This article is about Richard, Duke of York, father of King Edward IV. For the article about Edward IV's son who was imprisoned in the Tower of London see: Richard, Duke of York (Prince in the Tower).
Richard (Plantagenet), Duke of York (21 September1411- 30 December1460) was the son of Richard, Earl of Cambridge, a noble who had been executed for treason by King Henry V of England in 1415, and of Anne Mortimer, who, like her husband, was a direct descendant of King Edward III. Richard thus had an excellent claim on the throne of England, which he began to press in 1448 by assuming the long-disused surname of Plantagenet. In doing so, he made a direct challenge to the weak King Henry VI. In about 1424, he married Cecily Neville, a descendant of John of Gaunt. Having had the attainder against his father reversed in 1426, he resumed the title of Duke of York, having already become Earl of March through the death of his uncle, Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March.
With King Henry's insanity in 1452, York was made Lord Protector, but had to give up this position with the king's recovery and the birth of an heir, Edward, Prince of Wales, the next year. York gradually gathered together his forces, however, and war eventually broke out with forces loyal to the King, led by the ambitious Duke of Somerset. York was victorious at the First Battle of St Albans on 22 May1455, at which Somerset was killed, but he was soon forced to back down and come to terms with the King. Soon, however, civil war sprang up again, and York and his followers were attainted as traitors on 20 November1459. This made the Duke all the more determined to achieve the throne for the House of York, and he was victorious over the Lancastrians at the Battle of Northampton. At this battle, he captured the King, who was forced to recognize York as his heir (disinheriting his own son).
RICHARDYORK, DUKE OF (1411-1460), was born on the 21st of September 1411, the son of Richard, earl of Cambridge, second son of Edmund of Langley, duke of York.
By the death of his uncle Edward at Agincourt he became duke of York, and on the death of Edmund Mortimer in 1425 he succeeded to his claims as representing in the female line the elder branch of the royal family.
Richard of York was not a great statesman, but he had qualities of restraint and moderation, and might have made a good king.
It may be said that his claim, at the time it was advanced, was rightly barred by prescription, the house of Lancaster having then occupied the throne for three generations, and that it was really owing to the misgovernment of Margaret of Anjou, and her favourites that it was advanced at all.
For the duke was descended from Lionel, duke of Clarence, the third son of Edward III., while the house of Lancaster came of John of Gaunt, a younger brother of Lionel.
For his father, Richard, earl of Cambridge, was the son of Edmund, duke of York, fifth son of Edward III.; and he himself was the direct lineal heir of this Edmund, just as much as he was of Lionel, duke of Clarence.
Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Want to know more? Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:
Press Releases |
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m