FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Rice" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Rice
Rice
Oryza sativa
Oryza sativa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Oryza
Species
  • Oryza glaberrima
  • Oryza sativa
Unpolished rice with bran.
Unpolished rice with bran.
Rice, white, long-grain, regular,
raw, unenriched

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 370 kcal   1530 kJ
Carbohydrates     79.95 g
- Sugars  0.12 g
- Dietary fiber  1.3 g  
Fat 0.66 g
Protein 7.13 g
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.070 mg   5%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.049 mg   3%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  1.6 mg   11%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  1.014 mg  20%
Vitamin B6  0.164 mg 13%
Folate (Vit. B9)  8 μg  2%
Calcium  28 mg 3%
Iron  0.80 mg 6%
Magnesium  25 mg 7% 
Phosphorus  115 mg 16%
Potassium  115 mg   2%
Zinc  1.09 mg 11%
Manganese 1.088 mg
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Domesticated rice comprises two species of food crops in the Poaceae ("true grass") family, Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. These plants are native to tropical and subtropical southern Asia and southeastern Africa.[1] (The term "wild rice" can refer to the wild species of Oryza, but conventionally refers to species of the related genus Zizania, both wild and domesticated.) Rice is grown as a monocarpic annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop and survive for up to 20 years (citation pending).[2] Rice can grow to 1–1.8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and soil fertility. The grass has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long. The edible seed is a grain (caryopsis) 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Parboiled rice Parboiled rice is rice that has been boiled in the husk. ... Look up rice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Koeh-232. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... families see text Poales is a botanical name at the rank of order. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Species Oryza barthii Oryza glaberrima Oryza latifolia Oryza longistaminata Oryza punctata Oryza rufipogon Oryza sativa References ITIS 41975 2002-09-22 This article is about the food grain, not the university or Condoleezza Rice; see also rice (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 564 pixel Image in higher resolution (2035 × 1435 pixel, file size: 453 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Closeup of brown basmati rice. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 564 pixel Image in higher resolution (2035 × 1435 pixel, file size: 453 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Closeup of brown basmati rice. ... Basmati rice, (basmati apparently means Queen of fragrance in the Hindi language) is a small long-grained variety of rice, famous for its fragrance and delicate flavour. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For the similarly spelled pyrimidine, see Thymine Thiamin or thiamine, also known as vitamin B1 and aneurine hydrochloride, is one of the B vitamins. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... u fuck in ua ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Species Zizania aquatica Zizania latifolia Zizania palustris Zizania texana Zizania aquatica L. Hitchc. ... Species Zizania aquatica Zizania latifolia Zizania palustris Zizania texana Wild rice is the common name for a group of aquatic plants in the grass family. ... A plant that flowers and sets seed and then dies. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... Look up Perennial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anemophily is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by wind. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Red clover inflorescence (spike) An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ...


Rice is a staple for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East, South and Southeast Asia, making it the second-most consumed cereal grain.[3] Rice provides more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans.[4] In early 2008, some governments and retailers began rationing supplies of the grain due to fears of a global rice shortage.[5][6] A staple food is a food that forms the basis of a traditional diet. ... The current estimated world human population is 6,427,631,117. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Gasoline ration stamps being printed as a result of the 1973 oil crisis Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services. ...


Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labour costs and high rainfall, as it is very labour-intensive to cultivate and requires plenty of water for cultivation. Rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or mountain. Although its species are native to South Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures. Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... In meteorology, precipitation is any kind of water that falls from the sky as part of the weather. ... Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields with or after setting the young seedlings. This simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of lesser robust weed and pest plants and reduces vermin that has no submerged growth state. However, with rice growing and cultivation the flooding is not mandatory, whereas all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil.

Contents

Preparation as food

Old fashioned way of rice polishing in Japan.
Old fashioned way of rice polishing in Japan.

The seeds of the rice plant are first milled using a rice huller to remove the chaff (the outer husks of the grain). At this point in the process the product is called brown rice. This process may be continued, removing the germ and the rest of the husk, called the bran at this point, creating white rice. Where brown rice contains all of the ingredients of a healthy meal, this rice, with the nutrients of rice germ and rice bran, is not a standard in counties for commercial offerings. The former Beri-Beri disease was related to the stripping off of all ingredients of the bran, however the impact of aflatoxins and other mycotoxins contributed to the problem. Today, parboiling is a first method to move some of the nutrients from the bran to the rice corn before stripping the bran, however the energy requirements are high compared to dry processing technologies. Image File history File links RICE_POLISHING_BY_FOOT_POWER.jpg Photo from The Foundations of Japan: Notes Made During Journeys Of 6,000 Miles In The Rural Districts As A Basis For A Sounder Knowledge Of The Japanese People, by J.W. Robertson Scott, published 1922 Source: Project Gutenberg: This eBook is for... Image File history File links RICE_POLISHING_BY_FOOT_POWER.jpg Photo from The Foundations of Japan: Notes Made During Journeys Of 6,000 Miles In The Rural Districts As A Basis For A Sounder Knowledge Of The Japanese People, by J.W. Robertson Scott, published 1922 Source: Project Gutenberg: This eBook is for... An old-type mechanical huller, driven by a gasoline engine An electric rotary huller A huller (or called rice husker) ia a kind of agricultural machinery to hull the rice. ... Chaff is the seed casings and other inedible plant matter harvested with cereal grains such as wheat. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... The germ is the heart of the cereal kernel, the embryo of the seed, and a concentrated source of several essential nutrients including Vitamin E, folate (folic acid), phosphorus, thiamin, zinc and magnesium. ... // wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... White rice is the common term for milled rice which has had its husk, bran, and germ removed. ... Beri-beri is a nutritional disease, deficiency in vitamin 1 (thiamine). ... Chemical structure of Aflatoxin B1 Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that act as carcinogens and are produced by two types of mold, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. ... Mycotoxin is a toxin produced by a fungus under special conditions of moisture and temperature. ... Parboil is an action which refers to partially boiling food in water before finishing cooking it by another method. ...


White rice may be also buffed with glucose or talc powder (often called polished rice, though this term may also refer to white rice in general), parboiled, or processed into flour. The white rice may also be enriched by adding nutrients, especially those lost during the milling process. While the cheapest method of enriching involves adding a powdered blend of nutrients that will easily wash off (in the United States, rice which has been so treated requires a label warning against rinsing), more sophisticated methods apply nutrients directly to the grain, coating the grain with a water insoluble substance which is resistant to washing. Parboiled rice Parboiled rice is rice that has been boiled in the husk. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ...

Terraced rice paddy on a hill slope
Terraced rice paddy on a hill slope

Despite the hypothetical health risks of talc (such as stomach cancer),[7] talc-coated rice remains the norm in some countries due to its attractive shiny appearance, but it has been banned in some and is no longer widely used in others such as the United States. Even where talc is not used, glucose, starch, or other coatings may be used to improve the appearance of the grains; for this reason, many rice lovers still recommend washing all rice in order to create a better-tasting rice with a better consistency, despite the recommendation of suppliers. Much of the rice produced today is water polished.[citation needed] Download high resolution version (1400x1050, 454 KB)Rice fields on the island Java of Indonesia. ... Download high resolution version (1400x1050, 454 KB)Rice fields on the island Java of Indonesia. ...


Rice bran, called nuka in Japan, is a valuable commodity in Asia and is used for many daily needs. It is a moist, oily inner layer which is heated to produce an oil. It is also used as a pickling bed in making rice bran pickles and Takuan. Rice bran is the layer underneath the rice hull rich in oils. ... Takuan (or takuan-zuke) is a traditional Japanese pickle made from daikon radish. ...


The raw rice may be ground into flour for many uses, including making many kinds of beverages such as amazake, horchata, rice milk, and sake. Rice flour is generally safe for people on a gluten-free diet. Rice may also be made into various types of noodles. Raw wild or brown rice may also be consumed by raw foodist or fruitarians if soaked and sprouted (usually 1 week to 30 days). For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids, see Drinking. ... Amazake 甘酒 (あまざけ) Amazake (pronounced ah-mah-zah-kay) is a traditional sweet, nonalcoholic Japanese drink made from fermented rice. ... Two large jars of aguas frescas in a taqueria in Seattle, Washington, USA. On the left is a jar of jamaica and on the right is a jar of horchata. ... Rice milk is a kind of grain milk processed from rice. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ... A gluten-free diet, recommended in the treatment of celiac disease, is a diet completely free of ingredients derived from gluten-containing cereals: wheat (including Kamut and spelt), barley, rye, oats and triticale. ... For other uses, see Noodle (disambiguation). ...


The processed rice seeds are usually boiled or steamed to make them edible, after which they may be fried in oil or butter, or beaten in a tub to make mochi. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Rice Cake Pounding mochi in an usu Making mochi with a modern piece of equipment Mochi (Japanese ) is the Japanese variant of Chinese rice cake, which, like its Chinese origin, is made of glutinous rice, pounded into paste and molded into shape; however, unlike the Chinese variety, it is molded...


Although rice is a good source of protein and a staple food in many parts of the world, it is not a complete protein. That is, it does not contain all of the essential amino acids in sufficient amounts for good health, and should be combined with other sources of protein, like meat or soybeans.[8] A complete protein or whole protein is a protein that contains all amino acids, most notably the nine essential amino acids to humans and most animals, in ratios appropriate to the body. ...


Rice, like other cereal grains, can be puffed (or popped). This process takes advantage of the grains' water content and typically involves heating grain pellets in a special chamber. Further puffing is sometimes accomplished by processing pre-puffed pellets in a low-pressure chamber. The ideal gas law means that either lowering the local pressure or raising the water temperature results in an increase in volume prior to water evaporation, resulting in a puffy texture. Bulk raw rice density is about 0.9 g/cm³. It decreases more than tenfold when puffed. Grain redirects here. ... In botany, a caryopsis is a type of simple dry fruit — one that is moncarpelate (formed from a single carpel) and indehiscent (not opening at maturity) and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat. ... This is called as Mur Mure in India. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Isotherms of an ideal gas The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas, first stated by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... Vaporization redirects here. ... Mouthfeel is a product’s physical and chemical interaction in the mouth. ...


Cooking

See Wikibooks' Rice Recipes for information on food preparation using rice.
Uncooked pre-steamed long rice
Uncooked pre-steamed long rice

Rice is cooked by boiling or steaming. It can be cooked in just enough water to cook it through (the absorption method), or it can be cooked in a large quantity of water which is drained before serving (the rapid-boil method). Electric rice cookers, which are popular in Asia and Latin America, simplify the process of cooking rice. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 642 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1503 × 1404 pixel, file size: 228 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pre-steamed long rice Copyright © 2007 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 642 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1503 × 1404 pixel, file size: 228 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Pre-steamed long rice Copyright © 2007 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Electric rice cooker including scoop, before cooking For the car modification term, see Rice burner. ...


In Arab cuisine rice is the ingredient of many soups and dishes with fish, poultry and meat. It is also used to stuff vegetables or is wrapped in grape leaves. When combined with milk, sugar and honey, it is used to make desserts. In some regions, such as Tabaristan, bread is made using rice flour. Medieval Islamic texts spoke of medical uses for the plant.[9] Arab cuisine is the cuisine of the Arab countries. ... Mazandaran (مازندران in Persian) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian Sea in the north. ...


Also extremely popular are combination cooking methods; for example fried rice is boiled (or steamed) rice that has afterwards been stir-fried in oil. Fried rice is a popular component of Chinese cuisine and other forms of Asian cuisine. ...


Rice may also be made into rice porridge (also called congee or rice gruel) by adding more water than usual, so that the cooked rice is saturated with water to the point that it becomes very soft, expanded, and fluffy. Rice porridge is commonly eaten as a breakfast food, and is also a traditional food for the sick. Rice congee is a type of Asian rice porridge known as zhōu (粥 or juk in several Chinese dialects and Korean, and pronounced kayu in Japanese). ...


Rice may be soaked prior to cooking, which decreases cooking time. For some varieties, soaking improves the texture of the cooked rice by increasing expansion of the grains. In botanical nomenclature, variety is a rank below that of species: As such, it gets a ternary name (a name in three parts). ...


In some culinary traditions, especially those of Latin America, Italy, and Turkey, dry rice grains are fried in oil before cooking in water. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The act of frying. ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ...


In some countries, rice is commonly consumed as parboiled rice, also known as Minute rice or easy-cook rice. Parboiled rice is subjected to a steaming or parboiling process while still a brown rice. This causes nutrients from the outer husk to move into the grain itself. The parboil process causes a gelatisisation of the starch in the grains. The grains become less brittle, and the colour of the milled grain changes from white to yellow. The rice is then dried, and can then be milled as usual or consumed as brown rice. Milled parboil rice is nutritionally superior to standard milled rice. Parboiled rice has an additional benefit in that it does not stick to the pan during cooking as happens when cooking regular white rice. Parboiled rice Parboiled rice is rice that has been boiled in the husk. ...


A nutritionally superior method of preparing brown rice known as GABA Rice or GBR (Germinated Brown Rice)[10] may be used. This involves soaking washed brown rice for 20 hours in warm water (38 °C or 100 °F) prior to cooking it. This process stimulates germination, which activates various enzymes in the rice. By this method, a result of research carried out for the United Nations Year of Rice, it is possible to obtain a more complete amino acid profile, including GABA. The degree Celsius (symbol: °C) is an SI derived unit of temperature. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ... Activator may mean: Activator (proteomics), a type of effector that increases the rate of enzyme mediated reactions Activator (genetics), a DNA-binding protein that regulates one or more genes by increasing the rate of transcription Sega Activator, a motion-sensing controller for the Sega Genesis Activator (day after partying), The... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... UN redirects here. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model...


Cooked rice can contain Bacillus cereus spores which produce an emetic toxin when left between 4-60 degrees Celsius [8]. When storing cooked rice for use the next day, rapid cooling is advised to reduce the risk of contamination. Binomial name Bacillus cereus Frankland & Frankland 1887 Bacillus cereus is an endemic, soil-dwelling, Gram-positive, rod shaped, beta hemolytic bacteria that causes foodborne illness. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ...


Production history

Etymology

According to the Microsoft Encarta Dictionary (2004) and the Chambers Dictionary of Etymology (1988), the word rice has an Indo-Iranian origin. It came to English from Greek óryza, via Latin oriza, Italian riso and finally Old French ris (the same as present day French riz).
It has been speculated that the Indo-Iranian vrihi itself is borrowed from a Dravidian vari (< PDr. *warinci)[11] or even a Munda language term for rice or the Tamil name ar-risi from which the Arabic ar-ruzz, from which the Portuguese and Spanish word arroz originated. Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


Genetic history

Japanese short-grain rice
Japanese short-grain rice

Two species of rice were domesticated, Asian rice (O. sativa) and African rice (O. glaberrima). According to Londo and Chiang, O. sativa appears to have been domesticated from wild (Asian) rice, Oryza rufipogon around the foothills of the Himalayas, with O. sativa var. indica on the Indian side and O. sativa var. japonica on the Chinese and Japanese side.[12] The different histories have led to different ecological niches for the two main types of rice. Indica are mainly lowland rices, grown mostly submerged, throughout tropical Asia, while japonica are usually cultivated in dry fields, in temperate East Asia, upland areas of Southeast Asia and high elevations in South Asia. (Oka 1988) Image File history File links RiceCloseUp. ... Image File history File links RiceCloseUp. ... Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ... Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increases in hilly areas at the base of a mountain range. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ...

Japanese short-grain rice
Japanese short-grain rice

Current genetic analysis suggests that O. sativa would be best divided into five groups, labeled indica, aus, aromatic, temperate japonica and tropical japonica. The same analysis suggests that indica and aus are closely related, as are tropical japonica, temperate japonica, and aromatic.[13] Further analysis of the genetic material of various types of rice indicates that japonica was the first cultivar to emerge, followed by the indica, aus, and aromatic groups, whose genome did show significant differences in age. Within the japonica group, there is some genetic evidence that temperate japonica is derived from tropical japonica.[14] Image File history File linksMetadata Hinohikari. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hinohikari. ...


Other studies have suggested that there are three groups of Oryza sativa cultivars: the short-grained "japonica" or "sinica" varieties, exemplified by Japanese rice; the long-grained "indica" varieties, exemplified by Basmati rice; and the broad-grained "javonica" varieties, which thrive under tropical conditions (Zohary and Hopf, 2000). The earliest find site for the japonica variety, dated to the fifth millennium BC, was in the earliest phases of the Hemudu culture on the south side of Hangzhou Bay in China, but was found along with japonica types.[citation needed] Japanese rice is a variety called Japonica which is characterized by stickiness. ... Indica (or indicum) means of India, or Indian, in Latin and is applied to things connected with India or South Asia: The specific epithets indica and indicum are used in binomial nomenclature to indicate species (or subspecies) of plants, animals etc thought to originate in, or associated with, India. ... Basmati rice, (basmati apparently means Queen of fragrance in the Hindi language) is a small long-grained variety of rice, famous for its fragrance and delicate flavour. ... The Hemudu culture (河姆渡文化) was a Neolithic culture that fluorished just south of the Hangzhou Bay in Jiangnan in modern Yuyao, Zhejiang, China. ... The Hangzhou Bay is an inlet of the East China Sea, bordered by the province of Zhejiang and the municipality of Shanghai. ...


Global history and methodology of cultivating rice

South Asia

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica:[15]

The origin of rice culture has been traced to India in about 3000 BC. Rice culture gradually spread westward and was introduced to southern Europe in medieval times. With the exception of the type called upland rice, the plant is grown on submerged land in the coastal plains, tidal deltas, and river basins of tropical, semitropical, and temperate regions. The seeds are sown in prepared beds, and when the seedlings are 25 to 50 days old, they are transplanted to a field, or paddy, that has been enclosed by levees and submerged under 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 inches) of water, remaining submerged during the growing season.

Wild rice appeared in the Belan and Ganges valley regions of northern India as early as 4530 BC and 5440 BC respectively. Agricultural activity during the second millennium BC included rice cultivation in the Kashmir and Harrappan regions.[16] Mixed farming was the basis of Indus valley economy. Farmers planted their crops in integrated fields. Rice, grown on the west coast, was cultivated in the Indus valley.[17] Rice, along with barley, meat, dairy products and fish constituted the dietary staple of the ancient Dravidian people.[18] Ganga redirects here. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Location of Harappa in the Indus Valley. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ...


There is mention of ApUpa, Puro-das and Odana (rice-gruel) in the Rig Veda, terms that refer to rice dishes,[19] The rigvedic commentator Sayana refers to "tandula" when commenting on RV 1.16.2., which means rice.[20] The Rigvedic term dhana (dhanaa, dhanya) means rice.[21] Both Charaka and Sushruta mention rice in detail.[22] The Arthasastra discusses aspects of rice cultivation.[23] The Kashyapiyakrishisukti by Kashyapa is the most detailed ancient Sanskrit text on rice cultivation.[24] The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Sayana (सायण) was the great 14th century commentator on the Vedas. ... For a village in Greece, see Charaka (Laconia), Greece Charaka, sometimes spelled Caraka, (perhaps 1st or 2nd century) is one of the founders of Ayurveda. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sushruta Samhita. ... Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on economics and politics written by king maker Chanakya (also known as Kautilya) in the 4th century B.C during the rule of the Mauryan dynasty. ... This article is about the Hindu god Kasyapa. ...


Continental East Asia

Z. Zhao, a Chinese palaeoethnobotanist, hypothesizes that people of the Late Pleistocene began to collect wild rice. Zhao explains that the collection of wild rice from an early date eventually led to its domestication and then the exclusive use of domesticated rice strains by circa 6400 BC at the latest.[25] Stone tool evidence from the Yunchanyan site in Hunan province suggests the possibility that Early Neolithic groups cultivated rice as early as circa 9000 BC.[26] Crawford and Shen point out that calibrated radiocarbon dates show that direct evidence of the earliest cultivated rice is no older than 7000 BC. Jared Diamond, a biologist and popular science author, summarizes some of the research done by archaeologists and estimates that the earliest attested domestication of rice took place in China by 7500 BC.[27] Paleoethnobotany, also known as archaeobotany in European (particularly British) academic circles, is the archaeological sub-field that studies plant remains from archaeological sites. ... Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ...

Rice farmer in northern Cambodia
Rice farmer in northern Cambodia

An early archaeological site from which rice was excavated is Pengtoushan in the Hupei basin. This archaeological site was dated by AMS radiocarbon techniques to 6400–5800 BC (Zohary and Hopf 2000), but most of the Neolithic sites in China with finds of charred rice and radiocarbon dates are from 5000 BC or later.[28] This evidence leads most archaeologists to say that large-scale dry-land rice farming began between 5000 and 4500 BC in the area of Yangtze Delta (for example Hemudu culture, discovered in 1970s), and the wet-rice cultivation began at approximately 2500 BC in the same area (Liangzhu culture). It is now commonly thought that some areas such as the alluvial plains in Shaoxing and Ningbo in Zhejiang province are the cradle-lands of East Asian rice cultivation.[29] Finally, ancient textual evidence of the cultivation of rice in China dates to 3000 years ago. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x769, 185 KB) Description: A worker is removing the rice seedlings. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x769, 185 KB) Description: A worker is removing the rice seedlings. ... The Pengtoushan culture (彭頭山文化) (7500-6100 BC [1]) was a Neolithic culture centered primarily around the central Yangtze River region in northwestern Hunan, China. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated province of Hebei Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; pinyin: Húběi; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei, also seen as Hupeh), abbreviated to 鄂 (pinyin: È, WG: O), a province of the Peoples Republic of China, lies to the north of the Dongting Lake, giving it the... The Yangzi Delta generally comprises the triangular-shaped territory of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province. ... The Hemudu culture (河姆渡文化) was a Neolithic culture that fluorished just south of the Hangzhou Bay in Jiangnan in modern Yuyao, Zhejiang, China. ... The Liangzhu jade culture (3400-2250 BC) was the last Neolithic jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta of China and was spaced over a period of about 1300 years. ... Shaoxing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shao-hsing) is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Zhejiang province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Ningbo (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ning-po; literally Tranquil Waves) is a seaport sub-provincial city with a population of 1,219,900 in northeastern Zhejiang province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhejiang (also spelled Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Bruce Smith of the Smithsonian Institution advises caution on the Chinese rice hypothesis.[30] No morphological studies have been done to determine whether the grain was domesticated.[30] According to Smith such a rice would have larger seeds compared to the wild varieties, and would have a strong rachis or spine for holding grain.[30] The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...


Korean peninsula and Japan

Utagawa Hiroshige, Rice field in Oki province, view of O-Yama.
Utagawa Hiroshige, Rice field in Oki province, view of O-Yama.

In 2003, Korean archaeologists alleged that they discovered burnt grains (domesticated rice) in Soro-ri, Korea, that predate the oldest grains in China. This find potentially challenges the mainstream explanation that domesticated rice originated in China.[31] The media reports of the Soro-ri charred grains are brief and lack sufficient detail for archaeologists and scientists in related fields to properly evaluate the true meaning of this unusual find. Download high resolution version (1331x2019, 667 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1331x2019, 667 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Memorial portrait of Hiroshige by Kunisada. ...


Reliable, mainstream archaeological evidence derived from palaeoethnobotanical investigations indicate that dry-land rice was introduced to Korea and Japan some time between 3500 and 1200 BC. The cultivation of rice in Korea and Japan during that time occurred on a small-scale, fields were impermanent plots, and evidence shows that in some cases domesticated and wild grains were planted together. The technological, subsistence, and social impact of rice and grain cultivation is not evident in archaeological data until after 1500 BC. For example, intensive wet-paddy rice agriculture was introduced into Korea shortly before or during the Middle Mumun Pottery Period (c. 850–550 BC) and reached Japan by the Final Jōmon or Initial Yayoi circa 300 BC.[32][33] This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... This article is about a Japanese historical era. ...


Southeast Asia

Using water buffalo to plough rice fields in Java; Indonesia is the world's third largest paddy rice producer and its cultivation has transformed much of the country's landscape.
Using water buffalo to plough rice fields in Java; Indonesia is the world's third largest paddy rice producer and its cultivation has transformed much of the country's landscape.

Rice is the staple for all classes in contemporary South East Asia, from Myanmar to Indonesia. In Indonesia, evidence of wild rice on the island of Sulawesi dates from 3000 BCE. The evidence for the earliest cultivation, however, comes from eighth century stone inscriptions from Java, which show kings levied taxes in rice. Divisions of labour between men, women, and animals that are still in place in Indonesian rice cultivation, can be seen carved into the ninth-century Prambanan temples in Central Java. In the sixteenth century, Europeans visiting the Indonesian islands saw rice as a new prestige food served to the aristocracy during ceremonies and feasts. Rice production in Indonesian history is linked to the development of iron tools and the domestication of water buffalo for cultivation of fields and manure for fertilizer. Once covered in dense forest, much of the Indonesian landscape has been gradually cleared for permanent fields and settlements as rice cultivation developed over the last fifteen hundred years.[34] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 991 pixel, file size: 720 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indonesia Water buffalo ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 991 pixel, file size: 720 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indonesia Water buffalo ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... Terrace of rice paddies in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... This article is about the Java island. ... Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Indonesia, located in central Java, approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta ( ). It was built around 850 CE by either Rakai Pikatan, king of the second Mataram dynasty or Balitung Maha Sambu, during the Sanjaya dynasty. ... Central Java (Indonesian: Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ...


Evidence of wet rice cultivation as early as 2200 BC has been discovered at both Ban Chiang and Ban Prasat in Thailand.


By the 19th Century, encroaching European expansionism in the area increased rice production in much of South East Asia, and Thailand, then known as Siam. British Burma (now Myanmar) became the world's largest exporter of rice, from the turn of the 20th century up till the 1970s, when neighbouring Thailand exceeded Myanmar.


Africa

Rice crop in Madagascar
Rice crop in Madagascar

African rice has been cultivated for 3500 years. Between 1500 and 800 BC, O. glaberrima propagated from its original centre, the Niger River delta, and extended to Senegal. However, it never developed far from its original region. Its cultivation even declined in favour of the Asian species, possibly brought to the African continent by Arabs coming from the east coast between the 7th and 11th centuries CE. Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ...


In parts of Africa under Islam, rice was chiefly grown in southern Morocco. During the tenth century rice was also brought to east Africa by Muslim traders. Although, the diffusion of rice in much sub-Saharan Africa remains uncertain, Muslims brought it to the region stretching from Lake Chad to the White Nile.[35]  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Lake Chad (in French: Lac Tchad) is a large, shallow lake in Africa. ... The White Nile is a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile, the other being the Blue Nile. ...

The actual and hypothesized cultivation of rice (areas shown in green) in the Old World (both Muslim and non-Muslim regions) during Islamic times (700-1500). Cultivation of rice during pre-Islamic times have been shown in orange.
The actual and hypothesized cultivation of rice (areas shown in green) in the Old World (both Muslim and non-Muslim regions) during Islamic times (700-1500). Cultivation of rice during pre-Islamic times have been shown in orange.[35]

For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ...

Middle East

According to Zohary and Hopf (2000, p. 91), O. sativa was introduced to the Middle East in Hellenistic times, and was familiar to both Greek and Roman writers. They report that a large sample of rice grains was recovered from a grave at Susa in Iran (dated to the first century AD) at one end of the ancient world, while at the same time rice was grown in the Po valley in Italy. However, Pliny the Elder writes that rice (oryza) is grown only in "Egypt, Syria, Cilicia, Asia Minor and Greece" (N.H. 18.19).[citation needed] A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ...


After the rise of Islam, rice was grown anywhere there was enough water to irrigate it. thus, desert oases, river valleys, and swamp lands were all important sources of rice during the Muslim Agricultural Revolution.[35] The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ...


In Iraq rice was grown in some areas of southern Iraq. With the rise of Islam it moved north to Nisibin, the southern shores of the Caspian Sea and then beyond the Muslim world into the valley of Volga. In Israel, rice came to be grown in the Jordan valley. Rice is also grown in Yemen.[35] The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ...


Europe

The Muslims (later known as Moors) brought Asiatic rice to the Iberian Peninsula in the tenth century. Records indicate it was grown in Valencia and Majorca. In the case of Majorca, the rice cultivation stopped after the Christian conquest, although historians aren't certain.[35] For other uses, see moor. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Valencia is the name of several places: In Spain: Valencia, Spain, capital of the Valencia Autonomous Community Valencia (autonomous community) Valencia (province), in the Valencia Autonomous Community The Kingdom of Valencia, which existed from 1237 to 1707 Valencia de Alcántara, a town in the province of Cáceres In... Majorca (Spanish and Catalan: ) is the largest island of Spain. ...


Muslims also brought rice to Sicily, where it was an important crop.[35] Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


After the middle of the 15th century, rice spread throughout Italy and then France, later propagating to all the continents during the age of European exploration.


United States

South Carolina rice plantation (Mansfield Plantation, Georgetown.
South Carolina rice plantation (Mansfield Plantation, Georgetown.

In 1694, rice arrived in South Carolina, probably originating from Madagascar. The Spanish brought rice to South America at the beginning of the 17th century. Image File history File links MansfieldWinnowingBarn. ... Image File history File links MansfieldWinnowingBarn. ... The Avenue of Oaks approach to Mansfield Plantation, Georgetown, SC. Established in 1718 on the banks of the Black River (South Carolina) in historic Georgetown, South Carolina, Mansfield Plantation is widely recognized as one of the most well-preserved antebellum rice plantations in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


In the United States, colonial South Carolina and Georgia grew and amassed great wealth from the slave labour obtained from the Senegambia area of West Africa. At the port of Charleston, through which 40% of all American slave imports passed, slaves from this region of Africa brought the highest prices, in recognition of their prior knowledge of rice culture, which was put to use on the many rice plantations around Georgetown, Charleston, and Savannah. From the slaves, plantation owners learned how to dyke the marshes and periodically flood the fields. At first the rice was milled by hand with wooden paddles, then winnowed in sweetgrass baskets (the making of which was another skill brought by the slaves). The invention of the rice mill increased profitability of the crop, and the addition of water power for the mills in 1787 by millwright Jonathan Lucas was another step forward. Rice culture in the southeastern U.S. became less profitable with the loss of slave labour after the American Civil War, and it finally died out just after the turn of the 20th century. The predominant strain of rice in the Carolinas was from Africa and was known as "Carolina Gold." The cultivar has been preserved and there are current attempts to reintroduce it as a commercially grown crop.[36] In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... Slave redirects here. ... The name also refers to the geographic region around the two countries, covering the watershed of the Senegal River and Gambia River. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about crop plantations. ... Location of Georgetown in South Carolina Coordinates: Country United States State South Carolina County Georgetown Government  - Mayor Lynn Wood Wilson Area  - City 7. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Savannah redirects here. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Hierochloe odorata (L.) P. Beauv. ... Four styles of household basket. ... An old-type mechanical huller, driven by a gasoline engine An electric rotary huller A huller (or called rice husker) is a kind of agricultural machinery to hull the rice. ... Derived from the trade of carpentry, a millwright originally was a specialised carpenter who was trained as a carpenter and as well had working knowledge of gear ratios, driveshaft speeds, and other equations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...

American long-grain rice
American long-grain rice

In the southern United States, rice has been grown in southern Arkansas, Louisana, and east Texas since the mid 1800s. Many Cajun farmers grew rice in wet marshes and low lying prairies. In recent years rice production has risen in North America, especially in the Mississippi River Delta areas in the states of Arkansas and Mississippi. Download high resolution version (640x801, 156 KB) [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (640x801, 156 KB) [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Cajuns are an ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other ethnicities with whom the Acadians eventually intermarried on the semitropical frontier. ... False-color image of the larger Mississippi Delta Closeup of the currently active delta front Mississippi Delta Lobes The Mississippi River Delta is the modern area of land (the river delta) built up by alluvium deposited by the Mississippi River as it slows down and enters the Gulf of Mexico. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Rice cultivation began in California during the California Gold Rush, when an estimated 40,000 Chinese laborers immigrated to the state. In the book 1421, Gavin Menzies refers to stranded Chinese sailors cultivating rice in California when a ship was shipwrecked in the area. However, commercial production began only in 1912 in the town of Richvale in Butte County.[37] By 2006, California produced the second largest rice crop in the United States,[38] after Arkansas, with production concentrated in six counties north of Sacramento.[39] Unlike the Mississippi Delta region, California's production is dominated by short- and medium-grain japonica varieties, including cultivars developed for the local climate such as Calrose, which makes up as much as eighty five percent of the state's crop.[40] This article is about the U.S. state. ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... Richvale is a small farming community (estimated population 250) in Butte County, California, south of Chico and west of Oroville. ... Butte County is a county located in the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California, north of state capital Sacramento. ... Sacramento redirects here. ... Japanese rice is a variety called Japonica which is characterized by stickiness. ... Calrose rice is a variety of japonica medium-grain rice developed in California. ...


References to wild rice in the Americas are to the unrelated Zizania palustris Species Zizania aquatica Zizania latifolia Zizania palustris Zizania texana Zizania aquatica L. Hitchc. ...


More than 100 varieties of rice are commercially produced primarily in six states (Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and California) in the U.S.[41] According to estimates for the 2006 crop year, rice production in the U.S. is valued at $1.88 billion, approximately half of which is expected to be exported. The U.S. provides about 12% of world rice trade.[42] The majority of domestic utilization of U.S. rice is direct food use (58%), while 16 percent is used in processed foods and beer respectively. The remaining 10 percent is found in pet food.[43] International trade is defined as trade between two or more partners from different countries (an exporter and an importer). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ...


Australia

Although attempts to grow rice in the well-watered north of Australia have been made for many years, they have consistently failed because of inherent iron and manganese toxicities in the soils and destruction by pests. General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Carpet beetle larvae damaging a specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in an entomological collection A pest is an organism which has characteristics that are regarded as injurious or unwanted. ...


In the 1920s it was seen as a possible irrigation crop on soils within the Murray-Darling Basin that were too heavy for the cultivation of fruit and too infertile for wheat.[44] Centre pivot irrigation near Euberta in the Riverina region of New South Wales Irrigation in Australia is a widespread practice to supplement low rainfall levels in Australia with water from other sources to assist in the production of crops or pasture. ... The Murray-Darling Basin is 3,370km long, drains one-seventh of the Australian land mass, and is currently by far the most significant agricultural area in Australia. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...


Because irrigation water, despite the extremely low runoff of temperate Australia, was (and remains) very cheap, the growing of rice was taken up by agricultural groups over the following decades. Californian varieties of rice were found suitable for the climate in the Riverina, and the first mill opened at Leeton in 1951. The Riverina is a prosperous agricultural region of south-western New South Wales (NSW), Australia. ... Leeton is a town and Local Government Area in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. ...


Even before this Australia's rice production greatly exceeded local needs,[45] and rice exports to Japan have become a major source of foreign currency. Above-average rainfall from the 1950s to the middle 1990s[46] encouraged the expansion of the Riverina rice industry, but its prodigious water use in a practically waterless region began to attract the attention of environmental scientists. These became severely concerned with declining flow in the Snowy River and the lower Murray River. The Snowy River below McKillops Bridge The Snowy River is a major river in south-eastern Australia. ... For other uses, see Murray River (disambiguation). ...


Although rice growing in Australia is exceedingly efficient and highly profitable due to the cheapness of land, several recent years of severe drought have led many to call for its elimination because of its effects on extremely fragile aquatic ecosystems. Politicians, however, have not made any plan to reduce rice growing in southern Australia.


Rice biotechnology

High-yielding varieties

Main article: High-yielding variety

The High Yielding Varieties are a group of crops created intentionally during the Green Revolution to increase global food production. Rice, like corn and wheat, was genetically manipulated to increase its yield. This project enabled labor markets in Asia to shift away from agriculture, and into industrial sectors. The first ‘modern rice’, IR8 was produced in 1966 at the International Rice Research Institute. IR8 was created through a cross between an Indonesian variety named “Peta” and a Chinese variety named “Dee Geo Woo Gen.”[47] High-yielding varieties (HYVs) are any of a group of genetically enhanced cultivars of crops such as rice, maize and wheat that have an increased growth rate, an increased percentage of usable plant parts or an increased resistance against crop diseases. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international NGO. Its headquarters are in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, and it has offices in ten countries. ...


With advances in molecular genetics, the mutant genes responsible for reduced height(rht), gibberellin insensitive (gai1) and slender rice (slr1) in Arabidopsis and rice were identified as cellular signaling components of gibberellic acid (a phytohormone involved in regulating stem growth via its effect on cell division) and subsequently cloned. Stem growth in the mutant background is significantly reduced leading to the dwarf phenotype. Photosynthetic investment in the stem is reduced dramatically as the shorter plants are inherently more stable mechanically. Assimilates become redirected to grain production, amplifying in particular the effect of chemical fertilizers on commercial yield. In the presence of nitrogen fertilizers, and intensive crop management, these varieties increase their yield 2 to 3 times. GA1 GA3 ent-Gibberellane ent-Kauren Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones involved in promotion of stem elongation, mobilization of food reserves in seeds and other processes. ... Species See text. ...


Potentials for the future

As the UN Millennium Development project seeks to spread global economic development to Africa, the ‘Green Revolution’ is cited as the model for economic development. With the intent of replicating the successful Asian boom in agronomic productivity, groups like the Earth Institute are doing research on African agricultural systems, hoping to increase productivity. An important way this can happen is the production of ‘New Rices for Africa’ (NERICA). These rices, selected to tolerate the low input and harsh growing conditions of African agriculture are produced by the African Rice Center, and billed as technology from Africa, for Africa. The NERICA have appeared in The New York Times (October 10, 2007) and International Herald Tribune (October 9, 2007), trumpeted as miracle crops that will dramatically increase rice yield in Africa and enable an economic resurgence. is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Golden rice

Main article: Golden rice

German and Swiss researchers have engineered rice to produce Beta-carotene, with the intent that it might someday be used to treat vitamin A deficiency. Additional efforts are being made to improve the quantity and quality of other nutrients in golden rice.[48] White rice and golden rice Golden rice is a variety of rice (Oryza sativa) produced through genetic engineering to biosynthesize the precursors of beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A) in the edible parts of rice. ... Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... Beta-carotene is a form of carotene with β-rings at both ends. ...


Expression of human proteins

Ventria Bioscience has genetically modified rice to express lactoferrin, lysozyme, and human serum albumin which are proteins usually found in breast milk. These proteins have antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal effects.[49] Ventria Bioscience logo Ventria Bioscience is a biotech company headquartered in Sacramento, CA with a focus on human nutrition and human therapeutics. ... Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... Lactoferrin is a globular protein found in milk and many mucosal secretions such as tears. ... Lysozyme single crystal. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into serum albumin. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Breast milk usually refers to the milk produced by a human female which is usually fed to infants, toddlers, and young children by breastfeeding. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... Something antifungal kills or inhibits the growth of fungus. ...


Rice containing these added proteins can be used as a component in oral rehydration solutions which are used to treat diarrheal diseases, thereby shortening their duration and reducing recurrence. Such supplements may also help reverse anemia.[50] As a result, the carotene turns the rice gold. Nurses encouraging this patient to drink an Oral Rehydration Solution to combat dehydration he acquired from cholera. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ...


World production and trade

Production and export

Top paddy rice producers — 2005
(million metric ton)
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 182
Flag of India India 137
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia 54
Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh 40
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam 36
Flag of Thailand Thailand 27
Flag of Burma Myanmar 25
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan 18
Flag of the Philippines Philippines 15
Flag of Brazil Brazil 13
Flag of Japan Japan 11
World Total 700
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
[9]
Paddy rice output in 2005
Paddy rice output in 2005

World production of rice[51] has risen steadily from about 200 million tons of paddy rice in 1960 to 600 million tons in 2004. Milled rice is about 68% of paddy rice by weight. In the year 2004, the top three producers were China (26% of world production), India (20%), and Indonesia (9%). Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of rice output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 182,042,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of rice output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 182,042,000 tonnes). ...


World trade figures are very different, as only about 5–6% of rice produced is traded internationally. The largest three exporting countries are Thailand (26% of world exports), Vietnam (15%), and the United States (11%), while the largest three importers are Indonesia (14%), Bangladesh (4%), and Brazil (3%). Although China and India are the top two largest producers of rice in the world, both of countries consume the majority of the rice produced domestically leaving little to be traded internationally.


Price setting

On April 30, 2008 Thailand announces the project of the creation of the Organisation of Rice Exporting Countries(OREC) with the potential to develop into a price-fixing cartel for rice.[52][53]


Rice consumption around the world

Consumption of rice by country — 2003/2004
(million metric ton)[54]
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 135
Flag of India India 85
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia 37
Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh 26
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam 18
Flag of Thailand Thailand 10
Flag of Burma Burma 10
Flag of the Philippines Philippines 9.7
Flag of Japan Japan 8.7
Flag of Brazil Brazil 8.1
Flag of South Korea South Korea 5.0
Flag of the United States United States 3.9
Source:
United States Department of Agriculture
[10]

Between 1961 and 2002, per capita consumption of rice increased by 40%. Rice consumption is highest in Asia, where average per capita consumption is higher than 80 kg/person per year. In the subtropics such as South America, Africa, and the Middle East, per capita consumption averages between 30 and 60 kg/person per year. People in the developed West, including Europe and the United States, consume less than 10 kg/person per year. [55] [56] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... USDA redirects here. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Rice is the most important crop in Asia. In Cambodia, for example, 90% of the total agricultural area is used for rice production. See The Burning of the Rice by Don Puckridge for the story of rice production in Cambodia [11].


U.S. rice consumption has risen sharply over the past 25 years, fueled in part by commercial applications such as beer production.[57] Almost 1 in 5 adult Americans now report eating at least half a serving of white or brown rice per day.[58] For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ...


Environmental impacts

In many countries where rice is the main cereal crop, rice cultivation is responsible for most of the methane emissions.[59] Farmers in some of the arid regions try to cultivate rice using groundwater bored through pumps, thus increasing the chances of famine in the long run.[citation needed] Rice also requires much more water to produce than other grains.[60] Grain redirects here. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


Rice pests

Main article: List of rice diseases

Rice pests are any organisms or microbes with the potential to reduce the yield or value of the rice crop (or of rice seeds)[61] (Jahn et al 2007). Rice pests include weeds, pathogens, insects, rodents, and birds. A variety of factors can contribute to pest outbreaks, including the overuse of pesticides and high rates of nitrogen fertilizer application (e.g. Jahn et al. 2005) [12]. Weather conditions also contribute to pest outbreaks. For example, rice gall midge and army worm outbreaks tend to follow high rainfall early in the wet season, while thrips outbreaks are associated with drought (Douangboupha et al. 2006). This article is a list of diseases of rice (Oryza sativa). ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living being. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... Fertilizers or fertilisers are compounds given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar spraying, for uptake through leaves. ... Families Suborder Terebrantia    Merothripidae    Uzelothripidae    Aeolothripidae    Adeheterothripidae    Heterothripidae    Thripidae    Fauriellidae Suborder Tubulifera    Phlaeothripidae Thrips (Thysanoptera) are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings (thus the scientific name, from the Greek thysanos (fringe) + pteron (wing)). Other common names include Thunderflies or Thunder bugs. ...


One of the challenges facing crop protection specialists is to develop rice pest management techniques which are sustainable. In other words, to manage crop pests in such a manner that future crop production is not threatened (Jahn et al. 2001). Rice pests are managed by cultural techniques, pest-resistant rice varieties, and pesticides (which include insecticide). Increasingly, there is evidence that farmers' pesticide applications are often unnecessary (Jahn et al. 1996, 2004a,b) [13] [14] [15]. By reducing the populations of natural enemies of rice pests (Jahn 1992), misuse of insecticides can actually lead to pest outbreaks (Cohen et al. 1994). Botanicals, so-called “natural pesticides”, are used by some farmers in an attempt to control rice pests, but in general the practice is not common. Upland rice is grown without standing water in the field. Some upland rice farmers in Cambodia spread chopped leaves of the bitter bush (Chromolaena odorata (L.)) over the surface of fields after planting. The practice probably helps the soil retain moisture and thereby facilitates seed germination. Farmers also claim the leaves are a natural fertilizer and helps suppress weed and insect infestations (Jahn et al. 1999). It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ...


Among rice cultivars there are differences in the responses to, and recovery from, pest damage (Jahn et al. 2004c, Khiev et al. 2000). Therefore, particular cultivars are recommended for areas prone to certain pest problems. The genetically based ability of a rice variety to withstand pest attacks is called resistance. Three main types of plant resistance to pests are recognized (Painter 1951, Smith 2005): as nonpreference, antibiosis, and tolerance. Nonpreference (or antixenosis) (Kogan and Ortman 1978) describes host plants which insects prefer to avoid; antibiosis is where insect survival is reduced after the ingestion of host tissue; and tolerance is the capacity of a plant to produce high yield or retain high quality despite insect infestation. Over time, the use of pest resistant rice varieties selects for pests that are able to overcome these mechanisms of resistance. When a rice variety is no longer able to resist pest infestations, resistance is said to have broken down. Rice varieties that can be widely grown for many years in the presence of pests, and retain their ability to withstand the pests are said to have durable resistance. Mutants of popular rice varieties are regularly screened by plant breeders to discover new sources of durable resistance (e.g. Liu et al. 2005, Sangha et al. 2008).


Major rice pests include the brown planthopper[16] (Preap et al. 2006), armyworms[17], the green leafhopper, the rice gall midge (Jahn and Khiev 2004), the rice bug (Jahn et al. 2004c), hispa (Murphy et al. 2006), the rice leaffolder, stemborer, rats (Leung et al 2002), and the weed Echinochloa crusgali (Pheng et al. 2001).


Rice diseases

Major rice diseases include Rice Ragged Stunt, Sheath Blight and Tungro. Rice blast, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe grisea, is the most significant disease affecting rice cultivation. Binomial name Magnaporthe grisea (T.T. Hebert) M.E. Barr Synonyms Magnaporthe grisea, also commonly know as rice blast fungus, is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a disease affecting rice, and can also infect a number of other agriculturally important cereals including wheat, rye and barley, causing diseases called... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ...


Cultivars

While most breeding of rice is carried out for crop quality and productivity, there are varieties selected for other reasons. Cultivars exist that are adapted to deep flooding, and these are generally called 'floating rice' [18]. The following is a list of varieties of rice. ...


The largest collection of rice cultivars is at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), with over 100,000 rice accessions [19] held in the International Rice Genebank [20]. Rice cultivars are often classified by their grain shapes and texture. For example, Thai Jasmine rice is long-grain and relatively less sticky, as long-grain rice contains less amylopectin than short-grain cultivars. Chinese restaurants usually serve long-grain as plain unseasoned steamed rice. Japanese mochi rice and Chinese sticky rice are short-grain. Chinese people use sticky rice which is properly known as "glutinous rice" (note: glutinous refer to the glue-like characteristic of rice; does not refer to "gluten") to make zongzi. The Japanese table rice is a sticky, short-grain rice. Japanese sake rice is another kind as well. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international NGO. Its headquarters are in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, and it has offices in ten countries. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Jasmine rice (Thai: ; kao hom mali), sometimes known in Britain as Thai fragrant rice[1], is a long-grain variety of rice that has a nutty aroma and a subtle and pandanus-leaf-like flavor, originally from Thailand. ... Amylopectin is a highly branched polymer of glucose found in plants. ... Mochigome is a kind of Japanese rice used to make mochi. ... Sticky rice or glutinous rice is the main type of rice grown and consumed by the Lao of Laos and Northeast Thailand, areas which are considered to be the primary center of origin and domestication of Asian rice (). It has been cultivated in this area for 4,000 years. ... Zong Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Zong, zongzi, or Chinese rice dumplings are a traditional Chinese food, made of glutinous rice stuffed with different fillings and wrapped in bamboo leaves. ... Japanese rice is a variety called Japonica which is characterized by stickiness. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ...


Indian rice cultivars include long-grained and aromatic Basmati (grown in the North), long and medium-grained Patna rice and short-grained Masoori. In South India the most prized cultivar is 'ponni' which is primarily grown in the delta regions of Kaveri River. Kaveri is also referred to as ponni in the South and the name reflects the geographic region where it is grown. In the Western Indian state of Maharashtra, a short grain variety called Ambemohar is very popular. this rice has a characteristic fragrance of Mango blossom. Brown basmati rice Basmati (Hindi: , IAST: , Urdu: ) is a variety of long grain rice, famous for its fragrance and delicate flavour. ... A variety of the species Oryza sativa. ... The Cauvery (sometimes written as Kaveri) is one of the major rivers of southern India. ... The Cauvery (sometimes written as Kaveri) is one of the major rivers of southern India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Ambemohar This is a popular variety of rice grown in the State of Maharashtra in India. ...

Brown Rice
Brown Rice
Polished Indian sona masuri rice.
Polished Indian sona masuri rice.

Aromatic rices have definite aromas and flavours; the most noted cultivars are Thai fragrant rice, Basmati, Patna rice, and a hybrid cultivar from America sold under the trade name, Texmati. Both Basmati and Texmati have a mild popcorn-like aroma and flavour. In Indonesia there are also red and black cultivars. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 680 KB) Brown Rice File links The following pages link to this file: Rice ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 680 KB) Brown Rice File links The following pages link to this file: Rice ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1365, 429 KB) Summary Close-up of polished sona masuri rice grown in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh & Karnataka Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1365, 429 KB) Summary Close-up of polished sona masuri rice grown in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh & Karnataka Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... Binomial name Oryza sativa L. Rice (Oryza sativa) is a species of grass in the genus Oryza, native to tropical and subtropical southeastern Asia, where it grows in wetlands. ... This article is about a biological term. ... For other uses, see Popcorn (disambiguation). ...


High-yield cultivars of rice suitable for cultivation in Africa and other dry ecosystems called the new rice for Africa (NERICA) cultivars have been developed. It is hoped that their cultivation will improve food security in West Africa. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... New Rice for Africa is an interspecific cultivar of rice developed by the West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA) to improve the yield of African rice varieties. ... Subsistence farmers with a Treadle Pump. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


Draft genomes for the two most common rice cultivars, indica and japonica, were published in April 2002. Rice was chosen as a model organism for the biology of grasses because of its relatively small genome (~430 megabase pairs). Rice was the first crop with a complete genome sequence.[62] Basmati rice is the oldest, common progenitor for most types. In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor. ...


On December 16, 2002, the UN General Assembly declared the year 2004 the International Year of Rice. The declaration was sponsored by more than 40 countries. is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ...


See also

Basmati rice, (basmati apparently means Queen of fragrance in the Hindi language) is a small long-grained variety of rice, famous for its fragrance and delicate flavour. ... Beaten rice is a rice which is dehusked and beaten to make small flat flakes. ... Bhutanese red rice is an heirloom rice grown in the Kingdom of Bhutan in the eastern Himalayas. ... Black rice is one of several black-colored heirloom plants producing rice variants such as Indonesian Black Rice, forbidden rice, or wild rice. ... Brown rice syrup is an extremely versatile and relatively healthy sweetener which is derived by culturing rice with enzymes to break down the starches, then straining off the liquid and cooking it until the desired consistency is reached. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Typical screenshot of the game, showing how much rice has been donated FreeRice. ... Inari (Japanese: 稲荷) is the Shinto god of fertility, rice, and foxes. ... An Indonesian rice table (in Dutch, rijsttafel) consists of rice accompanied by several, often spicy side dishes served buffet-style. ... Jasmine rice (Thai: ; kao hom mali), sometimes known in Britain as Thai fragrant rice[1], is a long-grain variety of rice that has a nutty aroma and a subtle and pandanus-leaf-like flavor, originally from Thailand. ... Here is a list of rice dishes from all over the world, divided alphabetically. ... The following is a list of varieties of rice. ... New Rice for Africa is an interspecific cultivar of rice developed by the West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA) to improve the yield of African rice varieties. ... Edible protein per unit area for various foodstuffs: Interpretation Soybean provides the largest amount of protein per unit area. ... This is called as Mur Mure in India. ... Red Rice is a small village located just southwest of Andover, Hampshire. ... The Rice Belt of the United States includes Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas, for southern U.S. states that grow the majority of the nations rice crop. ... Bran is the hard outer layer of cereal grains, and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... Rice wine refers to alcoholic beverages made from rice. ... The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a method of increasing the yield of rice produced in farming. ... White rice is the common term for milled rice which has had its husk, bran, and germ removed. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Crawford, G.W. and C. Shen. 1998. The Origins of Rice Agriculture: Recent Progress in East Asia. Antiquity 72:858–866.
  2. ^ International Rice Research Institute The Rice Plant and How it Grows Retrieved January 29, 2008
  3. ^ ProdSTAT. FAOSTAT. Retrieved on 2006-12-26.
  4. ^ Smith, Bruce D. The Emergence of Agriculture. Scientific American Library, A Division of HPHLP, New York, 1998.
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/news/2008/04/080411_rice_seq_wt_sl.shtml]
  7. ^ Risks of Talcum Powder
  8. ^ Jianguo G. Wu; Chunhai Shia and Xiaoming Zhanga (2003). Estimating the amino acid composition in milled rice by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Field Crops Research. Retrieved on 2008-01-08.
  9. ^ Watson, p. 15
  10. ^ Shoichi Ito and Yukihiro Ishikawa Tottori University, Japan. (Marketing of Value-Added Rice Products in Japan: Germinated Grown Rice and Rice Bread.). Retrieved on February 12, 2004.
  11. ^ Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003) The Dravidian Languages Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-77111-0 at p. 5.
  12. ^ J.P. Londo, Y. Chiang et al, "Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon, reveals multiple independent domestications of cultivated rice, Oryza sativa", PNAS 103(25):9578–83, 2006 ([2])
  13. ^ Garris, Amanda, Tai, Thomas, Coburn, Jason, Kresovich, Steve, McCouch, Susan. 2004. “Genetic Structure and Diversity in Oryza sativa L.” [3]
  14. ^ Garris, Amanda, Tai, Thomas, Coburn, Jason, Kresovich, Steve, McCouch, Susan. 2004. “Genetic Structure and Diversity in Oryza sativa L.” [4]
  15. ^ "rice." Encyclopaedia Britannica 2008. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
  16. ^ Sorghum: Origin, History, Technology, and Production By C. Wayne Smith. Published 2000. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471242373
  17. ^ World History: Societies of the Past / Charles Kahn ... [et Al.] By Charles Kahn. Published 2005. Portage & Main Press. ISBN 1553790456. pg 92
  18. ^ Food Culture in India By Colleen Taylor. Sen. Published 2004. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313324875
  19. ^ Cf. Talageri (2000) Talageri, Shrikant: The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis, 2000. ISBN 81-7742-010-0
  20. ^ Rice Research in South Asia through Ages by Y L Nene, Asian Agri-History Vol. 9, No. 2, 2005 (85–106). With reference to Sontakke and Kashikar, 1983
  21. ^ Rice Research in South Asia through Ages by Y L Nene, Asian Agri-History Vol. 9, No. 2, 2005 (85–106).
  22. ^ Rice Research in South Asia through Ages by Y L Nene, Asian Agri-History Vol. 9, No. 2, 2005 (85–106).
  23. ^ Rice Research in South Asia through Ages by Y L Nene, Asian Agri-History Vol. 9, No. 2, 2005 (85–106).
  24. ^ Rice Research in South Asia through Ages by Y L Nene, Asian Agri-History Vol. 9, No. 2, 2005 (85–106).
  25. ^ Zhao, Z. 1998. The Middle Yangtze Region in China is the Place Where Rice was Domesticated: Phytolithic Evidence from the Diaotonghuan Cave, Northern Jiangxi. Antiquity 72:885–897.
  26. ^ Crawford and Shen 1998
  27. ^ Diamond, Jared (1999). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-31755-2. 
  28. ^ Crawford and Shen 1998
  29. ^ Crawford and Shen 1998
  30. ^ a b c "Earliest Rice" by Spencer P.M. Harrington in Archaeology June 11, 1997. Archaeological Institute of America (1997).
  31. ^ Cf. BBC news (2003) [5]
  32. ^ Crawford, G.W. and G.-A. Lee. 2003. Agricultural Origins in the Korean Peninsula. Antiquity 77(295):87–95.
  33. ^ Crawford and Shen 1998
  34. ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pages 8-9. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f Watson, p. 17-18
  36. ^ http://www.carolinagoldricefoundation.org/ Carolina Gold Rice Foundation
  37. ^ Ching Lee (2005). Historic Richvale — the birthplace of California rice. California Farm Bureau Federation. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  38. ^ California's Rice Growing Region. California Rice Commission. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  39. ^ Daniel A. Sumner; Henrich Brunke (2003). The economic contributions of the California rice industry". California Rice Commission. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  40. ^ Medium Grain Varieties. California Rice Commission. Retrieved on 2007-08-10.
  41. ^ States Department of Agriculture August 2006, Release No. 0306.06, U.S. RICE STATISTICS
  42. ^ States Department of Agriculture August 2006, Release No. 0306.06, U.S. RICE STATISTICS
  43. ^ States Department of Agriculture August 2006, Release No. 0306.06, U.S. RICE STATISTICS
  44. ^ Wadham, Sir Samuel; Wilson, R. Kent and Wood, Joyce; Land Utilization in Australia, 3rd ed. Published 1957 by Melbourne University Press; p. 246
  45. ^ Ibid.
  46. ^ Australian Bureau of Meteorology; Climatic Atlas of Australia: Rainfall; published 2000 by Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Victoria
  47. ^ Rice Varieties: IRRI Knowledge Bank. Accessed August 2006. [6]
  48. ^ Grand Challenges in Global Health, Press release, June 27, 2005
  49. ^ Nature's story
  50. ^ Bethell D. R., Huang J., et al. BioMetals, 17. 337 - 342 (2004).[7]
  51. ^ all figures from UNCTAD 1998–2002 and the International Rice Research Institute statistics (accessed September 2005)
  52. ^ Australia|April 30, 2008|Mekong nations to form rice price-fixing cartel
  53. ^ Post|May 1, 2008|PM floats idea of five-nation rice cartel
  54. ^ Nationmaster.com, Agriculture Statistics > Grains > Rice consumption (most recent) by country, <http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/agr_gra_ric_con-agriculture-grains-rice-consumption>. Retrieved on 24 April 2008 
  55. ^ United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), (Rice} Market, <http://www.unctad.org/infocomm/anglais/rice/market.htm>. Retrieved on 24 April 2008 
  56. ^ Saudi Arabia: Per Capita Rice Consumption Hits 47 Kilogram, <http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-72731851.html>. Retrieved on 24 April 2008 
  57. ^ United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service, Briefing Rooms: Rice, <http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Rice/>. Retrieved on 24 April 2008 
  58. ^ Iowa State University (July 2005). "Rice Consumption in the United States: New Evidence from Food Consumption Surveys".
  59. ^ Methane Emission from Rice Fields - Wetland rice fields may make a major contribution to global warming by Heinz-Ulrich Neue
  60. ^ report12.pdf
  61. ^ Jahn et al. 2000
  62. ^ Gillis, Justing. "Rice Genome Fully Mapped", washingtonpost.com, August 11, 2005. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shrikant G. Talageri, born in 1958, is an Indian author & a bank clerk in his day-job. He is the author of a book on the Rigveda and on the Aryan Invasion Theory. His works include THE RIGVEDA - A Historical Analysis. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Cohen, J. E., K. Schoenly, K. L. Heong, H. Justo, G. Arida, A. T. Barrion, J. A. Litsinger. 1994. A Food Web Approach to Evaluating the Effect of Insecticide Spraying on Insect Pest Population Dynamics in a Philippine Irrigated Rice Ecosystem. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 747–763. doi:10.2307/2404165
  • Crawford, G.W. and C. Shen. 1998. The Origins of Rice Agriculture: Recent Progress in East Asia. Antiquity 72:858–866.
  • Crawford, G.W. and G.-A. Lee. 2003. Agricultural Origins in the Korean Peninsula. Antiquity 77(295):87–95.
  • Douangboupha, B., K. Khamphoukeo, S. Inthavong, J. Schiller, and G. Jahn. 2006. Pests and diseases of the rice production systems of Laos. Pp. 265–281. In J.M. Schiller, M.B. Chanphengxay, B. Linquist, and S. Appa Rao, editors. Rice in Laos. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 457 p. ISBN 978-971-22-0211-7.
  • Heong, KL, YH Chen, DE Johnson, GC Jahn, M Hossain, RS Hamilton. 2005. Debate Over a GM Rice Trial in China. Letters. Science, Vol 310, Issue 5746, 231–233 , 14 October 2005.
  • Huang, J., Ruifa Hu, Scott Rozelle, Carl Pray. 2005. Insect-Resistant GM Rice in Farmers' Fields: Assessing Productivity and Health Effects in China. Science (29 April 2005) Vol. 308. no. 5722, pp. 688–690. DOI: 10.1126/science.1108972
  • Jahn, G. C. 1992. Rice pest control and effects on predators in Thailand. Insecticide & Acaricide Tests 17:252–253.
  • Jahn, GC and B. Khiev. 2004. Gall midge in Cambodian lowland rice. pp. 71–76. In J. Benett, JS Bentur, IC Pasula, K. Krishnaiah, [eds]. New approaches to gall midge resistance in rice. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute and Indian Council of Agricultural Research. 195 p.
  • Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, B. Khiev, and C. Pol. 1996. Farmers’ pest management and rice production practices in Cambodian lowland rice. Cambodia-IRRI-Australia Project (CIAP), Baseline Survey Report No. 6. CIAP Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 28 pages. [21]
  • Jahn, G. C., B. Khiev, S. Pheng, and C. Pol. 1997. Pest management in rice. In H. J. Nesbitt [ed.] "Rice Production in Cambodia." Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 83–91.
  • Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, B. Khiev, and C. Pol. 1997. Pest management practices of lowland rice farmers in Cambodia. In K. L. Heong and M. M. Escalada [editors] "Pest Management Practices of Rice Farmers in Asia." Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 35–52. ISBN 971-22-0102-3
  • Jahn, G. C., C. Pol, B. Khiev, S. Pheng, and N. Chhorn. 1999. Farmer’s pest management and rice production practices in Cambodian upland and deepwater rice. Cambodia-IRRI-Australia Project, Baseline Survey Report No. 7.[22]
  • Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, B. Khiev and C. Pol 2000. Ecological characterization of biotic constraints to rice in Cambodia. International Rice Research Notes (IRRN) 25 (3): 23–24.
  • Jahn, G. C., S. Pheng, C. Pol, B. Khiev 2000. Characterizing biotic constraints to production of Cambodian rainfed lowland rice: limitations to statistical techniques. pp. 247–268 In T. P. Tuong, S. P. Kam, L. Wade, S. Pandey, B. A. M. Bouman, B. Hardy [eds.] “Characterizing and Understanding Rainfed Environments.” Proceedings of the International Workshop on Characterizing and Understanding Rainfed Environments, 5–9 December 1999, Bali, Indonesia. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). 488 p.
  • Jahn, GC, B. Khiev, C. Pol, N. Chhorn, S. Pheng, and V. Preap. 2001. Developing sustainable pest management for rice in Cambodia. pp. 243–258, In S. Suthipradit, C. Kuntha, S. Lorlowhakarn, and J. Rakngan [eds.] “Sustainable Agriculture: Possibility and Direction” Proceedings of the 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Sustainable Agriculture 18–20 October 1999, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Bangkok (Thailand): National Science and Technology Development Agency. 386 p.
  • Jahn, GC, NQ Kamal, S Rokeya, AK Azad, NI Dulu, JB Orsini, A Barrion, and L Almazan. 2004a. Completion Report on Livelihood Improvement Through Ecology (LITE), PETRRA IPM Subproject SP 27 02. Poverty Elimination Through Rice Research Assistance (PETRRA), IRRI, Dhaka. 20 pages text plus 20 pages appendices. [23]
  • Jahn, GC, NQ Kamal, S Rokeya, AK Azad, NI Dulu, JB Orsini, M Morshed, NMS Dhar, NA Kohinur 2004b. Evaluation Report on Livelihood Improvement Through Ecology (LITE), PETRRA IPM Subproject SP 27 02. Poverty Elimination Through Rice Research Assistance (PETRRA), IRRI, Dhaka. 42 pages plus 40 pages of annexes.[24]
  • Jahn, GC, I. Domingo, L. P. Almazan and J. Pacia. 2004c. Effect of rice bugs (Alydidae: Leptocorisa oratorius (Fabricius)) on rice yield, grain quality, and seed viability. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(6): 1923–1927.[25]
  • Jahn, GC, LP Almazan, and J Pacia. 2005. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the intrinsic rate of increase of the rusty plum aphid, Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rice (Oryza sativa L.). Environmental Entomology 34 (4): 938–943.[26]
  • Jahn, GC, JA Litsinger, Y Chen and A Barrion. 2007. Integrated Pest Management of Rice: Ecological Concepts. In Ecologically Based Integrated Pest Management (eds. O. Koul and G.W. Cuperus). CAB International Pp. 315–366.
  • Khiev, B., G. C. Jahn, C. Pol, and N. Chhorn 2000. Effects of simulated pest damage on rice yields. IRRN 25 (3): 27–28.
  • Kogan, M., and E. F. Ortman. 1978. Antixenosis a new term proposed to defined to describe Painter’s “non-preference” modality of resistance. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 24: 175-176.
  • Leung LKP, Peter G. Cox, Gary C. Jahn and Robert Nugent. 2002. Evaluating rodent management with Cambodian rice farmers. Cambodian Journal of Agriculture Vol. 5, pp. 21–26.
  • Liu, L., Z. Van, Q. Y. Shu, and M. Maluszynski. 2004. Offcially released mutant varieties in China. Mutat. Breed. Rev 14: 1:64.
  • Ma, Jian Feng; Kazunori Tamai, Naoki Yamaji, Namiki Mitani, Saeko Konishi, Maki Katsuhara, Masaji Ishiguro, Yoshiko Murata, Masahiro Yano (2006). "A silicon transporter in rice". Nature 440 (7084): 688-691. doi:10.1038/nature04590. ISSN 0028-0836. Retrieved on 2008-05-05. 
  • Mitani, Namiki; Jian Feng Ma, Takashi Iwashita (2005). "Identification of the silicon form in xylem sap of rice (Oryza sativa L.)". Plant Cell Physiol. 46 (2): 279-283. doi:10.1093/pcp/pci018. Retrieved on 2008-05-05. 
  • Mitani, Namiki; Jian Feng Ma (2005). "Uptake system of silicon in different plant species". J. Exp. Bot. 56 (414): 1255-1261. doi:10.1093/jxb/eri121. Retrieved on 2008-05-05. 
  • Murphy, S, J Stonehouse, J Holt, J Venn, NQ Kamal, MF Rabbi, MH Haque, G Jahn, B Barrion. 2006. Ecology and management of rice hispa (Dicladispa armigera) in Bangladesh. Pp. 162––164. In Perspectives on Pests II: Achievements of research under UK Department for International Development, Crop Protection Programme 2000–05. Natural Resources International Limited. 206 pages. [27]
  • Painter, R. H. 1951. Insect resistance in crop plants. The Macmillan Co., New York.
  • Pheng, S., B. Khiev, C. Pol and G. C. Jahn 2001. Response of two rice cultivars to the competition of Echinochloa crus-gali (L.) P. Beauv. International Rice Research Institute Notes (IRRN) 26 (2): 36–37.
  • Preap V., M. P. Zalucki and G. C. Jahn. 2006. Brown planthopper outbreaks and management. Cambodian Journal of Agriculture 7(1): 17–25.
  • Preap, V, GC Jahn, K Hin, N Siheng. 2005. Fish and rice management system to enable agricultural diversification. Paper presented at the 5th Asia-Pacific Congress of Entomology, 18–21 October 2005, Jeju, Korea.
  • Saltini Antonio, I semi della civiltà. Grano, riso e mais nella storia delle società umane,, prefazione di Luigi Bernabò Brea Avenue Media, Bologna 1996
  • Sangha JS, Chen YH, Palchamy K, Jahn GC, Maheswaran M, et al. (2008) Categories and Inheritance of Resistance to Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Mutants of Indica Rice ‘IR64’. Journal of Economic Entomology: Vol. 101, No. 2 pp. 575–583.
  • Smith, C. M. 2005. Plant resistance to arthropods: molecular and conventional approaches. Springer, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Rice Research in South Asia through Ages by Y L Nene, Asian Agri-History Vol. 9, No. 2, 2005 (85–106) [28]
  • Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition Oxford: University Press, 2000.
  • Watson, Andrew (1983). Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world. Cambridge University Press.
  • Zhao, Z. 1998. The Middle Yangtze Region in China is the Place Where Rice was Domesticated: Phytolithic Evidence from the Diaotonghuan Cave, Northern Jiangxi. Antiquity 72:885–897.

is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Rice
Look up Rice in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Rice

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

General

  • Infocomm/UNCTAD
  • International Rice Research Institute
  • Rice Knowledge Bank
  • A Brief History of Rice
  • Rice Research in South Asia through Ages (PDF)

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

Rice research & development

  • Intensify to Diversify: an IRRI rice intensification project in Cambodia
  • Celebrating the Land (Part 1): video about an IRRI project to increase rice production in Laos
  • Celebrating the Land (Part 2): video about an IRRI project to increase rice production in Laos
  • Operation Rice Bowl of the Catholic Relief Service
  • Rice-Fish Culture in China, an IDRC Project
  • JICA rice project in Bolivia

Rice in agriculture

  • American Phytopathological Society: Diseases of Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • FAO: Animal Feed Resources Information System, Oryza sativa
  • Origin of Chinese rice cultivation

Rice as food

  • How to Cook Rice Step-by-Step Photos
  • US Patent 6,676,983: Puffed food starch product
  • How to Save a Bad Batch of Rice and Other Tips
  • Veetee DINE IN Microwavable Steam Cooked Rice
  • A Malaysian Food Heritage

Rice ethanol fuel

  • Japanese Rice Ethanol Plant to Start 2009.

Rice economics

  • Rice as a Commodity
  • UNCTAD market information
  • Grain Drain: The Hidden Cost of U.S. Rice Subsidies
  • Vietnamese Rice Website

Rice genome

  • Rice Genome Browser
  • n:Chinese authorities question genetically altered rice allegation
  • Oryza sativa The rice genome, a "Rosetta stone" for other cereals
  • Rice Genome Research Program
  • Rice Genome Approaches Completion
  • The Genomes of Oryza sativa: A History of Duplications
  • Biologists Trace Back Genetic Origins Of Rice Domestication
  • Waterproof rice can outlast the floods — Researchers have tracked down a gene that allows the plant to survive complete submersion
Grain redirects here. ... // “Grain” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Amaranth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. ... Binomial name Digitaria exilis (Kippist) Stapf Synonyms Paspalum exile Kippist Syntherisma exilis (Kippist) Newbold White fonio (Digitaria exilis) is the most important of a diverse group of wild and domesticated Digitaria species that are harvested in the savannas of west Africa. ... Binomial name Coix lacryma-jobi L. Synonyms Coix agrestis Lour. ... Binomial name Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen Kañiwa is a species of goosefoot, similar in character and uses to the closely related to quinoa. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Binomial name Willd. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Commercial sorghum refers to the cultivation and commercial exploitation of species of grasses within the genus Sorghum. ... Look up Spelt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Triticale Triticale (x Triticosecale) is an artificial or man-made hybrid of rye and wheat first bred in laboratories during the late 19th century. ... Binomial name Eragrostis tef (Zucc. ... Species Zizania aquatica Zizania latifolia Zizania palustris Zizania texana Zizania aquatica L. Hitchc. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Japanese rice (390 words)
Its fundamental importance to the country and its culture is reflected by the facts that rice was once used as a currency, and that the Japanese word for cooked rice (gohan) has also the general meaning of "meal".
Rice wine is commonly known as sake, which is actually the general term for "alcohol" in Japanese.
Rice is also used to produce vinegar, which in turn can be used as any other type of vinegar, for example, in salads or for preparing sushi rice.
Rice - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2964 words)
Rice cultivars are often classified by their grain shapes and texture.
Japanese mochi rice and Chinese sticky rice are short-grain.
Rice was chosen as a model organism for the biology of grasses because of its relatively small genome (~430 megabase pairs).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m