Pole (c. ... The title of Earl of Suffolk has been created several times in the Peerage of England, most recently in 1603 for Thomas Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Walden. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Thomas Walsingham (d. ... The Lords Appellant were a group of powerful barons who came together during the 1380s to seize political control of England from King Richard II. The group was so called because its members claimed simply to be appealing to the King for good government (their major complaint was Richards...


In 1386, the English Parliament, under pressure from the Lords Appellant, demanded that Richard remove his unpopular councillors. When he refused, he was told that since he was still a minor, a Council of Government would rule in his place. Richard had the Earl of Arundel, leader of the Lords Appellant, arrested; but Richard's small army led by de Vere was overpowered by the forces of the Lords Appellant outside Oxford, and Richard was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Subsequently Richard agreed to hold a parliament in order to resolve the Appellants' grievances; the unpopular councillors were forcibly disposed of (eight being executed for treason and the others exiled) in the Merciless Parliament of 1388. Richard was forced to accept new councillors and was temporarily stripped of almost all his authority. A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House... The oldest extant Earldom (and perhaps the oldest extant title) in the English peerage is the Earldom of Arundel currently held by the Duke of Norfolk, and used as a courtesy title by his heir. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... The term Merciless Parliament refers to the English parliamentary session of February 1388, at which Richard IIs entire court was convicted of treason. ...


A fragile peace

In the years which followed, Richard became more cautious in his dealings with the barons. After having recovered power in 1389, and having made his promise to the Marcolf chamber for better improvements and a better government, Richard began to improve his relationships with his subjects. In 1390, a tournament was held to celebrate Richard’s coming of age and the apparent new-found harmony since Richard's uncle John of Gaunt's return from Spain. Richard’s team of knights, The Harts, all wore the identical symbol – a white hart – which Richard had chosen. Richard himself favoured genteel interests like fine food, insisting spoons be used at his court and inventing the handkerchief. He beautified Westminster Hall with a new ceiling and was a keen and cultured patron of the arts, architecture and literature. His detractors, however, dismissed him as another Edward II, somehow unworthy of his military Plantagenet heritage, given his delicate 'unkingly' tastes. Richard also lacked his grandfather's thirst for battle: his Scottish campaign in 1385 was not decisive, and he signed a 28-year truce with France in 1396 which was hugely unpopular at home in spite of the dividends that peace brought to the kingdom. A tournament is a competition involving a relatively large number of competitors, all participating in a single sport or game. ... John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 - February 3, 1399), the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, gained his name because he was born at Ghent in 1340. ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... Linen handkerchief A handkerchief or hanky is a square of fabric, usually carried in the pocket, for personal hygiene purposes such as wiping ones hands or blowing ones nose, but also used as a decorative accessory in a suit pocket. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... This article is about the country. ...


Richard's commitment to peace rather than war can also be seen in his first expedition to Ireland in 1394. He put forward a policy based on the understanding that the Irish rebels were motivated largely by the grievances they had against absentee English landowners and that they were perhaps entitled to some redress in this regard. Those whom he labelled the "wild Irish" - native Irish who had not joined the rebel cause - he treated with kindness and respect.[citation needed]


Richard seems to have developed a passionate devotion to the old ideal of the Divine Right of Kings, feeling that he should be unquestioned and unfettered in the way he ran the kingdom. He became a stickler for tradition, insisting on being addressed as ‘majesty’ and ‘highness’ and sitting alone for hours wearing his crown; those addressing him were required to direct their eyes downwards in deference. In the early 1390s, he began to put an emphasis on the powers of the prerogative and on the subjects' obligation to obey. Richard would react harshly on those who challenged his authority. For example, in 1392, Richard seized the liberties of the city of London when the Londoners refused to give him a loan. In addition, as king, Richard began to fashion a grander and more exalted style of monarchy. With these changes the royal court became much larger. The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... A loan is a type of debt. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ...


Richard promised to lower the burden of taxation on his subjects. This promise was not carried through, however, and Richard's subjects continued to be heavily taxed. Under Richard, four and a half subsidies were granted by parliament between 1390 and 1398. In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ...


Second crisis of 1397–99 and Richard's deposition

In 1397 Richard decided to rid himself of the Lords Appellant who were confining his power, on the pretext of an aristocratic plot. Richard had the Earl of Arundel executed and Warwick exiled, while Gloucester died in captivity. Finally able to exert his autocratic authority over the kingdom, he purged all those he saw as not totally committed to him, fulfilling his own idea of becoming God’s chosen prince. The Lords Appellant were a group of powerful barons who came together during the 1380s to seize political control of England from King Richard II. The group was so called because its members claimed simply to be appealing to the King for good government (their major complaint was Richards... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single person. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Richard was still childless. The heir to the throne was Roger Mortimer the Earl of March, grandson of Lionel of Antwerp, and after his death in 1398, his seven-year-old son Edmund Mortimer. However, Richard was more concerned with Gaunt's son and heir Henry Bolingbroke, whom he banished for ten years on a spurious pretext in 1399. After Gaunt's death, Richard also confiscated Bolingbroke's lands, following the policy of his forebears Henry II and Edward I in seizing the lands of a powerful noble to centralize power in the crown. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, (November 29, 1338 - October 7, 1368) was the third son of Edward III of England, and was so called because he was born at Antwerp, Belgium. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Henry IV of England, depicted in Cassells History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902 Henry IV King of England, Lord of Ireland. ... Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Centralization (or centralisation) is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location and/or group. ...

Arms of Richard II
Arms of Richard II

At this point Richard left for a campaign in Ireland, allowing Bolingbroke the opportunity to land in Yorkshire with an army provided by the King of France to reclaim his father's lands. Richard's autocratic ways, deeply unpopular with many nobles, facilitated Bolingbroke's gaining control quickly of most of southern and eastern England. Bolingbroke had originally just wanted his inheritance and a reimposition of the power of the Lords Appellant, accepting Richard's right to be king and March's right to succeed him. But by the time Richard finally arrived back on the mainland in Wales, a tide of discontent had swept England. In the King's absence, Bolingbroke, who was generally well-liked, was being urged to take the crown himself. It was at this time that he received some Byzantine emissaries who were supposed to be given 3,000 silver marks or £2,000 sterling. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (730x808, 430 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Richard II of England Armorial of Plantagenet ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (730x808, 430 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Richard II of England Armorial of Plantagenet ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


Richard was captured at Flint Castle in Wales and taken to London, where crowds pelted him with rubbish. He was held in the Tower of London and eventually forced to abdicate. He was brought, on his request, before parliament, where he officially renounced his crown and 33 official charges (including ‘vengeful sentences given against lords’) were made against him. He was not permitted to answer the charges. Parliament then accepted Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) as the new king. This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ...


Richard was placed in Pontefract Castle, where he died on February 17, 1400. He is believed to have been killed by starvation, or was otherwise murdered.[citation needed] Pontefract Castle in its heyday Pontefract Castle in West Yorkshire near to the town of Pontefract, was constructed in approximately 1070 by a knight, Ilbert de Lacy (who is also responsible for the construction of Kirkstall Abbey), on land which had been granted to him by William the Conqueror as... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of...


Richard's body was displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, and he was then buried in Kings Langley Church. His coffin was badly designed, however, and it proved easy for disrespectful visitors to place their hands through several openings in the coffin and interfere with what was inside. It is said that a schoolboy walked off with Richard's jawbone.[citation needed] Rumours that Richard was still alive persisted well into the reign of Henry V, who decided to have his body moved to its final resting place in Westminster Abbey with much ceremony in 1413. Kings Langley is a village in the borough of Dacorum in the county of Hertfordshire, England on the southern edge of the Chiltern Hills. ... For people named Coffin, see Coffin (surname). ... The Mandibula is the lower jaw bone in vertebrates. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Richard as a collector

Richard was a keen collector of precious objects. In 1398/9 they were recorded on a treasure roll, and the treasure roll has survived. It is now held at the British National Archives, Kew, London (reference TNA: PRO, E 101/411/9).


The roll lists 1,026 items of treasure, how much each item weighed, and how much it was worth. We learn, for example, that Richard had 11 gold crowns, 157 gold cups, and 320 precious religious objects including bells, chalices and reliquaries. For the band Reliquary, click here. ...


Each item also has a brief description. The only object listed on the roll that certainly survives is a crown now held in the Schatzkammer der Residenz, Munich. The roll describes the crown as "…set with eleven sapphires, thirty-three balas rubies, a hundred and thirty-two pearls, thirty-three diamonds, eight of them imitation gems". Residenz in Munich The Residenz (German word for residence) in the city center of Munich, Bavaria was the former royal residence of the Bavarian Dukes, Electors and Kings. ...


Association with Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer served as a diplomat and Clerk of The King's Works for Richard II. Their relationship encompassed all of Richard's reign, and was apparently fruitful. In the decade before Chaucer's death, Richard granted him several gifts and annuities, including: 20 pounds a year for life in 1394, and 252 gallons of wine per year in 1397. Chaucer died on October 25, 1400. Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... For details of notes and coins, see British coinage and British banknotes. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of...


In literature

Richard is the main character in Richard II, a play written by William Shakespeare around 1595. Title page of Richard II, from the fifth quarto, published in 1615. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


King Richard is also a character in the novel The Named. The Named by Marianne Curley is the first book in the Guardians of Time Trilogy. ...


King Richard is one of the main characters in The Crucible Trilogy by Sara Douglass The Crucible is a series of three historical fantasy novels written by Australian author Sara Douglass. ... Sara Douglass (Born 2 June 1957 in Penola, South Australia) is the pen name of Australian fantasy writer Dr. Sara Warneke, who lives in Hobart, Tasmania. ...


Ancestors

Richard II's ancestors in three generations
Richard II of England Father:
Edward, the Black Prince
Paternal Grandfather:
Edward III of England
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Edward II of England
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Isabella of France
Paternal Grandmother:
Philippa of Hainault
Paternal Great-grandfather:
William I, Duke of Bavaria
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Jeanne of Valois
Mother:
Joan of Kent
Maternal Grandfather:
Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Edward I of England
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Marguerite of France
Maternal Grandmother:
Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake
Maternal Great-grandfather:
John Wake, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Joan de Fiennes

Edward, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Isabella returns to England with her son, Edward III. Jean Fouquet, 1455x1460. ... Philippa of Hainault Philippa of Hainault (~1314 - August 15, 1369) was the Queen consort of Edward III of England. ... William I, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing (Frankfurt am Main, May 12, 1330 – April 15, 1389, Le Quesnoy) , was the second son of the emperor Louis IV the Bavarian from his second wife Margaret of Holland and Hainaut. ... Jeanne of Valois (born: about 1294 Longpont, Aisne, France- died: 7 Mar 1342 in Fontenelle, Yonne, France) She was the daughter of Prince Charles I of France and Marguerite Princess Of Sicily & Naples. ... Joan, Countess of Kent, Princess of Wales (September 29, 1328 – August 7, 1385) is known to history as The Fair Maid of Kent, and was the wife and cousin of Edward, the Black Prince. ... Edmund Plantagenet, or Edmund of Woodstock (August 5, 1301 – March 19, 1330) was Earl of Kent from July 28, 1321 (1st creation). ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Marguerite of France (1282 – 14 February 1317) was a daughter of Philip III of France and Maria of Brabant. ... Margaret Wake (c. ...

See also

John Waltham, Bishop of Salisbury was Lord High Treasurer and Lord Privy Seal of England, in the reign of Richard II.[1][2] Periods in Office Bishop of Salisbury 1388-1395 Lord High Treasurer 1391-1395 Lord Privy Seal 1386-1389 References ^ http://www. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Alison Weir (1998). Lancaster & York - The War of the Roses. Pimlico, ISBN 0-7126-6674-5 p.30
  2. ^ Historia Anglicana by Thomas Walsingham, fl. 1360-1420 and edited by Henry Thomas Riley. Vol I , Parts 1 & 2 in 1863-1864.

References

  • Harvey, John (1948). The Plantagenets, 1154-1485 (Revised Edition 1959), London: Collins Clear Type Press.
  • Saul, Nigel (1997). Richard II, New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07003-9
  • Schama, Simon, A History of Britain 1 3000BC-AD1603 At the Edge of the World?, London: BBC Worldwide Ltd, ISBN 0-563-48714-3
  • Alison Weir (1998). Lancaster & York - The Wars of the Roses. Pimlico, ISBN 0-7126-6674-5

External links

  • Historia Anglicana by Thomas Walsingham, fl. 1360-1420 and edited by Henry Thomas Riley. Vol I , Parts 1 & 2 in 1863-1864. In Latin with English marginal comments and footnotes - scanned from originals.
  • Richard II's Treasure a site about Richard II's treasure from the Institute of Historical Research and Royal Holloway, University of London. The content was written by academics, and contains a bibliography and an image gallery.
  • Richard II of England at Genealogics
Richard II of England
Born: 6 January 1367 Died: 14 February 1400
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Edward III
King of England
13771399
Succeeded by
Henry IV
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
Edward III
Lord of Ireland
13771399
Succeeded by
Henry IV
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Edward, the Black Prince
Prince of Wales
13761377
Vacant
Title next held by
Henry V of England
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Edward III
English Claimant to France
13771399
Succeeded by
Henry IV
Direct ancestry
Edward III of England
House of Plantagenet
Edward, the Black Prince Richard II of England
Philippa of Hainault
House of Avesnes
Edmund of Woodstock
House of Plantagenet
Joan of Kent
Margaret Wake
House of Wake
Notes & References

  Results from FactBites:
 
Richard II of England information - Search.com (1934 words)
Richard II (January 6 1367 – February 14, 1400) was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent".
Richard had the Earl of Arundel, leader of the Lords Appellant, arrested, but Richard's small army led by de Vere was overpowered by the forces of the Lords Appellant outside Oxford, and Richard was apprehended in the Tower of London.
Richard also lacked the thirst for battle of his grandfather: his Scottish campaign in 1385 was not decisive, and he signed a 28-year truce with France in 1396 which was hugely unpopular at home in spite of the dividends that peace brought to the kingdom.
Richard II of England - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1890 words)
Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent".
Richard had the Earl of Arundel, leader of the Lords Appellant, arrested, but Richard's small army led by de Vere was overpowered by the forces of the Lords Appellant outside Oxford, and Richard was apprehended in the Tower of London.
Richard also lacked the thirst for battle of his grandfather: his Scottish campaign in 1385 was not decisive, and he signed a 28-year truce with France in 1396 which was hugely unpopular at home in spite of the dividends that peace brought to the kingdom.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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