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Encyclopedia > Richard Arkwright
Sir Richard Arkwright

Richard Arkwright by Joseph Wright of Derby
Born December 23, 1732(1732-12-23) o.s.
January 3, 1733(1733-01-03) n.s.
Preston, Lancashire, England
Died August 3, 1792 (aged 59)
Cromford, Derbyshire, England
Burial place Derbyshire
Occupation Inventor, pioneer of the spinning industry
Known for Spinning frame
Water frame

Sir Richard Arkwright (Old Style 23 December 1732 / New Style 3 January 17333 August 1792), was an Englishman who is credited for inventing the spinning frame — later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump (1768). ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... This article is about Preston, Lancashire. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Cromford, in Derbyshire, England, is a village that is one of the significant sites in the development of the Industrial Revolution. ... Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The spinning frame was an invention developed during the 18th century British Industrial Revolution. ... The water frame is an extension of the spinning frame; both of which are credited to Richard Arkwright. ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The spinning frame was an invention developed during the 18th century British Industrial Revolution. ... The water frame is an extension of the spinning frame; both of which are credited to Richard Arkwright. ... Undershot water wheels on the Orontes River in Hama, Syria Saint Anthony Falls Hydropower or hydraulic power is the force or energy of moving water. ...

Contents

Life and work

Richard Arkwright, the youngest of thirteen children, was born in 1732 in Preston, Lancashire, England. His parents, Ellen and Thomas, were very poor and could not afford to send him to school and instead arranged for him to be taught to read and write by his cousin Ellen. Thomas Arkwright was a tailor in Preston. Richard, however, was apprenticed to a Mr. Nicholson, a barber at nearby Kirkham. Richard, therefore, began his working life as a barber and wig-maker, setting up a shop in Bolton in the early 1750s. There he remained until 1768.


Arkwright married his first wife, Maria Smith, in 1755. They had a son, Richard Arkwright Junior, who was born the same year. In 1756, Maria died of unspecified causes. Arkwright later married Margaret Biggins in 1761. They had three children, of whom only Susanna survived to adulthood. It was only after the death of his first wife that he became an entrepreneur. The son of Sir Richard Arkwright of Cromford, Derbyshire, Richard Arkwright Junior (1765 - 1843) was the financier (creditor) of Samuel Oldknow of Marple and Mellor and a personal friend. ...


Arkwright's spinning frame, a significant advance from the spinning jenny of James Hargreaves, was developed in 1769, and the world's first water-powered cotton mill was built in 1771 at Cromford, Derbyshire (now one of the Derwent Valley Mills), creating one of the catalysts for the Industrial Revolution. For the magazine of the same name, see Spinning Jenny (magazine). ... James Hargreaves (also known as James Hargraves [1]) (1720 – 22 April 1778) was a weaver, carpenter and an inventor in Lancashire, England. ... Lancashire cotton mill, 1914 A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and weaving machinery. ... Cromford, in Derbyshire, England, is a village that is one of the significant sites in the development of the Industrial Revolution. ... Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... Masson Mills, Derwent Valley Derwent Valley Mills is a World Heritage Site along the River Derwent in Derbyshire, England, designated in December 2001. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


Arkwright also created another factory, Masson Mill shortly after his first. The factory was made from red brick, which was expensive at the time it was built. In the mid 1780s, Arkwright lost many of his patents as courts ruled that they were essentially copies of earlier work.[1] Despite this, he was knighted in 1786.[1] For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The Arkwright Society, set up after the two hundredth anniversary of Cromford Mill, now owns the site and works to preserve the industrial heritage of the area. The Arkwright Society is a registered charity [1] engaged in the conservation of industrial monuments in Derbyshire, focussing on the water mills of Lumsdale, Ashford, Cromford and Slinter Wood. ...


Arkwright died in 1792 and was buried at St. Giles Church in Matlock. His remains were later moved to St. Mary's Church in Cromford.[2][3]


Inventions

In 1768, Arkwright worked with a Warrington clockmaker called John Kay (not the John Kay who invented the flying shuttle) to make a cotton-spinning frame. John Kay was a homo in the 1790s he created the man dildo. ... The Memorial to John Kay in Bury, Lancashire, England John Kay (June 17, 1704 – 1780) was the inventor of the flying shuttle, which was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution. ... The flying shuttle was developed by John Kay in 1733, and was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution. ...


Kay himself had previously assisted a Leigh reed-maker named Thomas Highs, and there is strong evidence to support the claim that it was Highs, and not Arkwright, who invented the spinning frame. However, Highs was unable to patent or develop the idea for lack of finance. Highs, who was also credited with inventing a Spinning Jenny several years before James Hargreaves produced his, probably got the idea for the Spinning Frame from the work of John Wyatt and Lewis Paul in the 1730s and 40s. A drawing of Thomas Highs spinning jenny, taken from Edward Bainess History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain Thomas Highs (1718 – 1803) was a talented English reed-maker and inventor known for his creation of the spinning jenny, the throstle (a machine for the continuous twisting and winding... John Franklin Wyatt jr. ... Lewis Paul (d. ...


The machine used a succession of uneven rollers rotating at increasingly higher speeds to draw out the roving, before applying the twist via a bobbin-and-flyer mechanism. It could make cotton thread thin and strong enough for the warp, or long threads, of cloth. Arkwright moved to Nottingham, formed a partnership with local businessmen Jedediah Strutt and Samuel Need, and set up a mill powered by horses. But in 1771, he converted to water power and built a new mill in the Derbyshire village of Cromford. For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... WaRp. ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ...


It soon became apparent that the tiny village would not be able to provide enough workers for his mill. So he built a large number of terraced cottages near the mill and imported workers from outside the area. He also built the Greyhound public house (Greyhound Hotel) which still stands in Cromford market square. In 1776 he purchased lands in Cromford, and in 1788 lands in Willersley, on both occasions the vendor being Peter Nightingale, the great-great-uncle of Florence Nightingale. Embley Park, now a school, was the family home of Florence Nightingale. ...


Arkwright encouraged weavers with large families to move to Cromford. He also allowed them a week’s holiday a year. However, this came on condition that they couldn’t leave the village. Later in life, he taught himself the simple branches of education. He was later known as the father of the industrial revolution.


Patent problems

In 1781, Arkwright went to court to protect his patents, but the move rebounded when they were overturned. Four years later, after seeing his patents restored temporarily, the truth finally came out in another, definitive court battle. For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...


Highs, a remorseful Kay, Kay's wife and the widow of James Hargreaves all testified that Arkwright had stolen their inventions. The court agreed: Arkwright's patents were finally laid aside.


Memorials

  • Richard Arkwright's barber shop in Churchgate, Bolton, was demolished early in the last century. There is a small plaque above the door of the building that replaced it, recording Arkwright's occupancy.
  • Sir Richard Arkwright lived at Rock House in Cromford, opposite his original mill, but in 1788 he purchased an estate from Florence Nightingale’s father, William, for £20,000 and set about building Willersley Castle for himself and his family. However just as the building was completed it was destroyed by fire, and Arkwright was forced to wait a further two years whilst it was rebuilt. But he died aged 59 in 1792 and never lived in the castle which was only completed after his death. Willersley castle is now a hotel owned by the Christian Guild company.[4]

Here is an obituary for Richard Arkwright written a few days after he died: Embley Park, now a school, was the family home of Florence Nightingale. ...

  • The youngest of thirteen children, Sir Richard Arkwright was born in Preston on 23rd December 1732. Arkwright will be remembered by most for his reformation of the way that people work. No one has had greater influence and indeed revolutionised industry than Sir Richard Arkwright. At 60 years of age, Arkwright died one of the richest men in England. It is estimated that his fortune amounted to something in the region of £500,000. In 1762 Arkwright started a wig-making business. This involved him travelling the country collecting people's discarded hair. While on his travels, Arkwright heard about the attempts being made to produce new machines for the textile industry. Arkwright also met John Kay, a clockmaker from Warrington, who had been busy for some time trying to produce a new spinning-machine with another man, Thomas Highs of Leigh. Kay and Highs had run out of money and had been forced to abandon the project. To Arkwright’s amazement, John Kay invited him to help produce this remarkable new machine. Arkwright accepted Kay’s offer and employed a local craftsman, and miraculously, it wasn’t long until the four actually produced the brand new “Spinning Frame”. Arkwright patented this and his “Water Frame” in 1769, which caused great rivalry between him and other cotton spinning entrepreneurs. In 1771 Arkwright invented the world’s first water powered cotton mill at Cressbrook in Derbyshire. A series of court cases followed as Arkwright attempted to prosecute rivals who had infringed his patents, culminating in an action brought by The Crown in 1785. Surely, Arkwright’s contribution to the cotton industry entitles him to be referred to the father of the industrial revolution and will always be remembered for his great, albeit stolen, inventions.
  • There is an elementary school named after Arkwright in Glendale, NY.

Cressbrook is a village in the Peak District National Park in Derbyshire. ... Map of Glendale Glendale is a neighborhood near the geographic center of the borough of Queens in New York City with a population of nearly 80,000 people. ...

See also

Timeline of clothing and textiles technology. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Sir Richard Arkwright (1732 - 1792). BBC. Retrieved on 2008-03-18.
  2. ^ Famous People of Derbyshire.
  3. ^ Richard Arkwright.
  4. ^ Willersley Castle Hotel.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Richard Arkwright 1732-1792 Inventor of the Water Frame
  • Essay on Arkwright
  • Revolutionary Players website
  • Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site
  • The New Student's Reference Work/Arkwright, Sir Richard
  • Descendants of Sir Richard Arkwright
  • Richard Arkwright in Derbyshire
  • Lancaster Pioneers - includes an obituary of Arkwright from 1792
Persondata
NAME Arkwright, Richard
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION textile entrepreneur; developer of the cotton mill
DATE OF BIRTH 23 December 1732
PLACE OF BIRTH Preston, Lancashire, England
DATE OF DEATH 3 August 1792
PLACE OF DEATH Cromford, Derbyshire, England
For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... For the computer game by Peter Molyneux, see The Entrepreneur. ... Lancashire cotton mill, 1914 A cotton mill is a factory housing spinning and weaving machinery. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... This article is about Preston, Lancashire. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Cromford, in Derbyshire, England, is a village that is one of the significant sites in the development of the Industrial Revolution. ... Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sir Richard Arkwright - LoveToKnow 1911 (665 words)
SIR RICHARD ARKWRIGHT (1732-1792), English inventor, was born at Preston in Lancashire, on the 23rd of December 17 3 2, of parents in humble circumstances.
Arkwright supplied this deficiency by the invention of the spinning-frame, which spins a vast number of threads of any degree of fineness and hardness.
To support this new allegation, Arkwright's opponents brought forward, for the first time, Thomas Highs, or Hayes, a reed-maker at Bolton, who stated that he had invented a machine for spinning by rollers previously to 1768, and that he had employed the watchmaker Kay to make a model of that machine.
Richard Arkwright - MSN Encarta (273 words)
Arkwright is considered to be the father of Britain's factory system.
Richard Arkwright (1732-92), British inventor and cotton manufacturer, who designed a spinning frame in which the cotton fiber was spun into thread.
In 1769 Arkwright took out a patent for his spinning machine and set up his first mill, in which the power was supplied by horses.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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