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Encyclopedia > Ribonuclease

Ribonuclease (RNase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components. Ribbon diagram of the catalytically perfect enzyme TIM. Factor D enzyme crystal prevents the immune system from inappropriately running out of control. ... In chemistry and biology, catalysis is the acceleration of the reaction rate of a chemical reaction by means of a substance, called a catalyst, that is itself unchanged chemically by the overall reaction. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid consisting of a string of covalently-bound nucleotides. ...


RNases are extremely common in the modern world, resulting in very short lifespans for any RNA that is not in a protected environment.


An RNase that is commonly used in research is RNase A. RNase A (e.g., bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A: PDB 2AAS, EC 3.1.27.5) is one of the hardiest enzymes in common laboratory usage; one method of isolating it is to boil a crude cellular extract until all enzymes other than RNase A are denatured. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ... EC numbers (Enzyme Commission numbers) are a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze. ... Denaturation is a structural change in biomolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins, usually caused by heat, acids, bases, detergents, or certain chemicals such as urea. ...


RNase P, another type of RNase, is currently under much research and is unique in that it is a ribozyme, a ribonucleic acid that acts as a catalyst in the same way that a protein based enzyme would. Its function is to cleave off an extra, or precursor, sequence of RNA on tRNA molecules. RNase P has two components: an RNA chain, called M1 RNA, and a polypeptide chain, or protein, called C5 protein. In vivo, both components are necessary for the ribozyme to function properly, but in vitro, the M1 RNA can act alone as a catalyst. A ribozyme (from RNA enzyme) is an RNA molecule, that catalyzes a chemical reaction. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid consisting of a string of covalently-bound nucleotides. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA) is a small RNA chain (74-93 nucleotides) that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ribonuclease - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (626 words)
Ribonuclease, abbreviated commonly as RNase, is an nuclease that catalyzes the breakdown of RNA into smaller components.
RNase A (e.g., bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A: PDB 2AAS, EC 3.1.27.5) is one of the hardiest enzymes in common laboratory usage; one method of isolating it is to boil a crude cellular extract until all enzymes other than RNase A are denatured.
RNase H is a ribonuclease that cleaves the RNA in a DNA/RNA duplex to produce ssDNA.
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