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Encyclopedia > Richard I of England
Richard I
King of the English; Lord of Ireland (more...)
Reign 6 July 11896 April 1199
Coronation 3 September 1189
Predecessor Henry II
Regent Queen Eleanor; William Longchamp,
Bishop of Ely
(Third Crusade)
Successor John
Consort Berengaria of Navarre
Titles and styles
The King
Richard, the Lionheart
Richard Plantagenet
Royal house House of Plantagenet
Father Henry II
Mother Eleanor of Aquitaine
Born 8 September 1157(1157-09-08)
Beaumont Palace, Oxford
Died 6 April 1199 (aged 41)
Châlus, Limousin
Burial Fontevraud Abbey, France

Richard I (September 8, 1157April 6, 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from July 6, 1189 until his death. He was known as Richard the Lionheart, or Cœur de Lion, even before his accession, because of his reputation as a great military leader.[1] At only 16, Richard had his own command, putting down rebellions in Poitou against his father, Henry II.[2] Richard was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, effectively leading the campaign after the departure of Philip Augustus, and scoring considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin.[3] While he spoke very little English[4] and spent very little time in his Kingdom, preferring to use it as a source of revenue to support his armies,[5] he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects.[6] He remains one of the very few Kings of England remembered by his epithet, not number, and is an enduring, iconic figure in England.[7] The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1]–1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... William Longchamp (died 1197), chancellor of England and bishop of Ely, entered public life at the close of Henry IIs reign as official to the kings son Geoffrey, for the archdeaconry of Rouen. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Berengaria of Navarre Berengaria (Spanish: Berenguela, French: Bérengère) (c. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The House of Plantagenet (IPA: ), also called the House of Anjou, or Angevin dynasty was originally a noble family from France, which ruled the County of Anjou. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1]–1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... Beaumont Palace Oxford was built by Henry I about 1130 to serve as a royal palace conveniently close to the royal hunting-lodge at Woodstock (now part of the park of Blenheim Palace. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... Châlus is a small village and ruined castle (now named Chalus-Cabrol) in the Haute-Vienne departement of France, in the Limousin region. ... Coat of arms of Limousin Limousin (Occitan: Lemosin) is a former province of France around the city of Limoges in central France. ... General view of the complex. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The term Angevin Empire describes a collection of states ruled by the Angevin Plantagenet dynasty. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou was a province of France whose capital city was Poitiers. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Philip II (French: Philippe II), called Philip Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (August 21, 1165 - July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... In spiritual terminology, piety is a virtue. ... Look up epithet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the religious artifacts. ...

Contents

Family

Richard was a younger brother of William, Count of Poitiers, Henry the Young King and Matilda of England. As the third legitimate son of King Henry II of England, he was not expected to ascend the throne. He was also an older brother of Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, Leonora of England, Joan Plantagenet and John, Count of Mortain, who succeeded him as king. Richard was the younger maternal half-brother of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. He is often depicted as having been the favourite son of his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine.[8] William (August 17, 1153 – 1156) was the first child of Henry Plantagenet (later Henry II of England) and Eleanor of Aquitaine, strangely born on the same day that his fathers rival Eustace IV of Boulogne died. ... Henry, the Young King Henry the Young King (February 28, 1155–June 11, 1183) was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Matilda of England (1156 - June 28, 1189), also known as Maud, was the eldest daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Geoffrey Plantagenet (September 23, 1158 – August 19, 1186) was Duke of Brittany between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance. ... Queen Leonora (October 13, 1162 – October 31, 1214), was born as Princess Eleanor of England (and Aquitaine) and became Leonora, Queen of Castile as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. ... Joan of England (October, 1165 – 4 September 1199) was the seventh child of King Henry II of England and his Queen consort, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Marie of France, or Marie Capet, Countess of Champagne (1145 – March 11, 1198), was the elder daughter of Louis VII of France and his first wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Alix of France (1150 – 1197/1198) was the second daughter born to Louis VII of France by his first wife Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1]–1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ...


Life

Although born at Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England, like other early Plantagenets Richard was essentially French. When his parents separated, he remained with his mother. He was invested with her duchy of Aquitaine in 1168 and with the county of Poitiers in 1172. In 1170, in accordance with custom, his elder brother Henry was crowned king of England during his father's lifetime, as Henry III. Historians have named this Henry "the Young King" so as not to confuse him with the later Henry III of England, who was his nephew. Beaumont Palace Oxford was built by Henry I about 1130 to serve as a royal palace conveniently close to the royal hunting-lodge at Woodstock (now part of the park of Blenheim Palace. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 ( 2001 census). ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ...


Richard was an educated man who composed poetry, writing in French and Limousin. He was said to be very attractive; his hair was between red and blond, and he was light-eyed with a pale complexion. He was apparently of above average height,[9] but as his remains have been lost since at least the French Revolution, his exact height is unknown. From an early age he showed significant political and military ability, becoming noted for his chivalry and courage as he fought to control the rebellious nobles of his own territory. The Limousin dialect or Lemosin (native name) is an Occitan dialect spoken or understood by about 400,000 people in the part of southern France known as Limousin. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ...


Revolt against Henry II

Like his brothers, Richard frequently challenged his father's authority. In spring 1174, at age 16, Richard joined both his brothers, Henry and Geoffrey, in a revolt against their father, whom they sought to dethrone. Initially, only Normandy remained faithful to Henry II; by August, however, Henry had largely crushed the rebellion in England. Crossing the channel to Normandy, he invaded Poitou and Aquitaine, the domains of Richard's mother, Eleanor, and captured and imprisoned her towards the end of the year.[10] Richard was the last of the brothers to hold out against Henry, but in the end he refused to fight him face to face and humbly begged his pardon. For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou was a province of France whose capital city was Poitiers. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...

English Royalty
House of Plantagenet

Armorial of Plantagenet
Henry II
   William, Count of Poitiers
   Henry, Count of Anjou
   Richard I the Lionheart
   Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany
   John
   Matilda, Duchess of Saxony
   Leonora, Queen of Castile
   Joan, Queen of Sicily
Richard I

Henry seemed unwilling to entrust any of his sons with resources that could be used against him. It was suspected that Henry had appropriated Princess Alys, Richard's betrothed, the daughter of Louis VII of France by his second wife, as his mistress. This made a marriage between Richard and Alys technically impossible in the eyes of the Church, but Henry prevaricated: Alys's dowry, the Vexin, was valuable. Richard was discouraged from renouncing Alys because she was the sister of King Philip II of France, a close ally and possible lover. This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... The House of Plantagenet (IPA: ), also called the House of Anjou, or Angevin dynasty was originally a noble family from France, which ruled the County of Anjou. ... Image File history File links England_COA.svg‎ Source own work created in Inkscape, based on Image:EnglishcoatofarmsGFDL.png Date 2006-11-21 Author MesserWoland Permission Own work, copyleft: Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY-SA-2. ... // Categories: | ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... William (August 17, 1153 – 1156) was the first child of Henry Plantagenet (later Henry II of England) and Eleanor of Aquitaine, strangely born on the same day that his fathers rival Eustace IV of Boulogne died. ... Henry, the Young King Henry the Young King (February 28, 1155–June 11, 1183) was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Geoffrey Plantagenet (September 23, 1158 – August 19, 1186) was Duke of Brittany between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Matilda of England (1156 - June 28, 1189), also known as Maud, was the eldest daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Queen Leonora (October 13, 1162 – October 31, 1214), was born as Princess Eleanor of England (and Aquitaine) and became Leonora, Queen of Castile as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile. ... Joan of England (October, 1165 – 4 September 1199) was the seventh child of King Henry II of England and his Queen consort, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Alys, Countess of the Vexin (4 October 1160 – c. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... The Vexin is a former region in France, divided since the 10th century between the Norman Vexin (Vexin normand) and the French Vexin (Vexin français). ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ...


After his failure to overthrow his father, Richard concentrated on putting down internal revolts by the nobles of Aquitaine, especially the territory of Gascony. The increasing cruelty of his reign led to a major revolt there in 1179. Hoping to dethrone Richard, the rebels sought the help of his brothers Henry and Geoffrey. The turning point came in the Charente Valley in spring 1179. The fortress of Taillebourg was well defended and was considered impregnable. The castle was surrounded by a cliff on three sides and a town on the fourth side with a three-layer wall. Richard first destroyed and looted the farms and lands surrounding the fortress, leaving its defenders no reinforcements or lines of retreat. The inhabitants of the fortress were so afraid of Richard at this point that they left the safety of their castle and attacked Richard outside its walls. Richard was able to subdue the army and then followed the defenders inside the open gates, where he easily took over the castle in two days. Richard’s victory at Taillebourg deterred many barons thinking of rebelling and forced them to declare their loyalty. It also won Richard a reputation as a skilled military commander. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Charente (Saintongeais: Chérente, Occitan: TCharanto) is a department in central France named after the Charente River. ... Taillebourg can mean: Taillebourg, a French commune in Charente-Maritime Taillebourg, a French commune in Lot-et-Garonne Battle of Taillebourg Château de Taillebourg Ponlat-Taillebourg, a French commune in Haute-Garonne This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


In 1181-1182, Richard faced a revolt over the succession to the county of Angoulême. His opponents turned to Philip II of France for support, and the fighting spread through the Limousin and Périgord. Richard was accused of numerous cruelties against his subjects, including rape: "He carried off by force the wives, daughters and female relatives of his free men, and made them his concubines; and after he had extinguished the ardour of his lust on them, he handed them over to his soldiers for whoring."[11] However, with support from his father and from the Young King, Richard succeeded in bringing the Viscount Aimar V of Limoges and Count Elie of Périgord to terms. Angoulême is a town and commune in southwestern France, préfecture (capital city) of the Charente département. ... Coat of arms of Limousin Limousin (Occitan: Lemosin) is a former province of France around the city of Limoges in central France. ... Périgord (   pronunciation?) is a former province of France, corresponding to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région. ... King Richard I of England, who was killed while besieging a castle under the control of Aimar V of Limoges Aimar V Boso[1] (c. ...


After Richard subdued his rebellious barons, he again challenged his father for the throne. From 1180 to 1183 the tension between Henry and Richard grew, as King Henry commanded Richard to pay homage to Henry the Young King, but Richard refused. Finally, in 1183, Henry the Young King and Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany invaded Aquitaine in an attempt to subdue Richard. Richard’s barons joined in the fray and turned against their Duke. However, Richard and his army were able to hold back the invading armies and executed any prisoners. The conflict took a brief pause in June 1183 when the Young King died. However, Henry II soon gave his youngest son John permission to invade Aquitaine. With the death of Henry the Young King, Richard became the eldest son and heir to the English crown, but still he continued to fight his father. This article is about the nobility title. ...


To strengthen his position, in 1187 Richard allied himself with Philip II, who was the son of Eleanor's ex-husband Louis VII by his third wife, Adele of Champagne. Roger of Hoveden wrote: Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... Adèle or Alix or Alice de Champagne (c. ... Roger of Hoveden, or Howden (fl. ...

"The King of England was struck with great astonishment, and wondered what [this alliance] could mean, and, taking precautions for the future, frequently sent messengers into France for the purpose of recalling his son Richard; who, pretending that he was peaceably inclined and ready to come to his father, made his way to Chinon, and, in spite of the person who had the custody thereof, carried off the greater part of his father's treasures, and fortified his castles in Poitou with the same, refusing to go to his father."[12]

Hoveden mentions how Richard and King Philip "ate from the same dish and at night slept in one bed" and had a "passionate love between them", which some historians have taken to imply a homosexual relationship. In addition, there are allusions to the Books of Samuel's depiction of Jonathan and David in this passage, though overall, Hoveden is chiefly concerned with the politics of the relationship. The historian, John Gillingham, has suggested that theories that Richard was homosexual were probably stemmed from an official record announcing that, as a symbol of unity between the two countries, the kings of France and England had slept overnight in the same bed. He expressed the view that this was "an accepted political act, nothing sexual about it; ... a bit like a modern-day photo opportunity".[13] Illustration of Chinon, circa 1892 For other uses, see Chinon (disambiguation). ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... Jonathan and David were heroic figures of the Kingdom of Israel, whose intimate relationship was recorded favorably in the Old Testament books of Samuel. ...


In exchange for Philip's help against his father, Richard promised to concede to him his rights to both Normandy and Anjou. Richard did homage to Philip in November of the same year. With news arriving of the battle of Hattin, he took the cross at Tours in the company of other French nobles. Belligerents Kingdom of Jerusalem Knights Templar Ayyubids Commanders Guy of Lusignan # Raymond III of Tripoli # Gerard de Rideford # Balian of Ibelin Saladin Strength Est. ... Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ...


In 1188 Henry II planned to concede Aquitaine to his youngest son John. The following year, 1189 Richard attempted to take the throne of England for himself by joining Philip's expedition against his father. On July 4, 1189, Richard and Philip’s forces defeated Henry's army at Ballans. Henry, with John's consent, agreed to name Richard his heir. Two days later Henry II died in Chinon, and Richard succeeded him as King of England, Duke of Normandy, and Count of Anjou. Roger of Hoveden claimed that Henry's corpse bled from the nose in Richard's presence, which was taken as a sign that Richard had caused his death. He was officially crowned duke on July 20, 1189 and king in Westminster Abbey on September 13, 1189.[14] is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... Elizabeth II the current Duke of Normandy. ... Counts of Anjou, c. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ...


Anti-Semitic violence

When Richard I was crowned King of England, he barred all Jews and women from the ceremony (apparently a concession to the fact that his coronation was not merely one of a king but of a crusader), but some Jewish leaders arrived to present gifts for the new king. According to Ralph of Diceto, Richard's courtiers stripped and flogged the Jews, then flung them out of court. When a rumour spread that Richard had ordered all Jews to be killed, the people of London began a massacre. Many Jews were beaten to death, robbed, and burned alive. Many Jewish homes were burned down, and several Jews were forcibly baptised. Some sought sanctuary in the Tower of London, and others managed to escape. Among those killed was Jacob of Orléans, one of the most learned of the age.[citation needed] Roger of Howeden, in his Gesta Regis Ricardi, claimed that the rioting was started by the jealous and bigoted citizens, and that Richard punished the perpetrators, allowing a forcibly converted Jew to return to his native religion. Archbishop of Canterbury Baldwin of Exeter reacted by remarking, "If the King is not God's man, he had better be the devil's," a reference to the supposedly infernal blood in the Angevin line. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Ralph of Diceto was a 12th century English chronicler. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Jan Hus burned at the stake Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason, heresy and witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common than hanging, pressing, or drowning as a punishment for witchcraft). ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Jacob of Orleans (d. ... Roger of Hoveden, or Howden (fl. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Categories: | ... The Devil is the name given to a supernatural entity who, in most Western religions, is the central embodiment of evil. ...


Realising that the assaults could destabilize his realm on the eve of his departure on crusade, Richard ordered the execution of those responsible for the most egregious murders and persecutions. (Most of those hanged were rioters who had accidentally burned down Christian homes.) He distributed a royal writ demanding that the Jews be left alone. However, the edict was loosely enforced, as the following March there was further violence, including a massacre at York. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Crusade plans

Richard had already taken the cross as Count of Poitou in 1187. His father and Philip II had done so at Gisors on January 21, 1188, after receiving news of the fall of Jerusalem to Saladin. Having become king, Richard and Philip agreed to go on the Third Crusade together, since each feared that, during his absence, the other might usurp his territories. Gisors is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saladin unsuccessfully besieges the Hospitaller fortress of Krak des Chevaliers in modern Syria. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ...


Richard swore an oath to renounce his past wickedness in order to show himself worthy to take the cross. He started to raise and equip a new crusader army. He spent most of his father's treasury (filled with money raised by the Saladin tithe), raised taxes, and even agreed to free King William I of Scotland from his oath of subservience to Richard in exchange for 10,000 marks. To raise even more money he sold official positions, rights, and lands to those interested in them. Even those already appointed were forced to pay huge sums to retain their posts. Even William Longchamp, Bishop of Ely and the King's Chancellor, made a show of bidding £3,000 to remain as Chancellor. He was apparently outbid by a certain Reginald the Italian, but his bid was refused. The Saladin tithe, or the Aid of 1188, was a tax, or more specifically a tallage, levied in England and to some extent in France in 1188, in response to the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin in 1187. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ... The word mark (from an apparently non-Teutonic word found in all Teutonic and Romance languages, and Latinized as marca or marcus) originally expressed a measure of weight only for gold and silver, commonly used throughout western Europe and equivalent to 8 oz (ounces). ... William Longchamp (died 1197), chancellor of England and bishop of Ely, entered public life at the close of Henry IIs reign as official to the kings son Geoffrey, for the archdeaconry of Rouen. ...


Richard made some final arrangements on the continent. He reconfirmed his father's appointment of William Fitz Ralph to the important post of seneschal of Normandy. In Anjou, Stephen of Tours was replaced as seneschal and temporarily imprisoned for fiscal mismanagement. Payn de Rochefort, an Angevin knight, was elevated to the post of seneschal of Anjou. In Poitou, the ex-provost of Benon, Peter Bertin was made seneschal, and finally in Gascony, the household official Helie de La Celle was picked for the seneschalship there. After repositioning the part of his army he left behind to guard his French possessions, Richard finally set out on the crusade in summer 1190. (His delay was criticised by troubadours such as Bertran de Born). He appointed as regents Hugh, Bishop of Durham, and William de Mandeville, 3rd Earl of Essex — who soon died and was replaced by Richard's chancellor William Longchamp. Richard's brother John was not satisfied by this decision and started scheming against William. A seneschal was an officer in the houses of important nobles in the Middle Ages. ... For the article about the night club in West Hollywood, California, see: Troubadour (nightclub). ... Bertran de Born (1140s – by 1215) was a baron from the Limousin in France, and one of the major Occitan troubadours of the twelfth century. ... William de Mandeville, 3rd Earl of Essex (d. ... William Longchamp (died 1197), chancellor of England and bishop of Ely, entered public life at the close of Henry IIs reign as official to the kings son Geoffrey, for the archdeaconry of Rouen. ...


Some writers have criticised Richard for spending only six months of his reign in England and siphoning the kingdom's resources to support his Crusade. According to William Stubbs (The Constitutional History of England, vol. 1, p. 550-1): William Stubbs (June 21, 1825 - April 22, 1901) was an English historian and Bishop of Oxford. ...

He was a bad king: his great exploits, his military skill, his splendour and extravagance, his poetical tastes, his adventurous spirit, do not serve to cloak his entire want of sympathy, or even consideration, for his people. He was no Englishman, but it does not follow that he gave to Normandy, Anjou, or Aquitaine the love or care that he denied to his kingdom. His ambition was that of a mere warrior: he would fight for anything whatever, but he would sell everything that was worth fighting for. The glory that he sought was that of victory rather than conquest.

Richard claimed that England was "cold and always raining," and when he was raising funds for his Crusade, he was said to declare, "I would have sold London if I could find a buyer." However, although England was a major part of his territories — particularly important in that it gave him a royal title with which to approach other kings as an equal — it faced no major internal or external threats during his reign, unlike his continental territories, and so did not require his constant presence there. Like most of the Plantagenet kings before the 14th century, he had no need to learn the English language. Leaving the country in the hands of various officials he designated (including his mother, at times), Richard was far more concerned with his more extensive French lands. After all his preparations, he had an army of 4,000 men-at-arms, 4,000 foot-soldiers, and a fleet of 100 ships. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Occupation of Sicily

In September 1190 both Richard and Philip arrived in Sicily. After the death of King William II of Sicily, his cousin Tancred of Lecce had seized power and been crowned early in 1190 as King Tancred I of Sicily, although the legal heir was William's aunt Constance, wife of the new Emperor Henry VI. Tancred had imprisoned William's widow, Queen Joan, who was Richard's sister, and did not give her the money she had inherited in William's will. When Richard arrived, he demanded that his sister be released and given her inheritance. The presence of foreign troops also caused unrest: in October, the people of Messina revolted, demanding that the foreigners leave. Richard attacked Messina, capturing it on October 4, 1190. After looting and burning the city, Richard established his base there. He remained there until Tancred finally agreed to sign a treaty on March 4, 1191. The treaty was signed by Richard, Philip and Tancred. Its main terms were: Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... William II (1153 – November 11, 1189 Palermo), called the Good, was king of Sicily and Naples from 1166 to 1189. ... Tancred can refer to: The Norman noble Tancred of Hauteville The son of Roger II of Sicily, and Prince of Taranto from 1132 to 1138 Tancred, Prince of Galilee, a leader of the First Crusade (also sometimes called Tancred of Hauteville) Tancred of Sicily Tancred of Salerno, character in Boccaccio... Constance of Sicily ( 1154 - November 27, 1198) was in her own right Queen of Sicily, became German Empress as the wife of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI, and was the mother of the Emperor and King of Sicily Frederick II. She was the posthumous daughter of Roger II of... Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197) was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197, Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King of Sicily from 1194 to 1197. ... Joan of England (October, 1165 – 4 September 1199) was the seventh child of King Henry II of England and his Queen consort, Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Location within Italy Messina with a population of about 260,000 is the third largest city on the island of Sicily, Italy and the capital of the province of Messina. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ...

  • Joan was to be released, receiving her inheritance and the dowry her father had given to her late husband.
  • Richard and Philip recognized Tancred as King of Sicily and vowed to keep the peace between all three of their kingdoms.
  • Richard officially proclaimed his nephew, Arthur of Brittany, son of Geoffrey, as his heir, and Tancred promised to marry one of his daughters to Arthur when he came of age.
  • Richard and Tancred exchanged gifts; Richard gave Tancred a sword which he claimed was Excalibur, the sword of King Arthur.

After signing the treaty Richard and Philip left Sicily. The treaty undermined England's relationships with the Holy Roman Empire and caused the revolt of Richard's brother John, who hoped to be proclaimed heir instead of their nephew. Although his revolt failed, John continued to scheme against his brother. A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... Arthur I, Duke of Brittany (1187_1203), was the posthumous son of Geoffrey Plantagenet and Constance, Duchess of Brittany, and designated heir to the throne of England, originally intended to succeed Richard I. While Richard was away on crusade, Constance took more independence for Brittany, and in 1194 had the young... For other uses, see Excalibur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...

The Near East in 1190, before Richard's conquest of Cyprus
The Near East in 1190, before Richard's conquest of Cyprus

Conquest of Cyprus

In April 1191, while on route to the Third Crusade, Richard stopped on the Byzantine island of Rhodes to avoid the stormy weather. It seems that Richard had previously met his fiancée Berengaria only once, years before their wedding. He had assigned his mother to represent him and convince her father, Sancho VI of Navarre, and her other relatives to agree to the wedding, and to bring the bride to him. Richard came to their rescue when they were shipwrecked on the coast of Cyprus. He left Rhodes in May but a new storm drove Richard's fleet to Cyprus. The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Berengaria of Navarre Berengaria (Spanish: Berenguela, French: Bérengère) (c. ... Sancho VI Garces, (c. ...


On May 6, 1191, Richard's fleet arrived in the port of Lemesos (now Limassol) on Cyprus, and he captured the city. The island's despot Isaac Komnenos arrived too late to stop the Crusaders, and he retired to Kolossi. Richard called Isaac to negotiations, but Isaac demanded his departure. Richard and his cavalry met Isaac's army in battle at Tremetusia. The few Cypriot Roman Catholics and those nobles who opposed Isaac's rule joined Richard's army. Though Isaac and his men fought bravely, Richard's army was bigger and better equipped, assuring his victory. He also received military assistance from the King of Jerusalem and Guy of Lusignan. Isaac resisted from the castles of Pentadactylos, but after the siege of Kantara Castle, he finally surrendered. It was claimed that once Isaac had been captured Richard had him confined with silver chains, because he had promised that he would not place him in irons. Isaac's young daughter was kept in the household of Berengaria and Joan. Richard looted the island and massacred those trying to resist him. He and most of his army left Cyprus for the Holy Land in early June, having gained for the Crusade a supply base that was not under immediate threat from the Turks as was Tyre. In his absence Cyprus was governed by Richard Camville. is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... View of Limassol from the top of the medieval castle museum Limassol (population 107,000) is the English name for Lemesos (Greek: Λεμεσος , Turkish: Leymosun), the second-largest city of Cyprus. ... District Limassol Government  - Mayor Andreas Christou Population (2004)  - City 201. ... Isaac Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Ισαάκιος Κομνηνός, Isaakios KomnÄ“nos), (c. ... Kolossi is a village on the outskirts of the city of Limassol, Cyprus. ... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ... Imaginary portrait of Guy of Lusignan by François-Edouard Picot, c. ... The Pentadactylos mountains comprise the western half of the Kyrenia mountain range, a long, narrow chain which runs 160 km (100 mi) along the northern coast of Cyprus. ... The Kantara Castle is the easternmost of the castles situated on the Kyrenia mountain range in North Cyprus. ... Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ...


Richard's marriage

Before leaving Cyprus, Richard married Berengaria, first-born daughter of King Sancho VI of Navarre. The wedding was held in Limassol on May 12, 1191 at the Chapel of St. George. It was attended by his sister Joan, whom Richard had brought from Sicily. When Richard married Berengaria he was still officially betrothed to Alys, and Richard pushed for the match, in order to obtain Navarre as a fief like Aquitaine for his father. Further, Eleanor championed the match, as Navarre bordered on Aquitaine, thereby securing her ancestral lands' borders to the south. Richard took his new wife with him briefly on this episode of the crusade. However, they returned separately. Berengaria had almost as much difficulty in making the journey home as her husband did and did not see England until after his death. After his release from German captivity Richard showed some regret for his earlier conduct, but he was not reunited with his wife. Berengaria of Navarre Berengaria (Spanish: Berenguela, French: Bérengère) (c. ... Sancho VI Garces, (c. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Richard had to be ordered to reunite with and show fidelity to Berengaria in the future, being told to "remember the destruction of Sodom and abstain from illicit acts." This may be further evidence that Richard engaged in homosexual activities, although it is argued that "the sin of Sodom" could be interpreted more broadly: the Biblical story concerns attempted male rape; Richard had already been accused of raping women. A common elaboration on that theory is that Berengaria's own brother, the future Sancho VII, was one of Richard's early lovers. Nevertheless, when Richard died in 1199, Berengaria was greatly depressed, apparently having loved her husband very much. The picture is further muddied by the fact that she had to sue the Church to be recognised as his widow. Historians remain divided on the issue of Richard's sexuality.[citation needed] Sodom can refer to: Sodom and Gomorrah, Biblical cities Sodom (band), a German thrash metal band Sodom, an album by the band Sodom Sodom (Final Fight), a character from Street Fighter and Final Fight Il Sodoma, an Italian Mannerist painter (1477-1549) Sodom, South Georgia, a song by Iron & Wine... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Sancho in stained glass in the church at Roncesvalles. ... For other uses, see Depression. ... Sexual orientation refers to an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectional attraction toward others,[1] usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ...


Richard in the Holy Land

King Richard landed at Acre on June 8, 1191. He gave his support to his Poitevin vassal Guy of Lusignan, who had brought troops to help him in Cyprus. Guy was the widower of his father's cousin Sibylla of Jerusalem and was trying to retain the kingship of Jerusalem, despite his wife's death during the siege of Acre the previous year. Guy's claim was challenged by Conrad of Montferrat, second husband of Sibylla's half-sister, Isabella: Conrad, whose defence of Tyre had saved the kingdom in 1187, was supported by Philip of France, son of his first cousin Louis VII of France, and by another cousin, Duke Leopold V of Austria. Richard also allied with Humphrey IV of Toron, Isabella's first husband, from whom she had been forcibly divorced in 1190. Humphrey was loyal to Guy and spoke Arabic fluently, so Richard used him as a translator and negotiator. For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... Imaginary portrait of Guy of Lusignan by François-Edouard Picot, c. ... Top: Baldwin IV betrothes Sibylla to Guy; Bottom: Sibylla and Guy are married. ... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ... The Siege of Acre was the most important event of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in the history of the crusades that the king was compelled to personally see to the defense of the Holy Land. ... Imaginary portrait of Conrad by François-Édouard Picot, c. ... Isabella of Jerusalem (c. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... Leopold V (1157-December 31, 1194), the Virtuous, was a Babenberg duke of Austria from 1177 to 1194 and Styria from 1192 to 1194. ... Humphrey IV of Toron (c. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


Richard and his forces aided in the capture of Acre, despite the king's serious illness. At one point, while sick from scurvy, Richard is said to have picked off guards on the walls with a crossbow, while being carried on a stretcher. Eventually, Conrad of Montferrat concluded the surrender negotiations with Saladin, and raised the banners of the kings in the city. Richard quarrelled with Leopold V of Austria over the deposition of Isaac Komnenos (related to Leopold's Byzantine mother) and his position within the Crusade. Leopold's banner had been raised alongside the English and French standards. This was interpreted as arrogance by both Richard and Philip, as Leopold was a vassal of the Holy Roman Emperor (although he was the highest-ranking surviving leader of the imperial forces). Richard's men tore the flag down and threw it in the moat of Acre. Leopold left the Crusade immediately. Philip also left soon afterwards, in poor health and after further disputes with Richard over the status of Cyprus (Philip demanded half the island) and the kingship of Jerusalem. Richard suddenly found himself without allies. Scurvy (N.Lat. ... This article is about the weapon. ... There were two rules known as Leopold V of Austria: Duke Leopold V of Austria (Babenberg) (1157-1194) Archduke Leopold V of Austria (Habsburg) (1586-1632), Regent of the Tyrol and Further Austria This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Isaac Komnenos or Isaac Comnenus (Greek: Ισαάκιος Κομνηνός, Isaakios KomnÄ“nos) is the name of several members of the Komnenos family. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ...


Richard had kept 2,700 Muslim prisoners as hostages against Saladin fulfilling all the terms of the surrender of the lands around Acre. Philip, before leaving, had entrusted his prisoners to Conrad, but Richard forced him to hand them over to him. Richard feared his forces being bottled up in Acre, as he believed his campaign could not advance with the prisoners in train. He therefore ordered all the prisoners executed. He then moved south, defeating Saladin's forces at the battle of Arsuf on September 7, 1191. He attempted to negotiate with Saladin, offering his widowed sister, Joan of Sicily, as a bride for Saladin's brother Al-Adil, but this was unsuccessful. In the first half of 1192, he and his troops refortified Ascalon. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated Saladin at Arsuf. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... Al-Adil I (1145-1218) (Arabic: ‎, in full al-Malik al-Adil Sayf al-Din Abu-Bakr ibn Ayyub, Arabic: ‎) was an Ayyubid-Egyptian general and ruler of Kurdish descent. ... The name Ascalon can refer to a number of possible topics: a middle-eastern city, more usually called Ashkelon the lance (or in some versions of the story, sword) that St George used to slay the dragon, named after the city Ashkelon the British WW2 aeroplane used by Winston Churchill...


An election forced Richard to accept Conrad of Montferrat as King of Jerusalem, and he sold Cyprus to his defeated protégé, Guy. However, only days later, on April 28, 1192, Conrad was stabbed to death by Hashshashin before he could be crowned. Eight days later, Richard's own nephew, Henry II of Champagne was married to the widowed Isabella, although she was carrying Conrad's child. The murder has never been conclusively solved, and Richard's contemporaries widely suspected his involvement. is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... Hashshashin fortress of Alamut. ... Henry II of Champagne (July 29, 1166–1197), was count of Champagne from 1181 to 1197, and king of Jerusalem from 1192 to 1197. ... Isabella of Jerusalem (c. ...


Realising that he had no hope of holding Jerusalem even if he took it, Richard ordered a retreat. There then commenced a period of minor skirmishes with Saladin's forces while Richard and Saladin negotiated a settlement to the conflict, as both realized that their respective positions were growing untenable. Richard knew that both Philip and his own brother John were starting to plot against him. However, Saladin insisted on the razing of Ascalon's fortifications, which Richard's men had rebuilt, and a few other points. Richard made one last attempt to strengthen his bargaining position by attempting to invade Egypt — Saladin's chief supply-base — but failed. In the end, time ran out for Richard. He realised that his return could be postponed no longer, since both Philip and John were taking advantage of his absence. He and Saladin finally came to a settlement on September 2, 1192 — this included the provisions demanding the destruction of Ascalon's wall as well as an agreement allowing Christian access to and presence in Jerusalem. It also included a three-year truce. is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ...


Captivity and return

Castle ruins at Durnstein
Castle ruins at Durnstein

Bad weather forced Richard's ship to put in at Corfu, in the lands of the Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos, who objected to Richard's annexation of Cyprus, formerly Byzantine territory. Disguised as a Knight Templar, Richard sailed from Corfu with four attendants, but his ship was wrecked near Aquileia, forcing Richard and his party into a dangerous land route through central Europe. On his way to the territory of Henry of Saxony, his brother-in-law, Richard was captured shortly before Christmas 1192, near Vienna, by Leopold V of Austria, who accused Richard of arranging the murder of his cousin Conrad of Montferrat. Richard and his retainers had been travelling in disguise as low-ranking pilgrims, but he was identified either because he was wearing an expensive ring, or because of his insistence on eating roast chicken, an aristocratic delicacy. The Duke kept him prisoner at Dürnstein, where he wrote Ja nus hons pris or Ja nuls om pres, a song in French and Occitan versions, expressing his feelings of abandonment by his people. The Duke then handed him over to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, who imprisoned him in Trifels Castle. Richard famously refused to show deference to the emperor and declared to him, "I am born of a rank which recognizes no superior but God".[15] Despite his complaints, the conditions of his captivity were not severe. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3138x2161, 2530 KB) Castle ruins and vineyard in Durnstein, Austria. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3138x2161, 2530 KB) Castle ruins and vineyard in Durnstein, Austria. ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... Isaac II Angelos or Angelus (Greek: Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος, Isaakios II Angelos) (September 1156 – January 1204) was Byzantine emperor from 1185 to 1195, and again from 1203 to 1204. ... The Seal of the Knights — the two riders have been interpreted as a sign of poverty or the duality of monk/soldier. ... Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ... Henry the Lion (statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Leopold V (1157-December 31, 1194), the Virtuous, was a Babenberg duke of Austria from 1177 to 1194 and Styria from 1192 to 1194. ... Dürnstein is a town in the Wachau in Lower Austria. ... Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197) was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197, Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King of Sicily from 1194 to 1197. ... Trifels Castle Trifels Castle (German: Reichsburg Trifels (literally translated: Imperial Castle Trifels)) is a medieval castle placed in 310m height near the small town of Annweiler, in the Palatinate, Germany, on one elevation of a threefold splitted new red sandstone rock. ...


His mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, worked to raise the ransom of 150,000 marks (2-3 times the annual income for the English Crown under Richard) demanded by Henry. Both clergy and laymen were taxed for a quarter of the value of their property, the gold and silver treasures of the churches were confiscated, and money was raised from the scutage and the carucage taxes. The emperor demanded that 150,000 marks (65,000 pounds of silver) be delivered to him before he would release the king, the same amount raised by the Saladin tithe only a few years earlier.[16] At the same time, John, Richard's brother, and King Philip of France offered 80,000 marks for the Emperor to hold Richard prisoner until Michaelmas 1194. The emperor turned down the offer. The money to rescue the King was transferred to Germany by the emperor's ambassadors, but "at the king's peril" (had it been lost along the way, Richard would have been held responsible), and finally, on February 4, 1194 Richard was released. Philip sent a message to John: "Look to yourself; the devil is loose." The tax of scutage or escuage in the law of England involved the pecuniary commutation, under the feudal system, of the military service due from the holder of a knights fee. ... The carucate was both a unit of assessment and a peasant landholding unit found in most of the Danelaw counties. ... The Saladin tithe, or the Aid of 1188, was a tax, or more specifically a tallage, levied in England and to some extent in France in 1188, in response to the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin in 1187. ... For the first term of many universities in the British Isles, see Michaelmas Term. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events November 20 - Palermo falls to Henry VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire December 25 - Henry VI is crowned king of Sicily. ...


Later years and death

Tomb at Fontevraud
Tomb at Fontevraud

During his absence, John had come close to seizing the throne. Richard forgave him when they met again and, bowing to political necessity, named him as his heir in place of Arthur, whose mother Constance of Brittany was perhaps already open to the overtures of Philip II. Richard came into conflict with Philip. When the latter attacked Richard's fortress, Chateau-Gaillard ('The Saucy Castle'), he boasted that "if its walls were iron, yet would I take it," to which Richard replied, "If these walls were butter, yet would I hold them!" Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1331 KB)Tomb of Richard I of England at Fontevraud Abbey near Chinon, in Anjou, France. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1331 KB)Tomb of Richard I of England at Fontevraud Abbey near Chinon, in Anjou, France. ... Constance of Brittany (1161 – September 5, 1201) was Duchess of Brittany between 1186 and 1196. ... For the commune in the Ain d partement, see Ch teau-Gaillard, Ain. ...


Determined to resist Philip's designs on contested Angevin lands such as the Vexin and Berry, Richard poured all his military expertise and vast resources into war on the French King. He constructed an alliance against Philip, including Baldwin IX of Flanders, Renaud, Count of Boulogne, and his father-in-law King Sancho VI of Navarre, who raided Philip's lands from the south. Most importantly, he managed to secure the Welf inheritance in Saxony for his nephew, Henry the Lion's son Otto of Poitou, who was elected Otto IV of Germany in 1198. Baldwin I (1172 - 1205), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the capture of the city of Constantinople and the conquest... Sancho VI Garces, (c. ... The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th century until the 20th century. ... Henry the Lion (statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral). ...


Partly as a result of these and other intrigues, Richard won several victories over Philip. At Freteval in 1194, just after Richard's return from captivity and money-raising in England to France, Philip fled, leaving his entire archive of financial audits and documents to be captured by Richard. At the battle of Gisors (sometimes called Courcelles) in 1198 Richard took "Dieu et mon Droit" "God and my Right" as his motto, (still used by the British monarchy today) echoing his earlier boast to the Emperor Henry that his rank acknowledged no superior but God. The Battle of Gisors (1198) was fought in Normandy, Gisors, between Richard I of England and Philip Augustus of France. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see...


In March 1199, Richard was in the Limousin suppressing a revolt by Viscount Aimar V of Limoges. Although it was Lent, he "devastated the Viscount's land with fire and sword".[17] He besieged the puny, virtually unarmed castle of Chalus-Chabrol. Some chroniclers claimed that this was because a local peasant had uncovered a treasure trove of Roman gold,[18] which Richard claimed from Aimar in his position as feudal overlord. King Richard I of England, who was killed while besieging a castle under the control of Aimar V of Limoges Aimar V Boso[1] (c. ... The Château de Chalus-Chabrol is a castle in the commune of Châlus in the département of Haute-Vienne, France. ... A treasure-trove is gold, silver, gems, money, jewellery, etc found hidden under ground or in cellar or attics, etc. ...

In the early evening of March 25, 1199, Richard was walking around the castle perimeter without his chainmail, investigating the progress of sappers on the castle walls. Arrows were occasionally shot from the castle walls, but these were given little attention. One defender in particular was of great amusement to the king — a man standing on the walls, crossbow in one hand, the other clutching a frying pan which he had been using all day as a shield to beat off missiles. He deliberately aimed an arrow at the king, which the king applauded. However, another arrow then struck him in the left shoulder near the neck. He tried to pull this out in the privacy of his tent but failed; a surgeon, called a 'butcher' by Hoveden, removed it, 'carelessly mangling' the King's arm in the process. However, the wound swiftly became gangrenous. Accordingly, Richard asked to have the crossbowman brought before him; called alternatively Peter Basile, John Sabroz, Dudo[19], and Bertran de Gurdun by chroniclers, the man turned out to be a boy. This boy claimed that Richard had killed the boy's father and two brothers, and that he had killed Richard in revenge. The boy expected to be executed; Richard, as a last act of mercy, forgave the boy his crime, saying, "Live on, and by my bounty behold the light of day," before ordering the boy to be freed and sent away with 100 shillings. Richard then set his affairs in order, bequeathing all his territory to his brother John and his jewels to his nephew Otto. Download high resolution version (1637x1228, 909 KB)Tomb of Richard I of England at Rouen Cathedral, France. ... Download high resolution version (1637x1228, 909 KB)Tomb of Richard I of England at Rouen Cathedral, France. ... Rouen Cathedral (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Rouen) is a Gothic cathedral in Rouen, in northwestern France. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... Gangrene is a complication of necrosis (i. ... Pierre Basile was a French knight famous for shooting King Richard I of England with a crossbow at the siege of Châlus-Charbrol on March 26, 1199. ... This article is about coinage. ...


Richard died on Tuesday, April 6, 1199 in the arms of his mother; it was later said that "As the day was closing, he ended his earthly day." His death was later referred to as 'the Lion [that] by the Ant was slain'. His last act of chivalry proved fruitless; In an orgy of medieval brutality, the infamous mercenary captain Mercadier had the crossbowman skinned alive and hanged as soon as Richard died. is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Mercadier (d. ... Michelangelos Last Judgment - Saint Bartholomew holding the knife of his martyrdom and his flayed skin Flaying is the removal of skin from the body. ... This article is about death by hanging. ...


Richard's brain was buried at the abbey of Charroux in Poitou, his heart was buried at Rouen in Normandy, and the rest of his body was buried at the feet of his father at Fontevraud Abbey in Anjou. For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... , Rouen (pronounced in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... General view of the complex. ...


A thirteenth-century bishop of Rochester wrote that Richard spent 33 years in purgatory as expiation for his sins, eventually ascending to heaven in March 1232.[20] This article is about the role of bishops in the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Diocese of Rochester forms part of the Province of Canterbury in England. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... The Atonement is the central doctrine of Christianity: everything else derives from it. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ...


Legacy

This bronze equestrian statue of Richard I brandishing his sword by Carlo Marochetti stands outside the Palace of Westminster in London.
This bronze equestrian statue of Richard I brandishing his sword by Carlo Marochetti stands outside the Palace of Westminster in London.
The reputation of Richard ... has fluctuated wildly. The Victorians were divided. Many of them admired him as a crusader and man of God, erecting an heroic statue to him outside the Houses of Parliament; Stubbs, on the other hand, thought him ‘a bad son, a bad husband, a selfish ruler, and a vicious man’. Though born in Oxford, he spoke no English. During his ten years' reign, he was in England for no more than six months, and was totally absent for the last five years.

—John Gillingham, Kings and Queens of Britain: Richard I[21] Download high resolution version (807x787, 203 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (807x787, 203 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Baron Carlo (Charles) Marochetti (1805-1867) was a sculptor, born in Turin, but raised in Paris as a French citizen. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... redirect Victorian eramonkey ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ...

Richard produced no legitimate heirs and acknowledged only one illegitimate son, Philip of Cognac. As a result, he was succeeded by his brother John as King of England. However, his French territories initially rejected John as a successor, preferring his nephew Arthur of Brittany, the son of their late brother Geoffrey, whose claim is by modern standards better than John's. Significantly, the lack of any direct heirs from Richard was the first step in the dissolution of the Angevin Empire. While Kings of England continued to press claims to properties on the continent, they would never again command the territories Richard I inherited. Illegitimacy was a term in common usage for the condition of being born of parents who are not validly married to one another; the legal term is bastardy. ... Philip of Cognac (early 1180s-after 1201) was an illegitimate son of Richard I of England by an unidentified mother. ... Arthur I, Duke of Brittany (1187_1203), was the posthumous son of Geoffrey Plantagenet and Constance, Duchess of Brittany, and designated heir to the throne of England, originally intended to succeed Richard I. While Richard was away on crusade, Constance took more independence for Brittany, and in 1194 had the young... The term Angevin Empire describes a collection of states ruled by the Angevin Plantagenet dynasty. ...


Richard's legacy comprised several parts. First, he captured Cyprus, which proved immensely valuable in keeping the Frankish kingdoms in the Holy Land viable for another century. Second, his absence from the English political landscape meant that the highly efficient government created by his father was allowed to entrench itself, though King John would later abuse it to the breaking point. The last part of Richard's legacy was romantic and literary. No matter the facts of his reign, he left an indelible imprint on the imagination extending to the present, in large part because of his military exploits. This is reflected in Steven Runciman's final verdict of Richard I: "he was a bad son, a bad husband and a bad king, but a gallant and splendid soldier." Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman (7 July 1903 - 1 November 2000) was a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages. ...


Medieval folklore

By 1260 a legend had developed that, after Richard's capture, his minstrel Blondel travelled Europe from castle to castle, loudly singing a song known only to the two of them (they had composed it together). Eventually, he came to the place where Richard was being held, and Richard heard the song and answered with the appropriate refrain, thus revealing where the king was incarcerated. The story was the basis of André Ernest Modeste Grétry's opera Richard Coeur-de-Lion (1784) and seems to be the inspiration for the opening to Richard Thorpe's film version of Ivanhoe (1952). It seems unconnected to the real Jean 'Blondel' de Nesle, an aristocratic trouvère. Blondel (de Nesle, late 12th century) was a French poet and musician, a trouvère (later troubadour). ... André Ernest Modeste Grétry André Ernest Modeste Grétry (February 8, 1741 – September 24, 1813) was a composer from the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, who worked from 1767 onwards in France and took the french nationality. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Richard Thorpe (February 24, 1896 - May 1, 1991) was an American film director. ... For other uses, see Ivanhoe (disambiguation). ... Trouvère is the Northern French (langue doïl) version of troubador (langue doc), and refers to poet-composers who were roughly contemporary with and influenced by the troubadors but who composed their works in the northern dialects of France. ...


Ancestors

Fulk of Anjou (1092 – November 10, 1143), king of Jerusalem from 1131, was the son of Fulk IV, count of Anjou, and his wife Bertrada (who ultimately deserted her husband and became the mistress of Philip I of France). ... Fulk of Anjou, king of Jerusalem (1092-1143), was the son of Fulk IV, count of Anjou, and his wife Bertrada (who ultimately deserted her husband and became the mistress of Philip I of France). ... Bertrade de Montfort (died 1117) was the daughter of Simon de Montfort-lAmaury and Agnes, Countess of Evreux. ... Geoffrey of Anjou Geoffrey V (Godefroi) (August 24, 1113 – September 7, 1151), Count of Anjou, Touraine and Maine, and later Duke of Normandy by marriage, called Le Bel (The Fair), Martel (The Hammer) or Plantagenet, was the father of King Henry II of England, and thus the forefather of the... Ermengarde of Maine (died 1126) married Fulk V of Anjou in 1110. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... William I of England (1027[1] – 9 September 1087), also known as William the Conqueror (French: ), was Duke of Normandy from 1035 and King of England from 1066 to his death. ... Henry I (c. ... Matilda of Flanders (c. ... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Donnchad mac Crínáin (Anglicised Duncan) (born 15 August 1001 died 14 August 1040)[1] was king of Alba. ... Edith of Scotland, (c. ... Saint Margaret (c. ... William VIII of Aquitaine, (Guillaume VIII in French) (1025 – September 25, 1086), whose name was Guy-Geoffroy before becoming Duke of Aquitaine, was Duke of Gascony (1052-1086), and then Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitiers (as William VI of Poitiers) between 1058 and 1086, succceeding his brother William... William IX of Aquitaine (October 22, 1071 – February 10, 1126, also Guillaume or Guilhem dAquitaine), nicknamed the Troubador was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitiers as William VII of Poitiers between 1086 and 1126. ... William X of Aquitaine (1099 – April 9, 1137), nicknamed the Saint was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitiers as William VIII of Poitiers between 1126 and 1137. ... William IV of Toulouse (c. ... Philippa Maude of Toulouse (c. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1]–1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... Aenor of Châtellerault, duchess of Aquitaine (c. ...

See also

The Crusade and Death of Richard I, is a mid-13th century Anglo-Norman prose chronicle by an anonymous author. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ralph Turner & Richard Heiser, Reign of Richard Lionheart, p.71
  2. ^ Turner & Heiser, p.71
  3. ^ Madden, A History Of The Crusades
  4. ^ Harvey, The Plantagenets
  5. ^ Harvey
  6. ^ Turner & Heiser
  7. ^ Harvey
  8. ^ Eleanor's alleged favouritism toward Richard was claimed by Matthew Paris to have been predicted by Merlin: "The eagle of the broken covenant shall rejoice in Eleanor's third nesting." Paris only counted Eleanor's male children in these "nestings", ignoring Richard's older sister and half-sisters.
  9. ^ Clifford Brewer writes in "The Death of Kings" that he was 6'5.
  10. ^ Meade, Marion, Eleanor of Aquitaine
  11. ^ Roger of Hoveden, Gesta Henrici II Benedicti Abbatis, vol. 1, p. 292
  12. ^ The Annals of Roger of Hoveden, vol. 2, trans. Henry T. Riley, London, 1853
  13. ^ Martin, Nicole. "Richard I slept with French king 'but not gay'", The Daily Telegraph, 2008-03-18, p. 11.  See also "Bed-heads of state", The Daily Telegraph, 2008-03-18, p. 25. 
  14. ^ John Gillingham, Richard I, (London: Yale University Press,1999), 107.
  15. ^ Elizabeth Longford, Elizabeth Harman Pakenham Longford (1989). "The Oxford Book of Royal Anecdotes", Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192141538. p. 85
  16. ^ T. Madden, Crusades: THe Illustrated History, 96
  17. ^ Ralph of Coggeshall, Chronicon Anglicanum, p. 94
  18. ^ Historynet.com
  19. ^ Gillingham, John, Richard the Lionheart, Butler and Tanner Ltd, Second Edition, 1989, p.16
  20. ^ Gillingham, J. (1979). Richard the Lionheart. New York, NY: Times Books, 8. ISBN 0-8129-0802-3. 
  21. ^ Cannon, John and Hargreaves, Anne (eds). Kings and Queens of Britain, Oxford University Press 2001, 2004, ISBN 0198609566. Richard I, by John Gillingham

Self portrait of Matthew Paris from the original manuscript of his Historia Anglorum (London, British Library, MS Royal 14. ... Merlin Ambrosius (Welsh: Myrddin Emrys (Merlin the Wise); also known as Myrddin Wyllt (Merlin the Wild), Merlin Caledonensis (Scottish Merlin), Merlinus, and Merlyn) is the personage best known as the mighty wizard featured in Arthurian legends, starting with Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
  • Roger of Hoveden, Gesta Regis Henrici II & Gesta Regis Ricardi Benedicti Abbatis, ed. William Stubbs, 2 vols, (London, 1867), available at Gallica.
  • Roger of Hoveden, Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene, ed. William Stubbs, 4 vols, (London, 1868-71), available at Gallica.
  • Ralph of Diceto, Radulfi de Diceto Decani Lundoniensis Opera Historica, ed. William Stubbs, 2 vols (London, 1876)
  • Berg, Dieter. Richard Löwenherz. Darmstadt, 2007.
  • Edbury, Peter W. The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade: Sources in Translation. Ashgate, 1996. [Includes letters by Richard reporting events of the Third Crusade (pp. 178-182).] ISBN 1-84014-676-1
  • Gabrieli, Francesco. (ed.) Arab Historians of the Crusades, English translation 1969, ISBN 0-520-05224-2
  • Gillingham, John. Richard the Lionheart, 1978, 2nd ed. 1989
  • Gillingham, John, Richard Coeur de Lion: Kingship, Chivalry and War in the Twelfth Century, 1994, ISBN 1-85285-084-1
  • Gillingham, John. Richard I, 1999, ISBN 0-300-07912-5
  • Nelson, Janet L. (ed.) Richard Coeur de Lion in History and Myth, 1992, ISBN 0-9513085-6-4
  • Nicholson, Helen J. (ed.) The Chronicle of the Third Crusade: The Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi, 1997, ISBN 0-7546-0581-7
  • Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades, 1951-54, vols. 2-3.
  • Stubbs, William (ed.), Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi (London, 1864), available at Gallica. (PDF of anon. translation, Itinerary of Richard I and others to the Holy Land (Cambridge, Ontario, 2001))
  • William of Tyre, French continuation of. Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum (external link to text in mediæval French).
  • Williams, Patrick A. "The Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat: Another Suspect?", Traditio, vol. XXVI, 1970.
  • Turner, Ralph V. / Heiser, Richard R.: The reign of Richard Lionheart : ruler of the Angevin empire, 1189-1199, Harlow [u.a.] : Pearson Education, 2000, ISBN 0-582-25660-7 - ISBN 0-582-25659-3
  • Reston, James Jr. "Warriors of God", 2001, ISBN 0-385-49562-5

Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman (7 July 1903 - 1 November 2000) was a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages. ... William Stubbs (June 21, 1825 - April 22, 1901) was an English historian and Bishop of Oxford. ...

External links

Richard I of England
Born: 1157 8 September Died: 1199 6 April
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Henry II
King of England
1189 – 1199
Succeeded by
John
English royalty
Preceded by
Henry the Young King
Heir to the English Throne
as heir apparent
by cognatic primogeniture

11 June 1183 - 6 July 1189
Succeeded by
Arthur I, Duke of Brittany
French nobility
Preceded by
Henry II
Duke of Normandy
1189 – 1199
Succeeded by
John
Count of Maine
1189 – 1199
Count of Anjou
1189 – 1199
Succeeded by
Arthur
Preceded by
Eleanor
Duke of Aquitaine
1189 – 1199
Succeeded by
John
Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... The Auchinleck Manuscript is currently contained in the National Library of Scotland. ... The building on George IV bridge The National Library of Scotland is the legal deposit library of Scotland. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... The House of Plantagenet (IPA: ), also called the House of Anjou, or Angevin dynasty was originally a noble family from France, which ruled the County of Anjou. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... This article is about the King of England. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... Henry, the Young King Henry the Young King (February 28, 1155–June 11, 1183) was the second of five sons of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. ... Category: ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Primogeniture is inheritance by the first-born of the entirety of a parents wealth, estate or office. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... Arthur I, Duke of Brittany (1187 – 1203), was the posthumous son of Geoffrey Plantagenet and Constance, Duchess of Brittany, and designated heir to the throne of England, originally intended to succeed Richard I. While Richard was away on crusade, Constance took more independence for Brittany, and in 1194 had the... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... This article is about the King of England. ... This is a list of counts and dukes of Maine, France. ... // Counts of Anjou, c. ... Arthur I, Duke of Brittany (1187 – 1203), was the posthumous son of Geoffrey Plantagenet and Constance, Duchess of Brittany, and designated heir to the throne of England, originally intended to succeed Richard I. While Richard was away on crusade, Constance took more independence for Brittany, and in 1194 had the... Eleanor of Aquitaine (or Aliénor), Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1]–1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine. ... This article is about the King of England. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... Bretwalda is an Anglo-Saxon term, the first record of which comes from the late ninth-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Northumberland. ... Ælle was king of the South Saxons from 477 to perhaps as late as 514, and was named Bretwalda by Bede, who adds that he was overlord of the English south of the Humber river. ... Ceawlin of Wessex (also spelled Ceaulin or Caelin) is recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as being king of the West Saxons, or Wessex from 560 to 591, and named by Bede in his Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum as the second king to hold imperium over other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. ... Ethelbert (or Æthelbert, or Aethelberht) (means roughly Magnificent Noble) (c. ... Rædwald, son of Tytila, was King of the East Angles from c 600 AD until his death in c 624 AD. From c 616 he became the most powerful of the English rulers south of the River Humber, and by military action installed a Northumbrian ruler acquiescent to his... Saint Edwin (alternately Eadwine or Æduini) (c. ... Oswald (c. ... Oswiu (612–February 15, 670), also written as Oswio, Oswy, and Osuiu was an Anglo-Saxon Bretwalda. ... Wulfhere (d. ... For the later earl, see Earl Aethelred of Mercia. ... Ethelbald (or Æthelbald) (died 757) was the King of Mercia in England from 716 until his death. ... This article is about Offa of Mercia. ... Coenwulf (or Cenwulf) (died 821) was King of Mercia from 796 to 821. ... Egbert (also Ecgbehrt or Ecgbert, means roughly The shining edge of a blade) (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links Wyvern. ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... Edward the Elder (Old English: Ä’adweard se Ieldra) (c. ... Ælfweard (died 2 August 924) was the second known son of Edward the Elder. ... Athelstan redirects here. ... Edmund I (or Eadmund, 921 – May 26, 946), called the Elder, the Deed-Doer, or the Just, was King of England from 939 until his death. ... “Eadred” redirects here. ... Edwy All-Fair or Eadwig (941? – October 1, 959) was the King of England from 955 until his death. ... King Edgar or Eadgar I ( 942 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of King Edmund I of England. ... Not to be confused with Edmund the Martyr. ... Ethelred II (c. ... Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Canute the Great, or Canute I, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, or Knut (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den Store, Danish: Knud den Store, Polish: Kanut Wielki) (died November 12, 1035) was a Viking king of England and... Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... William I of England (1027[1] – 9 September 1087), also known as William the Conqueror (French: ), was Duke of Normandy from 1035 and King of England from 1066 to his death. ... William II (c. ... Henry I (c. ... Stephen (c. ... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great English warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... This article is about King Richard III of England. ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Edward Tudor redirects here. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... Not to be confused with United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ...

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Richard I of England (2640 words)
Richard officially proclaimed his nephew, the son of Geoffrey, Arthur of Brittany, as his heir, and Tancred promised to later marry one of his daughters to Arthur when he came of age (Arthur was only four years old at the time).
Richard's tactics ensured success at the siege of Acre and on the subsequent march south, Saladin's men being unable to harass the Crusader army into an impulsive action which might not have gone their way.
Richard died on April 6 1199 from the after-effects of an arrow wound received during the siege of Chalus in France and was buried next to his parents at Fontevraud Abbey near Chinon and Saumur, France.
Richard I - MSN Encarta (445 words)
Richard I, called Coeur de Lion or Lion-Hearted (1157-1199), king of England (1189-1199), third son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, born in Oxford.
When he was an infant, Richard was betrothed to a daughter of the French king Louis VII, and in 1172 he was given the duchy of Aquitaine in France, his mother’s inheritance.
Richard returned to England and there made peace with his brother, John, later king of England, who in his absence had been conspiring with Philip to usurp the English throne.
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