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Encyclopedia > Richard Feynman
Richard Phillips Feynman

Richard Feynman, dust jacket photo for
What Do You Care What Other People Think?
Born May 11, 1918
Far Rockaway, Queens, New York
Died February 15, 1988 (aged 69)
Los Angeles, California
Residence United States
Nationality  United States
Field Physics
Institutions Manhattan Project
Cornell University
California Institute of Technology
Alma mater Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Princeton University
Notable students   Al Hibbs
George Zweig
Known for Quantum electrodynamics
Particle theory
Feynman diagrams
Notable prizes Nobel Prize in Physics (1965)
Oersted Medal (1972)
Religion Jewish (Athiest) [1]
Signature
Quantum mechanics
$Delta x , Delta p ge frac{hbar}{2}$
Key topics
Introduction to...

Fundamental concepts
Decoherence · Interference
Uncertainty · Exclusion
Transformation theory
Ehrenfest theorem · Measurement
Superposition · Entanglement
This box: view  talk  edit

He assisted in the development of the atomic bomb and was a member of the panel that investigated the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. In addition to his work in theoretical physics, Feynman has been credited with pioneering the field of quantum computing,[2] and introducing the concept of nanotechnology (creation of devices at the molecular scale).[3] He held the Richard Chace Tolman professorship in theoretical physics at Caltech. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... For further information about Challengers mission and crew, see STS-51-L. The iconic image of Space Shuttle Challengers smoke plume after its breakup 73 seconds after launch. ... Molecule of alanine used in NMR implementation of error correction. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ... California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ...

Feynman was a keen popularizer of physics in both his books and lectures, notably a 1959 talk on top-down nanotechnology called There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom and The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Feynman is also known for his semi-autobiographical books Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman! and What Do You Care What Other People Think?, and through books about him, such as Tuva or Bust!. He was also known as a prankster, juggler, a proud amateur painter, and a bongo player. Richard Feynman was regarded as an eccentric and a free spirit. He liked to pursue multiple seemingly independent paths, such as biology, art, percussion, Maya hieroglyphs, and lock picking. Freeman Dyson once wrote that Feynman was "half-genius, half-buffoon", but later revised this to "all-genius, all-buffoon".[4] During his lifetime and after his death, Feynman became one of the most publicly known scientists in the world. In 1959, Richard Feynman gave the first talk on nanotechnology, entitled Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom[1]. He considered the possibility of direct manipulation of individual atoms as a more powerful form of synthetic chemistry. ... Cover of the book on quantum mechanics The Feynman Lectures on Physics, by Richard Feynman, Robert Leighton, and Matthew Sands is perhaps Feynmans most accessible technical work, and is considered a classic introduction to modern physics, including lectures on mathematics, electromagnetism, Newtonian physics, quantum physics, and even the relation... Surely Youre Joking, Mr. ... What Do You Care What Other People Think?: Further Adventures of a Curious Character is the second of two books consisting of transcribed and edited oral reminiscences from American physicist Richard Feynman. ... Tuva or Bust!, by Ralph Leighton, is a book about the author and his friend Richard Feynmans attempt to travel to Tuva. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Juggling can refer to all forms of artful or skillful object manipulation. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Bongos Bongo drums or bongos are a percussion instrument made up of two small drums attached to each other. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ... Lock picking is the art of unlocking a lock without its intended key. ... Freeman John Dyson FRS (born December 15, 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician, famous for his work in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, nuclear weapons design and policy, and for his serious theorizing in futurism and science fiction concepts, including the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. ...

## Biography

Richard Phillips Feynman was born on May 11, 1918,[5] in Far Rockaway, Queens, New York.[6] His family was Jewish and, while not ritualistic in their practice of Judaism, his parents attended synagogue every Friday. Feynman (in common with other famous physicists, Edward Teller and Albert Einstein) was a late talker; by his third birthday he had yet to utter a single word. The young Feynman was heavily influenced by his father, Melville, who encouraged him to ask questions to challenge orthodox thinking. From his mother, Lucille, he gained the sense of humor that endured throughout his life. As a child, he delighted in repairing radios and had a talent for engineering. His sister Joan also became a professional physicist.[7] is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Far Rockaway street scene Far Rockaway is one of the four neighborhoods on the Rockaway Peninsula in the New York City borough of Queens in the United States. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: &#1497;&#1492;&#1493;&#1491;&#1497;) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 â€“ September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... â€œEinsteinâ€ redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Joan Feynman is an astrophysicist, who made original studies of the interactions between the solar wind and the Earths magnetosphere. ...

### Education

In high school he was bright, with a measured IQ of 123:[8] high, but "merely respectable" according to biographer Gleick.[8] He would later scoff at psychometric testing. By 15, he had mastered differential and integral calculus. Before entering college, he was experimenting with and re-creating mathematical topics, such as the half-derivative, utilizing his own notation. Thus, while in high school, he was developing the mathematical intuition behind his Taylor series of mathematical operators. His habit of direct characterization would sometimes disconcert more conventional thinkers; for example, one of his questions when learning feline anatomy was: "Do you have a map of the cat?" (referring to an anatomical chart). IQ redirects here. ... James Gleick (August 1, 1954â€“ ) is an author, journalist, and biographer, whose books explore the cultural ramifications of science and technology. ... Differential calculus is the theory of and computations with differentials; see also derivative and calculus. ... This article deals with the concept of an integral in calculus. ... In mathematics, fractional calculus is a branch of mathematical analysis, studying the possibility of taking real number powers of the differential operator D = d/dx and the integration operator I. By powers we refer to iteration, for example in the sense that f2(x) = f(f(x)). For example, one... Series expansion redirects here. ... This article is about operators in mathematics, for other kinds of operators see operator (disambiguation). ...

Feynman attended Far Rockaway High School, a school that also produced fellow laureates Burton Richter and Baruch Samuel Blumberg.[9] A member of the Arista Honor Society, in his last year in high school, Feynman won the New York University Math Championship; the large difference between his score and his closest runners-up shocked the judges.[10] He applied to Columbia University; however, because he was Jewish, and Columbia still had a quota for Jews, he was not accepted.[11] Instead he attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he received a bachelor's degree in 1939, and in the same year was named a Putnam Fellow. While there, Feynman took every physics course offered, including a graduate course on theoretical physics while only in his second year. He obtained a perfect score on the entrance exams to Princeton University in mathematics and physics — an unprecedented feat — but did rather poorly on the history and English portions. Attendees at Feynman's first seminar included the luminaries Albert Einstein, Wolfgang Pauli, and John von Neumann. He received a Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1942; his thesis advisor was John Archibald Wheeler. Feynman's thesis applied the principle of stationary action to problems of quantum mechanics, laying the ground work for the "path integral" approach and Feynman diagrams. Far Rockaway High School, a public high school in the public school system of New York City, is located on Bay 25 Street in Far Rockaway in the borough of Queens, as part of the New York City Department of Education. ... Burton Richter (Born March 22, 1931) is a Nobel Prize-winning American physicist. ... Baruch Samuel Blumberg (born July 28, 1925) is an American scientist and recipient of the 1976 Nobel Prize in Medicine for discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... â€œMITâ€ redirects here. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... The William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition, often abbreviated to Putnam Competition, is an annual mathematics competition for undergraduate college students, awarding scholarships and cash prizes ranging from \$2,500 to \$250 for the top 25 students and \$25,000 to \$5,000 for the top five schools. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... â€œEinsteinâ€ redirects here. ... This article is about the Austrian-Swiss physicist. ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... John Archibald Wheeler (born July 9, 1911) is an eminent American theoretical physicist. ... The principle of stationary action for the Action (physics) S (a measure of the energy of the system under study) states that the variation in S is at an extremum, in symbols: where the independent variables are denoted by a set of acting at some time t. ...

This was Richard Feynman nearing the crest of his powers. At twenty-three ... there was no physicist on earth who could match his exuberant command over the native materials of theoretical science. It was not just a facility at mathematics (though it had become clear ... that the mathematical machinery emerging from the Wheeler-Feynman collaboration was beyond Wheeler's own ability). Feynman seemed to possess a frightening ease with the substance behind the equations, like Albert Einstein at the same age, like the Soviet physicist Lev Landau—but few others. John Archibald Wheeler (born July 9, 1911) is an eminent American theoretical physicist. ... â€œEinsteinâ€ redirects here. ... Lev Davidovich Landau Lev Davidovich Landau (Russian language: Ð›ÐµÌÐ² Ð”Ð°Ð²Ð¸ÌÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð¸Ñ‡ Ð›Ð°Ð½Ð´Ð°ÌÑƒ) (January 22, 1908 â€“ April 1, 1968) was a prominent Soviet physicist, who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics. ...

James Gleick , Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman

While researching his PhD, Feynman married his first wife, Arline Greenbaum. (Arline's name is often spelled Arlene). Arline was diagnosed with tuberculosis, a terminal illness at that time, but she and Feynman were careful, and he never contracted the disease. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...

### The Manhattan Project

Feynman (center) with Robert Oppenheimer (right) relaxing at a Los Alamos social function during the Manhattan Project.

As a junior physicist, he was not central to the project. The greater part of his work was administering the computation group of human computers in the Theoretical division (one of his students there, John G. Kemeny, would later go on to co-write the computer language BASIC). Later, with Nicholas Metropolis, he assisted in establishing the system for using IBM punch cards for computation. Feynman succeeded in solving one of the equations for the project that were posted on the blackboards. However, they did not "do the physics right" and Feynman's solution was not used in the project. Before mechanical and electronic computers, the term computer, in use from the mid 17th century, meant a human undertaking mathematical calculations. ... John George Kemeny (Kemény János) (May 31, 1926&#8211;December 26, 1992), U.S. computer scientist and educator best known for co-developing the BASIC programming language in 1964 with Thomas Eugene Kurtz. ... This article is about the programming language. ... Nicholas Constantine Metropolis (June 11, 1915 â€“ October 17, 1999) was a Greek-American mathematician, physicist, and computer scientist. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Punched cards (or Hollerith cards, or IBM cards), are pieces of stiff paper that contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. ...

Feynman's other work at Los Alamos included calculating neutron equations for the Los Alamos "Water Boiler", a small nuclear reactor, to measure how close an assembly of fissile material was to criticality. On completing this work he was transferred to the Oak Ridge facility, where he aided engineers in calculating safety procedures for material storage, so that inadvertent criticality accidents (for example, storing subcritical amounts of fissile material in proximity on opposite sides of a wall) could be avoided. He also did theoretical work and calculations on the proposed uranium-hydride bomb, which later proved to be infeasible. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing \$300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... A criticality accident (also sometimes referred to as an excursion or power excursion) occurs when a nuclear chain reaction is accidentally allowed to occur in fissile material, such as enriched uranium or plutonium. ... The uranium hydride bomb was a variant of the atomic bomb, first suggested by Robert Oppenheimer in 1939. ...

Feynman was sought out by physicist Niels Bohr for one-on-one discussions. He later discovered the reason: most physicists were too in awe of Bohr to argue with him. Feynman had no such inhibitions, vigorously pointing out anything he considered to be flawed in Bohr's thinking. Feynman said he felt as much respect for Bohr as anyone else, but once anyone got him talking about physics, he would forget about anything else. Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 â€“ November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. ...

Due to the top secret nature of the work, Los Alamos was isolated. In his own words, "There wasn't anything to do there". Bored, Feynman indulged his curiosity by learning to pick the combination locks on cabinets and desks used to secure papers. Feynman played many jokes on colleagues. In one case he found the combination to a locked filing cabinet by trying the numbers a physicist would use (it proved to be 27-18-28 after the base of natural logarithms, e = 2.71828...), and found that the three filing cabinets where a colleague kept a set of atomic bomb research notes all had the same combination. He left a series of notes as a prank, which initially spooked his colleague into thinking a spy or saboteur had gained access to atomic bomb secrets (coincidentally, Feynman once borrowed the car of physicist Klaus Fuchs who was later discovered to be a spy for the Soviets). The natural logarithm, formerly known as the hyperbolic logarithm, is the logarithm to the base e, where e is an irrational constant approximately equal to 2. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Klaus Fuchs ID badge at Los Alamos. ...

On occasion, Feynman would find an isolated section of the mesa to drum in the style of American natives; "and maybe I would dance and chant, a little". These antics did not go unnoticed, and rumors spread about a mysterious Indian drummer called "Injun Joe". He also became a friend of laboratory head J. Robert Oppenheimer, who unsuccessfully tried to court him away from his other commitments to work at the University of California, Berkeley after the war. Mathematics Engineering and Science Achievement (MESA) is a current program that is building in schools around the United States. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 â€“ February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ...

Feynman alludes to his thoughts on the justification for getting involved in the Manhattan project in "The pleasure of finding things out." As mentioned earlier, he felt the possibility of Nazi Germany developing the bomb before the Allies was a compelling reason to help with its development for the U.S. However, he goes on to say that it was an error on his part not to reconsider the situation when Germany was defeated. In the same publication Feynman also talks about his worries in the atomic bomb age, feeling for some considerable time that there was a high risk that the bomb would be used again soon so that it was pointless to, for example, build for the future. Later he describes this period as a 'depression.'

### Early career

After the project concluded, Feynman began work as a professor at Cornell University, where Hans Bethe (who proved that the sun's source of energy was nuclear fusion) worked. However, he felt uninspired there; despairing that he had burned out, he turned to less useful, but fun problems, such as analyzing the physics of a twirling, nutating dish, as it is being balanced by a juggler. (As it turned out, this work served him well in future research.) He was therefore surprised to be offered professorships from competing universities, eventually choosing to work at the California Institute of Technology at Pasadena, California, despite being offered a position near Princeton, at the Institute for Advanced Study (which included such distinguished faculty members as Albert Einstein). Cornell redirects here. ... Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 â€“ March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Rotation (green), Precession (blue) and Nutation (red) of the Earth Nutation is a slight irregular motion (etymologically a nodding) in the axis of rotation of a largely axially symmetric object, such as a gyroscope or a planet. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, is one of the worldâ€™s leading centers for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. ...

Feynman rejected the Institute on the grounds that there were no teaching duties. Feynman found his students to be a source of inspiration and, during uncreative times, comfort. He felt that if he could not be creative, at least he could teach. Another major factor in his decision was a desire to live in a mild climate, a goal he chose while having to put snow chains on his car's wheels in the middle of a snowstorm in Ithaca, New York. The City of Ithaca (named for the Greek island of Ithaca) sits on the southern shore of Cayuga Lake, in Central New York State. ...

Feynman the "Great Explainer": The Feynman Lectures on Physics found an appreciative audience beyond the undergraduate community.

Feynman has been called the "Great Explainer"; he gained a reputation for taking great care when giving explanations to his students, and for assigning himself a moral duty to make the topic accessible. His principle was that if a topic could not be explained in a freshman lecture, it was not yet fully understood. Feynman gained great pleasure[12] from coming up with such a "freshman level" explanation of the connection between spin and statistics (that groups of particles with spin 1/2 "repel", whereas groups with integer spin "clump", i.e., Fermi-Dirac statistics and Bose-Einstein statistics as consequence of how fermions and bosons behave under a rotation of 360°), a question he pondered in his own lectures and to which he demonstrated the solution in the 1986 Dirac memorial lecture.[13] In the same lecture he explained that antiparticles exist since if particles only had positive energies they would not be restricted to a light cone. He opposed rote learning and other teaching methods that emphasized form over function, and put these opinions into action whenever he could, from a conference on education in Brazil to a state commission on school textbook selection. Clear thinking and clear presentation were fundamental prerequisites for his attention. It could be perilous to even approach him when unprepared, and he did not forget the fools or pretenders.[14] Richard Feynman: Cover of The Feynman Lectures on Physics Source: Amazon. ... Richard Feynman: Cover of The Feynman Lectures on Physics Source: Amazon. ... Cover of the book on quantum mechanics The Feynman Lectures on Physics, by Richard Feynman, Robert Leighton, and Matthew Sands is perhaps Feynmans most accessible technical work, and is considered a classic introduction to modern physics, including lectures on mathematics, electromagnetism, Newtonian physics, quantum physics, and even the relation... Alternate uses: Student (disambiguation) Etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb st&#365;d&#275;r&#277;, which means to study, a student is one who studies. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... Fermi-Dirac distribution as a function of Îµ/Î¼ plotted for 4 different temperatures. ... In statistical mechanics, Bose-Einstein statistics determines the statistical distribution of identical indistinguishable bosons over the energy states in thermal equilibrium. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... In particle physics, bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles having integer spin. ... In special relativity, a light cone is the pattern describing the temporal evolution of a flash of light in Minkowski spacetime. ... It has been suggested that Rote memory be merged into this article or section. ...

During one sabbatical year, he returned to Newton's Principia Mathematica to study it anew; what he learned from Newton, he passed along to his students, such as Newton's attempted explanation of diffraction. A sabbatical year is a prolonged hiatus, typically one year, in the career of an otherwise successful individual taken in order to fulfill some dream, e. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 â€“ 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 â€“ 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ...

### The Caltech years

Feynman did significant work while at Caltech, including research in:

• Physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, where helium seems to display a lack of viscosity when flowing. Applying the Schrödinger equation to the question showed that the superfluid was displaying quantum mechanical behavior observable on a macroscopic scale. This helped with the problem of superconductivity; however, the solution eluded Feynman. It was solved with the BCS theory.
• A model of weak decay, which showed that the current coupling in the process is a combination of vector and axial (an example of weak decay is the decay of a neutron into an electron, a proton, and an anti-neutrino). Although E.C. George Sudharsan and Robert Marshak developed the theory nearly simultaneously, Feynman's collaboration with Murray Gell-Mann was seen as seminal because the weak interaction was neatly described by the vector and axial currents. It thus combined the 1933 beta decay theory of Fermi with an explanation of parity violation.

He also developed Feynman diagrams, a bookkeeping device which helps in conceptualizing and calculating interactions between particles in spacetime, notably the interactions between electrons and their antimatter counterparts, positrons. This device allowed him, and later others, to approach time reversibility and other fundamental processes. Feynman famously painted Feynman diagrams on the exterior of his van. Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is a relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Look up forecast in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sum-over-paths, also known as Feynman sum-over-paths, is an approach to visualizing particle movement mathematically described by the equations of quantum mechanics. ... Helium II will creep along surfaces in order to find its own level - after a short while, the levels in the two containers will equalize. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... BCS theory (named for its creators, Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer) successfully explains conventional superconductivity, the ability of certain metals at low temperatures to conduct electricity without resistance. ... In physics, weak decay is the process of decomposing a heavier particle into lighter particles (plus energy) by means of a weak interaction. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ... Ennakkal Chandy George Sudarshan (born September 16, 1931, is an Indian physicist and professor at the University of Texas, Austin. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929 in Manhattan, New York City, USA) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles. ... The weak interaction (often called the weak force or sometimes the weak nuclear force) is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... Fermi has multiple definitions: Enrico Fermi, the physicist Fermi problem, an estimation problem designed to teach dimensional analysis, approximation, and the importance of clearly identifying ones assumptions. ... Look up Parity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Parity is a concept of equality of status or functional equivalence. ... In this Feynman diagram, an electron and positron annihilate and become a quark-antiquark pair. ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... For other uses of this term, see Spacetime (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this term, see antimatter (disambiguation). ... A positron is the antiparticle of the electron. ...

Feynman diagrams are now fundamental for string theory and M-theory, and have even been extended topologically. Feynman's mental picture for these diagrams started with the hard sphere approximation, and the interactions could be thought of as collisions at first. It was not until decades later that physicists thought of analyzing the nodes of the Feynman diagrams more closely. The world-lines of the diagrams have developed to become tubes to allow better modelling of more complicated objects such as strings and M-branes. Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of pointlike particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory This box:      String theory is a model of fundamental physics, whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects called strings, rather than the zero... M-theory is a solution proposed for the unknown theory of everything which would combine all five superstring theories and 11-dimensional supergravity together. ...

From his diagrams of a small number of particles interacting in spacetime, Feynman could then model all of physics in terms of those particles' spins and the range of coupling of the fundamental forces.[18] Feynman attempted an explanation of the strong interactions governing nucleons scattering called the parton model. The parton model emerged as a rival to the quark model developed by his Caltech colleague Murray Gell-Mann. The relationship between the two models was murky; Gell-Mann referred to Feynman's partons derisively as "put-ons". Feynman did not dispute the quark model; for example, when the fifth quark was discovered, Feynman immediately pointed out to his students that the discovery implied the existence of a sixth quark, which was duly discovered in the decade after his death. For other uses of this term, see Spacetime (disambiguation). ... An abstract model (or conceptual model) is a theoretical construct that represents something, with a set of variables and a set of logical and quantitative relationships between them. ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... A fundamental interaction is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained by another more fundamental interaction. ... The strong nuclear force or strong interaction (also called color force or colour force) is a fundamental force of nature which affects only quarks and antiquarks, and is mediated by gluons in a similar fashion to how the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. ... In particle physics, the parton was a hypothetical fundamental particle considered, in the parton model of strong interactions, to be a constituent of the hadron. ... For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929 in Manhattan, New York City, USA) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles. ...

After the success of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman turned to quantum gravity. By analogy with the photon, which has spin 1, he investigated the consequences of a free massless spin 2 field, and was able to derive the Einstein field equation of general relativity, but little more.[19] However, a calculational technique that Feynman developed for gravity in 1962 — "ghosts" — later proved invaluable for explaining the quantum theory of the weak and strong forces, the other two fundamental interactions in nature. In 1967, Fadeev and Popov quantized the particle behaviour of the spin 1 theories of Yang-Mills -Shaw -Pauli, that are now seen to describe the weak and strong interactions, using Feynman's path integral technique but including also Feynman's "ghost" particles to conserve probability. Quantum gravity is the field of theoretical physics attempting to unify quantum mechanics, which describes three of the fundamental forces of nature, with general relativity, the theory of the fourth fundamental force: gravity. ... For other topics related to Einstein see Einstein (disambig) In physics, the Einstein field equation or the Einstein equation is a tensor equation in the theory of gravitation. ...

At this time, in the early 1960s Feynman exhausted himself by working on multiple major projects at the same time, including his Feynman Lectures on Physics: while at Caltech, Feynman was asked to "spruce up" the teaching of undergraduates. After three years devoted to the task, he produced a series of lectures that would eventually become the Feynman Lectures on Physics, one reason that Feynman is still regarded as one of the greatest teachers of physics. He wanted a picture of a drumhead sprinkled with powder to show the modes of vibration at the beginning of the book. Outraged by many Rock and Roll and drug connections that one could make from the image, the publishers changed the cover to a picture of him playing drums. Feynman later won the Oersted Medal for teaching, of which he seemed especially proud.[20] His students competed keenly for his attention; he was once awakened when a student solved a problem and dropped it in his mailbox; glimpsing the student sneaking across his lawn, he could not go back to sleep, and he read the student's solution. The next morning his breakfast was interrupted by another triumphant student, but Feynman informed him that he was too late. Cover of the book on quantum mechanics The Feynman Lectures on Physics, by Richard Feynman, Robert Leighton, and Matthew Sands is perhaps Feynmans most accessible technical work, and is considered a classic introduction to modern physics, including lectures on mathematics, electromagnetism, Newtonian physics, quantum physics, and even the relation... Cover of the book on quantum mechanics The Feynman Lectures on Physics, by Richard Feynman, Robert Leighton, and Matthew Sands is perhaps Feynmans most accessible technical work, and is considered a classic introduction to modern physics, including lectures on mathematics, electromagnetism, Newtonian physics, quantum physics, and even the relation... The Oersted Medal recognizes notable contributions to the teaching of physics. ...

Partly as a way to bring publicity to progress in physics, Feynman offered \$1000 prizes for two of his challenges in nanotechnology, claimed by William McLellan and Tom Newman, respectively.[21] He was also one of the first scientists to conceive the possibility of quantum computers. Many of his lectures and other miscellaneous talks were turned into books, including The Character of Physical Law and QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. He gave lectures which his students annotated into books, such as Statistical Mechanics and Lectures on Gravity. The Feynman Lectures on Physics[22] required two physicists, Robert B. Leighton and Matthew Sands as full-time editors for several years. Even though they were not adopted by the universities as textbooks, the books continue to be bestsellers because they provide a deep understanding of physics. As of 2005, The Feynman Lectures on Physics have sold over 1.5 million copies in English, an estimated 1 million copies in Russian, and an estimated half million copies in other languages. William McLellan (born in 1928) is a British electrical engineer. ... Tom Newman, a graduate student at Stanford University in 1985, was one of the two people to solve one of a pair of challenges put forth by Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman at the annual meeting of the Americal Physical Society in 1959. ... The Bloch sphere is a representation of a qubit, the fundamental building block of quantum computers. ... QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter (Alix G. Mautner Memorial Lectures) is a book by Richard Feynman consisting of four lectures which describe, for the general reader, quantum electrodynamics. ... Cover of the book on quantum mechanics The Feynman Lectures on Physics, by Richard Feynman, Robert Leighton, and Matthew Sands is perhaps Feynmans most accessible technical work, and is considered a classic introduction to modern physics, including lectures on mathematics, electromagnetism, Newtonian physics, quantum physics, and even the relation... Robert B. Leighton (September 10, 1919 - March 9, 1997) was an American physicist who spent his professional career at the California Institute of Technology. ...

In 1974 Feynman delivered the Caltech commencement address on the topic of cargo cult science, which has the semblance of science but is only pseudoscience due to a lack of "a kind of scientific integrity, a principle of scientific thought that corresponds to a kind of utter honesty" on the part of the scientist. He instructed the graduating class that "The first principle is that you must not fool yourself—and you are the easiest person to fool. So you have to be very careful about that. After you've not fooled yourself, it's easy not to fool other scientists. You just have to be honest in a conventional way after that."[23] Cargo cult science is a term used by Richard Feynman in his 1974 Caltech commencement address to describe work that has the semblance of being scientific, but is missing a kind of scientific integrity, a principle of scientific thought that corresponds to a kind of utter honesty. The speech is... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ...

In the late 1970s, according to "Richard Feynman and the Connection Machine", Feynman played a critical role in developing the first parallel processing computer and finding innovative uses for it in numerical computing and building neural networks, as well as physical simulation with cellular automata (such as turbulent fluid flow), working with Stephen Wolfram at Caltech.[24] Thinking Machines CM-2 at the Computing Museum in San Jose. ... Parallel processing is the ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli. ... A neural network is an interconnected group of neurons. ... A cellular automaton (plural: cellular automata) is a discrete model studied in computability theory and mathematics. ... Stephen Wolfram (born August 29, 1959 in London) is a physicist known for his work in theoretical particle physics, cellular automata, complexity theory, and computer algebra, and is the creator of the computer program Mathematica. ...

Shortly before his death, Feynman criticized string theory in an interview: "I don't like that they're not calculating anything," he said. "I don't like that they don't check their ideas. I don't like that for anything that disagrees with an experiment, they cook up an explanation—a fix-up to say, 'Well, it still might be true.'" These words have since been much-quoted by opponents of the string-theoretic direction for particle physics. Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of pointlike particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory This box:      String theory is a model of fundamental physics, whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects called strings, rather than the zero...

### Personal life

He was married a second time in June 1952, to Mary Louise Bell of Neodesha, Kansas; this marriage was brief and unsuccessful. He later married Gweneth Howarth from the United Kingdom, who shared his enthusiasm for life and spirited adventure. Besides their home in Altadena, California, they had a beach house in Baja California, the latter of which was purchased with the prize money from Feynman's Nobel Prize, at that time \$55,000 (of which Feynman was entitled to a third). They remained married until Feynman's death. They had a son, Carl, in 1962, and adopted a daughter, Michelle, in 1968.[25] Neodesha is a city in Wilson County, Kansas, United States. ... Altadena is an unincorporated census-designated place in Los Angeles County, California approx. ... Location within Mexico Municipalities of Baja California Country Capital Municipalities 5 Largest City Tijuana Government  - Governor JosÃ© Guadalupe Osuna MillÃ¡n (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 8  - Federal Senators Alejandro GonzÃ¡lez (PAN) Rafael DÃ­az (PAN) Fernando Castro (PRI) Area Ranked 12th  - Total 69,921 kmÂ² (26,996. ... Carl Feynman is the son of Richard Feynman. ... Michelle Catherine Feynman (born 1968) is the daughter of physicist Richard Feynman and sister of Carl Feynman. ...

Feynman had a great deal of success teaching Carl using discussions about ants and Martians as a device for gaining perspective on problems and issues; he was surprised to learn that the same teaching devices were not useful with Michelle. Mathematics was a common interest for father and son; they both entered the computer field as consultants and were involved in advancing a new method of using multiple computers to solve complex problems—later known as parallel computing. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory retained Feynman as a computational consultant during critical missions. One coworker characterized Feynman as akin to Don Quixote at his desk, rather than at a computer workstation, ready to do battle with the windmills. This article is about hypothetical native inhabitants of the planet Mars. ... For the singer/songwriter, see Jon Peter Lewis. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ...

According to his colleague, Professor Steven Frautschi, Feynman was the only person in the Altadena region to buy flood insurance after the massive 1978 fire, predicting correctly that the fire's destruction would lead to land erosion, causing mudslides and flooding. The flood occurred in 1979 after winter rains and destroyed multiple houses in the neighborhood. Feynman's use of insurance, an inherently future-looking device, was not only fortunate but ironic in light of his depiction of his outlook following the Manhattan Project. Feynman wrote that in the years following the development and use of the atomic bomb, whenever seeing the construction of a bridge or a new building, he was unavoidably struck by the thought that the labor was futile and in vain, as the human race would soon be undone by the bomb. National Flood Insurance Program In 1968, Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in response to the rising cost of taxpayer funded disaster relief for flood victims and the increasing amount of damage caused by floods. ...

Feynman traveled a great deal, notably to Brazil, and near the end of his life schemed to visit the Russian land of Tuva, a dream that, due to Cold War bureaucratic problems, never became reality.[26] Ironically, the day after he died, a letter arrived for him from the Soviet government giving him authorization to travel to Tuva. During this period he discovered that he had a form of cancer, but, thanks to surgery, he managed to hold it off. Out of his enthusiastic interest in reaching Tuva came the phrase "Tuva or Bust" (also the title of a book about his efforts to get there), which was tossed about frequently amongst his circle of friends in hope that they, one day, could see it firsthand. The documentary movie Genghis Blues mentions some of his attempts to communicate with Tuva and chronicles the journey when some of his friends did make it there. His attempts to circumvent the complex Soviet bureaucratic system which kept Tuva sealed, and also his attempts to write and send a letter using an English-Russian and Russian-Tuvan dictionary, as well as his earlier efforts to translate Mayan hieroglyphics, all demonstrate his life-long addiction to solving puzzles, locks, and cyphers. At the time, they also earned him a reputation of eccentricity. Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Tuva or Bust!, by Ralph Leighton, is a book about the author and his friend Richard Feynmans attempt to travel to Tuva. ... Genghis Blues (1999) is a documentary film about the people of Tuva and features singer/guitarist Paul Pena and Tuvan throatsinger Kongar-ol Ondar. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ...

Feynman did not work only on physics, and had a large circle of friends from all walks of life, including the arts. He took up drawing at one time and enjoyed some success under the pseudonym "Ofey", culminating in an exhibition dedicated to his work. He learned to play drums (frigideira) in a samba style in Brazil by dint of persistence and practice, and participated in a samba school. Apparently Feynman did not much appreciate orchestral music, but he had a keen sense of rhythm and timing which extended to a personal timekeeping center in his brain which let him operate without ever needing a watch. In addition, he had some degree of synesthesia for numbers and equations, explaining that certain mathematic functions appeared in color for him, even though invariably actually printed in standard black-and-white. For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Samba (disambiguation). ... The samba schools are samba clubs that started in the early part of the 20th century in Rio de Janeiro Brazil. ... For other uses, see Synesthesia (disambiguation). ...

According to Genius, the James Gleick biography, Richard Feynman experimented with LSD during his professorship at Caltech.[8] Somewhat embarrassed by his actions, Feynman sidestepped the issue when dictating his anecdotes; consequently, the "Altered States" chapter in Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman! describes only marijuana and ketamine experiences at John Lilly's famed sensory deprivation tanks, as a way of studying consciousness. Feynman gave up alcohol when he began to show early signs of alcoholism, as he did not want to do anything that could damage his brain. James Gleick (August 1, 1954â€“ ) is an author, journalist, and biographer, whose books explore the cultural ramifications of science and technology. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: à¤—à¤¾à¤‚à¤œà¤¾),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic for use in human and veterinary medicine developed by Parke-Davis (1962). ... John Cunningham Lilly (January 6, 1915 â€“ September 30, 2001) was an American physician, psychoanalyst and writer. ... // An isolation tank is a lightless, soundproof tank in which subjects float in salty water at skin temperature. ...

In Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, he gives advice on the best way to pick up a girl in a hostess bar. At Caltech, he used a nude/topless bar as an office away from his usual office, making sketches or writing physics equations on paper placemats. When the county officials tried to close the locale, all visitors except Feynman refused to testify in favor of the bar, fearing that their families or patrons would learn about their visits. Only Feynman accepted, and in court, he affirmed that the bar was a public need, stating that craftsmen, technicians, engineers, common workers "and a physics professor" frequented the establishment. While the bar lost the court case, it was allowed to remain open as a similar case was pending appeal.

## Challenger disaster

Feynman served on the presidential commission investigating the 1986 Challenger disaster. He concluded that NASA management's space shuttle reliability estimate was fantastically unrealistic. He warned in his appendix to the commission's report: "For a successful technology, reality must take precedence over public relations, for nature cannot be fooled."

Feynman was requested to serve on the Presidential Rogers Commission which investigated the Challenger disaster of 1986. Feynman devoted the latter half of his book What Do You Care What Other People Think? to his experience on the Rogers Commission, straying from his usual convention of brief, light-hearted anecdotes to deliver an extended and sober narrative. Feynman's account reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3555x2879, 1327 KB) Summary Short Description: Space Shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after take-off. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3555x2879, 1327 KB) Summary Short Description: Space Shuttle Challenger explodes shortly after take-off. ... Space Shuttle Challenger (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was NASAs second Space Shuttle orbiter to be put into service, Columbia being the first. ... The Rogers Commission Report was created by a Presidential Commission charged to investigate the Space Shuttle Challenger explosion on its 10th mission, STS-51-L. The comprehensive 225-page report documented the technical and managerial factors that contributed to the accident. ... For further information about Challengers mission and crew, see STS-51-L. The iconic image of Space Shuttle Challengers smoke plume after its breakup 73 seconds after launch. ... What Do You Care What Other People Think?: Further Adventures of a Curious Character is the second of two books consisting of transcribed and edited oral reminiscences from American physicist Richard Feynman. ...

In one example, early tests resulted in some of the booster rocket's o-rings burning a third of the way through. These o-rings provided the gas-tight seal needed between the vertically stacked cylindical sections that made up the solid fuel booster. NASA managers recorded this result as demonstrating that the o-rings had a "safety factor" of 3. Feynman incredulously explains the magnitude of this error: a "safety factor" refers to the practice of building an object to be capable of withstanding more force than it will ever conceivably be subjected to. To paraphrase Feynman's example, if engineers built a bridge that could bear 3,000 pounds without any damage, even though it was never expected to bear more than 1,000 pounds in practice, the safety factor would be 3. If, however, a truck drove across the bridge and it cracked at all, the safety factor is now zero: the bridge is defective. Typical O-ring and application An O-ring is a loop of elastomer with a round (o-shaped) cross-section used as a mechanical seal. ...

Feynman was clearly disturbed by the fact that NASA management not only misunderstood this concept, but in fact inverted it by using a term denoting an extra level of safety to describe a part that was actually defective and unsafe. Feynman continued to investigate the lack of communication between NASA's management and its engineers and was struck by the management's claim that the risk of catastrophic malfunction on the shuttle was 1 in 105; i.e., 1 in 100,000. Feynman immediately realized that this claim was risible on its face; as he described, this assessment of risk would entail that we could launch a shuttle every day for the next 274 years without an accident. Investigating the claim further, Feynman discovered that the 1 in 105 figure was reached by the highly dubious method of attempting to calculate the probability of failure of every individual part of the shuttle, and then adding these estimates together. This method is erroneous by standard probability theory: the correct way to calculate such risk is to subtract each individual factor's failure risk from unity and then multiply all differences. The product will be the net safety factor and the difference between it and unity, the net risk factor.

Feynman was disturbed by two aspects of this practice. First, NASA management assigned a probability of failure to each individual bolt, sometimes claiming a probability of 1 in 108; that is, one in one hundred million. Feynman pointed out that it is impossible to calculate such a remote possibility with any scientific rigor. Secondly, Feynman was bothered not just by this sloppy science but by the fact that NASA claimed that the risk of catastrophic failure was "necessarily" 1 in 105. As the figure itself was beyond belief, Feynman questioned exactly what "necessarily" meant in this context—did it mean that the figure followed logically from other calculations, or did it reflect NASA management's desire to make the numbers fit?

Feynman suspected that the 1/100,000 figure was wildly fantastical, and made a rough estimate that the true likelihood of shuttle disaster was closer to 1 in 100. He then decided to poll the engineers themselves, asking them to write down an anonymous estimate of the odds of shuttle explosion. Feynman found that the bulk of the engineers' estimates fell between 1 in 50 and 1 in 100. Not only did this confirm that NASA management had clearly failed to communicate with their own engineers, but the disparity engaged Feynman's emotions. When describing these wildly differing estimates, Feynman briefly lapses from his damaging but dispassionate detailing of NASA's flaws to recognize the moral failing that resulted from a scientific failing: he was clearly upset that NASA presented its clearly fantastical figures as fact to convince a member of the public, schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe, to join the crew. Feynman was not uncomfortable with the concept of a 1/100 risk, but felt strongly that the recruitment of laypeople required an honest portrayal of the real risk involved. Sharon Christa Corrigan McAuliffe (September 2, 1948 â€“ January 28, 1986) was an American teacher from Concord, New Hampshire who was selected from among more than 11,000 applicants to be the first teacher in space. ...

Feynman's investigation eventually suggested to him that the cause of the Challenger explosion was the very part to which NASA management so mistakenly assigned a safety factor. The o-rings were rubber rings designed to form a seal in the shuttle's solid rocket boosters, preventing the rockets' super-heated gas from escaping and damaging other parts of the vehicle. Feynman suspected that despite NASA's claims, the o-rings were unsuitable at low temperatures and lost their resilience when cold, thus failing to expand and maintain a tight seal when rocket pressure distorted the structure of the solid fuel booster. Feynman's suspicions were corroborated by General Kutyna also on the commission who cunningly provided Feynman with a broad hint by asking about the effect of cold on o-ring seals after mentioning that the temperature on the day of the launch was far lower than had been the case with previous launches: below freezing at 28 or 29 Fahrenheit (-2.2 to -1.6 °C); previously, the coldest launch had been at 53 °F (12 °C). Donald J. Kutyna (b. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686â€“1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ...

Feynman obtained samples of the seals used on the Challenger by dismantling a model supplied to the commission intending to test the resilience of the seals at low temperature in front of the TV cameras, but in an act that he claims to have been ashamed of, ran the test first in private to ensure that it was indeed the case that low temperature reduced the resilience of the rubber as he suspected.

When testifying before Congress, Feynman questioned a NASA manager with seeming innocence, focusing on the cold temperatures that the o-rings could be subjected to while remaining resilient (i.e., effective). The NASA manager insisted that o-rings would retain their resilience even in extreme cold. But Feynman managed to obtain a glass of iced water, and used it to cool a section of o-ring seal clamped flat with a small clamp he had purchased earlier at a hardware store.

After receiving repeated assurances that the o-rings would remain resilient at subzero temperatures, and at an opportune moment selected by Kutyna during a particular NASA slide-show, Feynman took the o-ring out of the water and removed the vise, revealing that the o-ring remained flattened, demonstrating a lack of resilience at 32 °F (0 °C), warmer than the launch temperature.[27] While Feynman worried that the audience did not realize the importance of his action, The New York Times picked the story up, crediting Feynman for his ruse, and earning him a small measure of fame. The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...

Feynman's investigations also revealed that there had been many serious doubts raised about the o-ring seals by engineers at Morton Thiokol, which made the solid fuel boosters, but communication failures had led to their concerns being ignored by NASA management. He found similar failures in procedure in many other areas at NASA, but singled out its software development for praise due to its rigorous and highly effective quality procedures which were under threat from NASA management which wished to reduce testing to save money since the tests were always passed. A Trident C-4 FBM launches and fires its Thiokol solid rocket first stage Thiokol (variously Thiokol Chemical Company, Morton-Thiokol Inc. ...

Based on his experiences with NASA's management and engineers, Feynman concluded that the serious deficiencies in NASA management's scientific understanding, the lack of communication between the two camps, and the gross misrepresentation of the shuttle's dangers required that NASA take a hiatus from shuttle launches until it could resolve its internal inconsistencies and present an honest picture of the shuttle's reliability. Feynman soon found that, while he respected the intellects of his fellow Commission members, they universally finished their criticisms of NASA with clear affirmations that the Challenger disaster should be addressed by NASA internally, but that there was no need for NASA to suspend its operations or to receive less funding. Feynman felt that the Commission's conclusions were not compatible with its findings, and could not in good conscience recommend that such a deeply flawed organization should continue without a suspension of operations and a major overhaul. His fellow commission members were alarmed by Feynman's dissension, and it was only after much petitioning that Feynman's minority report was included at all: as an appendix to the official document. Feynman's book What Do You Care What Other People Think? included a copyedited version of the appendix in addition to his narrative account. For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... Reliability concerns quality or consistency. ... Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... Groupthink is a term coined by psychologist Irving Janis in 1972 to describe one process by which a group can make bad or irrational decisions. ... Operations is that unit (be it a division or department) of an organization that carries out the actual execution of the core operating functions. ... FranÃ§ois Chifflart (1825-1901), The Conscience (after Victor Hugo) Conscience is an ability or faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (or I/O psychology) is also known as occupational psychology (in the United Kingdom) and work psychology (from the German, Arbeitpsychologie). ... Overhaul is an Autobot from Transformers Cybertron. ... Copy editing is the process of an editor making formatting changes and other improvements to text. ...

It was announced in May 2006 that a movie would be made about the disaster. Challenger is to be directed by Philip Kaufman—whose 1983 film The Right Stuff chronicled the early history of the space program—and would focus on the role of Feynman in the ensuing investigation. David Strathairn will play Dr. Feynman.[28] Challenger is a film based on Richard Feynmans investigation of the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. ... Philip Kaufman (born October 23, 1936) is a film director and screenwriter from Chicago, Illinois. ... The Right Stuff is a 1979 book (ISBN 0374250332) by Tom Wolfe, and a 1983 film adapted from the book. ... David Russell Strathairn (born on January 26, 1949) is an Academy Award-nominated American film and television actor. ...

## Commemorations

First-day covers for the American Scientists commemorative stamp set.

On May 4, 2005 the United States Postal Service issued the American Scientists commemorative set of four 37-cent self-adhesive stamps in several configurations. The scientists depicted were Richard Feynman, John von Neumann, Barbara McClintock, and Josiah Willard Gibbs. Feynman's stamp, sepia-toned, features a photograph of a 30-something Feynman and eight small Feynman diagrams. Image File history File links Scientists4fdc_f_cropped. ... Image File history File links Scientists4fdc_f_cropped. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 â€“ September 2, 1992) was a pioneering American scientist and one of the worlds most distinguished cytogeneticists. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 New Haven â€“ April 28, 1903 New Haven) was one of the very first American theoretical physicists and chemists. ...

A shuttlecraft named after Feynman appeared in two episodes of the science fiction television show Star Trek: The Next Generation ("The Nth Degree," 1991; "Chain of Command, Part 1," 1992). An error in the art department, however, caused the shuttle name to be misspelled, "FEYMAN". Shuttlecraft can represent: Shuttlecraft (Star Trek) - Star Trek: This class of ship are small space vehicles which are stored and launched from large starships when personal navigational control is required or when heavier equipment and or a longer range is required than the transporter can accommodate. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ...

Feynman appears in the fiction book The Diamond Age as one of the heroes of the world where nanotechnology is ubiquitous. The Diamond Age or, A Young Ladys Illustrated Primer is a postcyberpunk novel by Neal Stephenson. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ...

His relationship with his first wife Arline, who died during the Manhattan Project, is portrayed in the 1996 movie Infinity. Infinity is a 1996 biographical drama film about the early life of physicist Richard Feynman. ...

Apple's "Think Different" ad campaign featured photo portraits of Feynman that appeared in magazines and on posters and billboards. One showed him in his early days as a teacher at Caltech. The other showed him toward the end of his life. That ad shows Feynman wearing a Thinking Machines T-shirt (see the photo which heads this article), a company where he had served as a consultant. Apple Inc. ... Thinking Machines Corporation was a supercomputer manufacturer founded in Waltham, Massachusetts in 1982 by W. Daniel Hillis and Sheryl Handler to turn Hilliss doctoral work at MIT on massively parallel computing architectures into a commercial product called the Connection Machine. ...

The main building for the Computing Division at Fermilab, the FCC, is named in his honor: The "Feynman Computing Center". Aerial view of the Fermilab site. ...

The play QED, written by Peter Parnell, portrays Feynman near the end of his life. Alan Alda played Feynman in a series of productions of the play in 2001 and 2002. Alan Alda (born January 28, 1936) is a five-time Emmy Award-winning, six-time Golden Globe-winning, Academy Award-nominated American actor. ...

The Feynman point comprises the 762nd through 767th decimal places of &#960;, consisting of the digit 9 repeated six times. ... In this Feynman diagram, an electron and positron annihilate and become a quark-antiquark pair. ... The Feynman Checkerboard is a discrete representation of the Dirac equation in (1+1)-dimensional spacetime. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Feynman sprinkler, Feynman inverse sprinkler or most correctly reverse sprinkler began as a thought experiment in explaining the workings of the reverse of a typical rotary lawn sprinkler. ... Foresight Nanotech Institute Feynman Prize is an award given by Foresight Nanotech Institute every year for significant advancements in nanotechnology. ... Below is a list of famous physicists. ... The following is a partial list of theoretical physicists: // Pythagoras^* (circa 569â€“475 BCE) DemocritusÂ° (circa 460 BCE) ArchimedesÂº* (287â€“212 BCE) Nicolaus CopernicusÂº (1473-1543) Galileo GalileiÂº* (1564â€“1642) Johannes KeplerÂº (1571-1630) RenÃ© Descartesâ€¡^ (1596â€“1650) Blaise Pascal^ (1623 - 1662) Isaac Newton^*Âº (1642-1727) Gottfried Leibniz^ (1646â€“1716... Corresponding to most kinds of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charges. ... In physics, Wheelerâ€“Feynman theory is a nonlocal, Lorentz invariant, theory of electromagnetism in which charged particles do not act on themselves, but only on other particles. ... The Hellmannâ€“Feynman theorem is a theorem in quantum mechanics, which relates the energy eigenvalues of a time-independent Hamiltonian operator to the parameters composing it. ... In geometry, flexagons are flat models made from folded strips of paper that can be folded, or flexed, to reveal a number of hidden faces. ... The one-electron universe hypothesis, commonly associated with Richard Feynman, postulates that there exists only a single electron in the universe, propagating through space and time in such a way as to appear in many places simultaneously. ...

## Notes

1. ^ "God was invented to explain mystery. God is always invented to explain those things that you do not understand. Now, when you finally discover how something works, you get some laws which you're taking away from God; you don't need him anymore. But you need him for the other mysteries. So therefore you leave him to create the universe because we haven't figured that out yet; you need him for understanding those things which you don't believe the laws will explain, such as consciousness, or why you only live to a certain length of time--life and death -- stuff like that. God is always associated with those things that you do not understand. Therefore I don't think that the laws can be considered to be like God because they have been figured out." — Feynman Online Quotes
2. ^ West, Jacob (2000-04-28). The Quantum Computer. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
3. ^ Edwards, Steven Alan (2006). The Nanotech Pioneers. Germany: WILEY-VCH, 15-17. ISBN 978-3527312900.
4. ^ Richard Phillips Feynman and Christopher Sykes (1996). No Ordinary Genius: The Illustrated Richard Feynman. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 039331393X.
5. ^ (1972) Nobel Lectures, Physics 1963-1970, Richard P. Feynman: The Nobel Prize in Physics: 1965 Biography. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company.
6. ^ J.J. O'Connor and E.F. Robertson (2002-08). Richard Phillips Feynman. University of St. Andrews. Retrieved on 9 November 2006.
7. ^ Richard Feynman; Ralph Leighton (1985). Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!.  Richard Feynman; Ralph Leighton (1988). What do You Care What Other People Think?.
8. ^ a b c Gleick, James (1992). Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman. Pantheon, p. 30. ISBN 0-679-40836-3.
9. ^ Schwach, Howard. "Museum Tracks Down FRHS Nobel Laureates", The Wave (newspaper), April 15, 2005. Accessed October 2, 2007.
10. ^ Gleick, op cit.
11. ^ "He [Feynman] had also applied for entrance to Columbia University but it seems that because of the Jewish quota prevalent at the time he was not accepted..." Kimball A. Milton, Jagdish Mehra. Climbing the Mountain: The Scientific Biography of Julian Schwinger, Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 0198506589, p. 218.
12. ^ The quantum universe, Cambridge University Press, 1987, ISBN 0-521-31845-9
13. ^ Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics: The 1986 Dirac Memorial Lectures, Cambridge University Press, 1987, ISBN 0-521-34000-4
14. ^ The Road from Los Alamos (Masters of Modern Physics vol. 2), Hans A. Bethe, p.241, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991, ISBN 0-671-74012-1.
15. ^ Background information on the 1999 Nobel Prize in Physics, Cecilia Jarlskog, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
16. ^ Selected Papers on Quantum Electrodynamics (Bethe, Bloch, Dirac, Dyson, Feynman, Fermi, Heisenberg, Jordan, Klein, Lamb, Oppenheimer, Pauli, Rutherford, Schwinger, Tomonaga, Weisskopf, Wigner, and many others), edited by Julian Schwinger, Dover, 1958, ISBN 0-486-60444-6
17. ^ Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals (with Albert Hibbs), McGraw Hill, 1965, ISBN 0-07-020650-3
18. ^ Theory of Fundamental Processes, Addison Wesley, 1961, ISBN 0-8053-2507-7
19. ^ Lectures on Gravitation, Addison Wesley Longman, 1995, ISBN 0-201-62734-5
20. ^ The Oersted Medal. American Association of Physics Teachers. Retrieved on 2007-07-08.
21. ^ Gribbin, John. "Richard Feynman: A Life in Science" Dutton 1997, pg 170.
22. ^ The Feynman Lectures on Physics: The Definitive and Extended Edition (with Leighton and Sands). Originally published as separate volumes in 1964 and 1966, and as a set since 1970. 3 volumes, Addison Wesley, 2nd edition 2005, ISBN 0-8053-9045-6. Includes Feynman’s Tips on Physics, a set of four previously unreleased lectures on problem solving.
23. ^ Feynman, Richard P. (June 1974). "Cargo Cult Science" (PDF). Engineering and Science 37:7. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
24. ^ W. Daniel Hillis (1989-02). Richard Feynman and The Connection Machine. Physics Today. Retrieved on 3 November 2006.
25. ^ Perfectly Reasonable Deviations from the Beaten Track: The Letters of Richard P. Feynman, edited by Michelle Feynman, foreword by Timothy Ferris, Basic Books, 2005, ISBN 0-7382-0636-9.
26. ^ Tuva Or Bust!, Ralph Leighton, W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, ISBN 0-393-32069-3
27. ^ "Richard Feynman Dead at 69; Leading Theoretical Physicist" by James Gleick, New York Times, February 17, 1988
28. ^ Media 8 To Produce "Challenger" Directed by Philip Kaufman (May 24 2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-21.

Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Gleick (August 1, 1954â€“ ) is an author, journalist, and biographer, whose books explore the cultural ramifications of science and technology. ... The Wave of Long Island is the longest-lived and most widely circulated newspaper in the Rockaway Peninsula, New York City Borough of Queens. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Freeman John Dyson FRS (born December 15, 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician, famous for his work in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, nuclear weapons design and policy, and for his serious theorizing in futurism and science fiction concepts, including the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 â€“ November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 â€“ February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 â€“ February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... This article is about the Austrian-Swiss physicist. ... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 â€“ 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a nuclear physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. ... Sin-Itiro Tomonaga or Shinichir&#333; Tomonaga (&#26397;&#27704; &#25391;&#19968;&#37070; Tomonaga Shinichir&#333;, March 31, 1906&#8211;July 8, 1979) was a Japanese physicist, influential in the development of quantum electrodynamics, work for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965 along with... External links National Academy of Sciences biography Categories: People stubs | 1908 births | 2002 deaths | Manhattan Project | Physicists ... Eugene Wigner Eugene Paul Wigner (Hungarian Wigner PÃ¡l JenÅ‘) (November 17, 1902 â€“ January 1, 1995) was a Hungarian physicist and mathematician who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and... Julian Seymour Schwinger (February 12, 1918 -- July 16, 1994) was an American theoretical physicist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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## References

• The Character of Physical Law, The 1964 Messenger Lectures, MIT Press, 1967, ISBN 0-262-56003-8
• Quantum Electrodynamics, Addison Wesley, 1985, ISBN 0-8053-2501-8
• Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics: The 1986 Dirac Memorial Lectures, Cambridge University Press, 1987, ISBN 0-521-34000-4
• Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by Its Most Brilliant Teacher, Perseus Books, 1994, ISBN 0-201-40955-0
• Six Not So Easy Pieces: Einstein’s Relativity, Symmetry and Space-Time, Addison Wesley, 1997, ISBN 0-201-15026-3
• Richard Feynman: A Life in Science, Gribbin, John and Mary. Dutton 1997. ISBN 0-525-94124-X

The Feynman Lectures on Physics are perhaps his most accessible work for anyone with an interest in physics, compiled from lectures to Caltech undergraduates in 1962. As news of the lectures' lucidity grew, a large number of professional physicists began to drop in to listen. Physicist Robert B. Leighton edited them into book form. The work has endured, and is useful to this day. They were edited and supplemented in 2005 with "Feynman's Tips on Physics: A Problem-Solving Supplement to the Feynman Lectures on Physics" by Michael Gottlieb and Ralph Leighton (Robert Leighton's son), with support from Kip Thorne and other physicists. Cover of the book on quantum mechanics The Feynman Lectures on Physics, by Richard Feynman, Robert Leighton, and Matthew Sands is perhaps Feynmans most accessible technical work, and is considered a classic introduction to modern physics, including lectures on mathematics, electromagnetism, Newtonian physics, quantum physics, and even the relation... California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... Kip S. Thorne Professor Kip Stephen Thorne, Ph. ...

### Books by Feynman

• The Character of Physical Law, a book of some of Feynman's lectures on the Laws of Physics.
• Disturbing the Universe, Freeman Dyson, Harper and Row, 1979, ISBN 0-06-011108-9. Dyson’s autobiography. The chapters “A Scientific Apprenticeship” and “A Ride to Albuquerque” describe his impressions of Feynman in the period 1947-48 when Dyson was a graduate student at Cornell.
• Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, Richard Feynman, Ralph Leighton (contributor), Edward Hutchings (editor), W W Norton, 1984, ISBN 0-393-01921-7
• What Do You Care What Other People Think?, Richard Feynman, Ralph Leighton (contributor), W W Norton, 1988, ISBN 0-553-17334-0
• Physics Today, American Institute of Physics magazine, February 1989 Issue. (Vol.42, No.2.) Special Feynman memorial issue containing non-technical articles on Feynman's life and work in physics.
• Most of the Good Stuff: Memories of Richard Feynman, edited by Laurie M. Brown and John S. Rigden, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1993, ISBN 0883188708.
• The Feynman Processor: Quantum Entanglement and the Computing Revolution, Gerard J. Milburn, Perseus Books, 1998 ISBN 0-7382-0173-1
• The Meaning of It All: Thoughts of a Citizen Scientist, Richard Feynman, Perseus Publishing, 1999, ISBN 0738201669.
• The Pleasure of Finding Things Out: The Best Short Works of Richard P. Feynman, edited by Jeffrey Robbins, Perseus Books, 1999, ISBN 0738201081.
• Feynman’s Rainbow: A Search for Beauty in Physics and in Life, Leonard Mlodinow, Warner Books, 2003, ISBN 0-446-69251-4
• "The Principle of Least Action in Quantum Mechanics." (1942) PRINCETON UNIVERSITY. Publication: Dissertation
• "Infinity", directed by Matthew Broderick and starring Matthew Broderick, 1996.
• Laurie M. Brown, John S. Rigden (editor) (1993). "Most of the Good Stuff:" Memories of Richard Feynman ISBN 0-88318870-8. Commentary by Joan Feynman, John Wheeler, Hans Bethe, Julian Schwinger, Murray Gell-Mann, Daniel Hillis, David Goodstein, Freeman Dyson, John von Neumann, Laurie Brown.
• Classic Feynman: All the Adventures of a Curious Character, edited by Ralph Leighton, W. W. Norton, 2005, ISBN 0-393-06132-9. Chronologically reordered omnibus volume of Surely You’re Joking, Mr. Feynman and What Do You Care What Other People Think?, with a bundled CD containing one of Feynman’s signature lectures.
• Perfectly Reasonable Deviations from the Beaten Track: The Letters of Richard P. Feynman, edited by Michelle Feynman, foreword by Timothy Ferris, Basic Books, 2005, ISBN 0-7382-0636-9 (Published in the UK under the title: Don't You Have Time to Think?, edited and with additional commentary by Michelle Feynman, Allen Lane, 2005, ISBN 0-7139-9847-4)

Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Freeman John Dyson FRS (born December 15, 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician, famous for his work in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, nuclear weapons design and policy, and for his serious theorizing in futurism and science fiction concepts, including the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. ... Surely Youre Joking, Mr. ... What Do You Care What Other People Think?: Further Adventures of a Curious Character is the second of two books consisting of transcribed and edited oral reminiscences from American physicist Richard Feynman. ... Surely Youre Joking, Mr. ... What Do You Care What Other People Think?: Further Adventures of a Curious Character is the second of two books consisting of transcribed and edited oral reminiscences from American physicist Richard Feynman. ...

• QED and the Men Who Made It: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga (Princeton Series in Physics), Silvan S. Schweber, Princeton University Press, 1994, ISBN 0691036853.
• Feynman's Rainbow A Search For Beauty In Physics And In Life, written by Leonard Mlodinow, Warner Books, 2003, ISBN 0-446-69251-4
• Richard Feynman A Life in Science. by John Gribbin and Mary Gribbin, 1997 ISBN 0-525-94124
• Some Time With Feynman by Leonard Mlodinow
• Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman, James Gleick, Pantheon, 1992, ISBN 0679747044
• The Beat of a Different Drum: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman, Jagdish Mehra, Oxford University Press, 1994, ISBN 0198539487
• No Ordinary Genius: The Illustrated Richard Feynman, edited by Christopher Sykes, W W Norton & Co Inc, 1994, ISBN 0393036219.
• Richard Feynman: A Life in Science, John Gribbin and Mary Gribbin, Dutton Adult, 1997, ISBN 052594124X
• "Clever Dick", Crispin Whittell, Oberon Books, 2006 (play)
• "QED", Peter Parnell (play).
• "THE PLEASURE OF FINDING THINGS OUT: Autobiography of RICHARD FEYNMAN" Nobel laureate and theoretical physicist extraordinary. BBC2 HORIZON/NOVA (50 mins) Christopher Sykes Productions http://www.sykes.easynet.co.uk/

### Articles by Feynman

• "Space-Time Approach to Quantum Electrodynamics," Physical Review, 1949
• "An Operator Calculus Having Applications in Quantum Electrodynamics," Physical Review, 1951
• JA Wheeler, RP Feynman, "Interaction with the Absorber as the Mechanism of Radiation," Reviews of Modern Physics, 1945
• JA Wheeler, RP Feynman, "Classical Electrodynamics in Terms of Direct Interparticle Action," Reviews of Modern Physics, 1949
• "Relativistic Cut-Off for Quantum Electrodynamics," Physical Review, 1948
• M Cohen, RP Feynman, "Theory of Inelastic Scattering of Cold Neutrons from Liquid Helium," Physical Review, 1957
• "The λ-Transition in Liquid Helium," Physical Review, 1953 - APS
• "Plenty of Room at the Bottom," Presentation to American Physical Society, Dec, 1959
• RP Feynman, FL Vernon, RW Hellwarth - J., "Geometric representation of the Schrodinger equation for solving maser equations," Appl. Phys, 1957

Physical Review is one of the oldest and most-respected scientific journals publishing research on all aspects of physics. ... Physical Review is one of the oldest and most-respected scientific journals publishing research on all aspects of physics. ... The Reviews of Modern Physics are a journal of the American Physical Society. ... The Reviews of Modern Physics are a journal of the American Physical Society. ... Physical Review is one of the oldest and most-respected scientific journals publishing research on all aspects of physics. ... Physical Review is one of the oldest and most-respected scientific journals publishing research on all aspects of physics. ... Physical Review is one of the oldest and most-respected scientific journals publishing research on all aspects of physics. ...

### Audio recordings

• Safecracker Suite (a collection of drum pieces interspersed with Feynman telling anecdotes)
• Six Easy Pieces (original lectures upon which the book is based)
• Six Not So Easy Pieces (original lectures upon which the book is based)
• The Feynman Lectures on Physics: The Complete Audio Collection
• Quantum Mechanics, Volume 1
• Advanced Quantum Mechanics, Volume 2
• From Crystal Structure to Magnetism, Volume 3
• Electrical and Magnetic Behavior, Volume 4
• Feynman on Fundamentals: Energy and Motion, Volume 5
• Feynman on Fundamentals: Kinetics and Heat, Volume 6
• Feynman on Science and Vision, Volume 7
• Feynman on Gravity, Relativity and Electromagnetism, Volume 8
• Basic Concepts in Classical Physics, Volume 9
• Basic Concepts in Quantum Physics, Volume 10
• Feynman on Science and Vision, Volume 11
• Feynman on Sound, Volume 12
• Feynman on Fields, Volume 13
• Feynman on Electricity and Magnetism, Part 1, Volume 14
• Feynman on Electricity and Magnetism, Part 2, Volume 15
• Feynman on Electromagnetism, Volume 16
• Feynman on Electrodynamics, Volume 17
• Feynman on Flow, Volume 18
• Masers and Light, Volume 19
• The Very Best Lectures, Volume 20
• Samples of Feynman's drumming, chanting and speech are included in the songs "Tuva Groove (Bolur Daa-Bol, Bolbas Daa-Bol)" and "Kargyraa Rap (Dürgen Chugaa)" on the album Back Tuva Future, The Adventure Continues by Kongar-ol Ondar. The hidden track on this album also includes excerpts from lectures without musical background.

Kongar-ol Ondar is a master Tuvan throatsinger and a member of the Tuvan Parliament. ... In the field of recorded music, a hidden track is a piece of music which has been placed on a Compact Disc, audio cassette, vinyl record or other recorded medium in such a way as to avoid detection by the casual listener. ...

### Video recordings

• The Messenger Lectures (1964) (See also the book The Character of Physical Law)
• The Law of Gravitation
• The Relation of Mathematics to Physics
• The Great Conservation Principles
• Symmetry in Physical Law
• The Distinction of Past and Future
• Probability and Uncertainty - The Quantum Mechanical View of Nature
• Seeking New Laws
• Take the world from another point of view [videorecording] / with Richard Feynman; Films for the Hu (1972)
• QED in New Zealand (1979)
• Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics (1986)
• The Last journey of a genius [videorecording] / a BBC TV production in association with WGBH Boston (1989)

Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Richard Feynman and The Connection Machine (4357 words) Richard did a remarkable job of focusing on his "assignment," stopping only occasionally to help wire the computer room, set up the machine shop, shake hands with the investors, install the telephones, and cheerfully remind us of how crazy we all were. Feynman's router equations were in terms of variables representing continuous quantities such as "the average number of 1 bits in a message address." I was much more accustomed to seeing analysis in terms of inductive proof and case analysis than taking the derivative of "the number of 1's" with respect to time. Feynman was always quick to point out to them that he considered their specific models "kooky," but like the Connection Machine, he considered the subject sufficiently crazy to put some energy into.
 Richard Feynman - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5244 words) Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) (surname pronounced FINE-man; /ˈfaɪnmən/ in IPA) was an influential American physicist known for expanding greatly on the theory of quantum electrodynamics, particle theory, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium. Feynman gained great pleasure from coming up with such a "freshman level" explanation of the connection between spin and statistics (that groups of particles with spin 1/2 "repel", whereas groups with integer spin "clump"), a question he pondered in his own lectures and which he solved in the 1986 Dirac memorial lecture. Feynman did not dispute the quark model; for example, when the 5th quark was discovered, Feynman immediately pointed out to his students that the discovery implied the existence of a 6th quark, which was duly discovered in the decade after his death.
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