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Encyclopedia > Rhythm style
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Rhythm (Greek ρυθμός = tempo) is the variation of the duration of sounds or other events over time. "Rhythm involves patterns of duration that are phenomenally present in the music" with duration measured by interonset interval (London 2004, p.4). When governed by rule, it is called meter. It is inherent in any time-dependent medium, but it is most associated with music, dance, and the majority of poetry. The study of rhythm, stress, and pitch in speech is called prosody; it is a topic in linguistics. All musicians, instrumentalists and vocalists, work with rhythm, but it is often considered the primary domain of drummers and percussionists. In music, variation is a formal technique where material is altered during repetition; reiteration with changes. ... A duration is an amount of time or a particular time interval. ... Jump to: navigation, search A schematic representation of hearing. ... Metre is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western notation by a symbol called a time signature. ... Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Music Look up Music on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikisource, as part of the 1911 Encyclopedia Wikiproject, has original text related to this article: Music MusicNovatory: the science of music encyclopedia The Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Distionary, with definitions, pronunciations, examples... Jump to: navigation, search A contemporary dancer rehearsing in a dance studio Dance (from Old French dance, further history unknown) generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression (see also body language) or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. ... Jump to: navigation, search Meter (non-American spelling: metre) describes the linguistic sound patterns of verse. ... Jump to: navigation, search In music, pitch is the perception of the frequency of a note. ... One might be looking for the academic discipline of communications. ... Prosody may mean several things: Prosody consists of distinctive variations of stress, tone, and timing in spoken language. ... Jump to: navigation, search Broadly conceived, linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ... A drummer is a musician who plays the drums, particularly the drum kit, marching percussion, or hand drums. ... Percussion instruments are played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped. ...


In Western music, rhythms are usually arranged with respect to a time signature, partially signifying a meter. The speed of the underlying pulse, called the beat, is the tempo. The tempo is usually measured in 'beats per minute' (bpm); 60 bpm means a speed of one beat per second. The length of the meter, or metric unit (usually corresponding with measure length), is divided almost exclusively into either two or three beats, being called duple meter and triple meter, respectively. If each beat is further divided by two it is simple meter, if by three compound meter. Western music is a broad category of music that includes all musical genres that use a 12-note chromatic scale, including Western classical music, rock and roll, and many other forms of popular music. ... Jump to: navigation, search The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational device used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each bar and which note value (minim, crotchet, quaver, and so on) constitutes one beat. ... In music, a pulse is an unbroken series of distinct yet identical periodically occurring short stimuli perceived as points in time (DeLone et. ... See also the beat disambiguation page. ... Jump to: navigation, search In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for time) is the speed or pace of a given piece. ... In musical terminology, a bar or measure is a segment of time defined as a given number of beats of a given duration. ... Metre is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western notation by a symbol called a time signature. ... Metre is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western notation by a symbol called a time signature. ... In music, simple metre or simple time is a time signature or meter in which each beat (or rather, portion, 1/2 or 1/3 of a measure) is divided into two parts, as opposed to three which is compound meter. ... In music, compound metre or compound time is a time signature or meter in which each beat (or rather, portion, 1/2 or 1/3 of a measure) is divided into three parts, as opposed to two which is simple meter. ...


Some genres of music make different use of rhythm than others. Most Western music is based on divisive rhythm, while non-Western music uses more additive rhythm. African music makes heavy use of polyrhythms, and Indian music uses complex cycles such as 7 and 13, while Balinese music often uses complex interlocking rhythms. By comparison, a lot of Western classical music is fairly rhythmically simple; it stays in a simple meter such as 4/4 or 3/4 and makes little use of syncopation. In the 20th century, composers like Igor Stravinsky, Philip Glass, and Steve Reich wrote more rhythmically complex music using odd meters, and techniques such as phasing and additive rhythm. At the same time, modernists such as Olivier Messiaen and his pupils used increased complexity to disrupt the sense of a regular beat, leading eventually to the widespread use of irrational rhythms in New Complexity. This use may be explained by a comment of John Cage's where he notes that regular rhythms cause sounds to be heard as a group rather than individually; the irregular rhythms highlight the rapidly changing pitch relationships that would otherwise be subsumed into irrelevant rhythmic groupings (Sandow 2004, p.257). LaMonte Young also wrote music in which the sense of a regular beat is absent because the music consists only of long sustained tones (drones). In the 1930s, Henry Cowell wrote music involving multiple simultaneous periodic rhythms and collaborated with Léon Theremin to invent the Rhythmicon, the first electronic rhythm machine, in order to perform them. Musical genres are categories which contain music which share a certain style or which have certain elements in common. ... In music a divisive rhythm is a rhythm in which a larger period of time is divided into smaller rhythmic units, this can be contrasted with additive rhythms, which are larger periods of time constructed from sequences of smaller rhythmic units added to the end of the previous unit. ... Additive rhythms are larger periods of time constructed from sequences of smaller rhythmic units added to the end of the previous unit. ... Africa is a large and diverse continent, consisting of dozens of countries, hundreds of languages and thousands of races, tribes and ethnic groups. ... Polyrhythm is the simultaneous sounding of two or more independent rhythms. ... Indian music is: The music of India or Native American music This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Jump to: navigation, search A gamelan is a musical ensemble of Indonesian origin typically featuring metallophones, xylophone(s), drums, and gongs. ... Interlocking in railway terminology (US) is a term used to describe an at-grade crossing or other junction of two or more railroads, or any railroad switching complex in which the switches and the signals controlling train movement over those switches is interlocked so that it is impossible to give... Jump to: navigation, search Classical musicis a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to musicproduced in, or rooted in the traditions of, Europeanart, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... In music, simple metre or simple time is a time signature or meter in which each beat (or rather, portion, 1/2 or 1/3 of a measure) is divided into two parts, as opposed to three which is compound meter. ... Jump to: navigation, search In music, syncopation is the stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or the failure to sound a tone on an accented beat. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Composers are people who write music. ... Jump to: navigation, search Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky (Russian: ) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian-French-American composer of modern classical music. ... Jump to: navigation, search Philip Glass looks upon sheet music in a portrait taken by Annie Leibovitz. ... Jump to: navigation, search Steve Reich Steve Reich (born October 3, 1936; last name pronounced []) is an American composer. ... Phasing describes relative phase shift in superposing waves. ... Additive rhythms are larger periods of time constructed from sequences of smaller rhythmic units added to the end of the previous unit. ... Olivier Messiaen (IPA: or ; December 10, 1908 – April 27, 1992) was a French composer, organist, and ornithologist. ... In music, an irrational rhythm is any rhythm in which an odd number of beats is superimposed on an even number in the predominating tempo, or vice versa. ... Jump to: navigation, search New Complexity is a British school of avant garde classical music dating from the 1980s. ... Jump to: navigation, search John Cage John Milton Cage (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American experimental music composer and writer. ... La Monte Young (born October 14, 1935) is an American composer whose eccentric and often hard-to-find works have been included among the most important post World War 2 avant garde or experimental music. ... In music, a drone is a harmonic or monophonic effect or accompaniment where a note or chord is continuously sounded throughout much or all of a piece, sustained or repeated, and most often establishing a tonality upon which the rest of the piece is built. ... Jump to: navigation, search Henry Cowell (March 11, 1897 - December 10, 1965) was an American composer, musical theorist, pianist, teacher, publisher, and impresario. ... A young Léon Theremin playing a theremin Léon Theremin (born Lev Sergeyevich Termen, Лев Сергеевич Термен in Russian) (August 15, 1896–November 3, 1993) was a Russian inventor, most famous for his invention of the theremin, one of the first electronic musical instruments. ... A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine A drum machine is a device designed to imitate the sound of drums and/or other percussion instruments. ...


Clave is a common underlying rhythm in African, Cuban music, and Brazilian music. Jump to: navigation, search Clave is a rhythmic pattern or timeline which has its roots in West African music and was developed in Cuba. ... Africa is a large and diverse continent, consisting of dozens of countries, hundreds of languages and thousands of races, tribes and ethnic groups. ...


A rhythm section generally consists of percussion instruments, and possibly chordal instruments (e.g., guitar, banjo) and keyboard instruments, such as piano (which, by the way, may be classified as any of these three types of instruments). Jump to: navigation, search Rhythm section refers to the musicians whose primary jobs in a jazz or popular music band or ensemble is to establish the rhythm of a song or musical piece, often via repeated riffs or ostinati. ... Percussion instruments are music instruments played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped, hence the percussive name. ... A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... Jump to: navigation, search The acoustic archtop guitar, used in Jazz music, features steel strings The guitar is a stringed musical instrument. ... Jump to: navigation, search Old 6-string zither banjo 4-string banjos The banjo, derived from the banjar, is a stringed instrument of American origins, sometimes called the gourd banjo. The banjar, in turn was based on the African akonting. Some etymologists derive it from a dialectal pronunciation of bandore... Jump to: navigation, search A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played with a musical keyboard. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the modern musical instrument. ...


"Rhythm," wrote Tom Robbins in Another Roadside Attraction, "is everything pertaining to the duration of energy." Tom Robbins photo Lawrence Gerald, LaConner,WA.1985 Thomas Eugene Robbins (born July 22, 1936) is an American author, born in Blowing Rock, North Carolina. ... Another Roadside Attraction is Tom Robbins first novel, published in 1971 by Bantam Books, which initiated what has grown to be considered his cult following. ...


Narmour (1980, p.147-53) describes three categories of prosodic rules which create rhythmic successions which are additive (same duration repeated), cumulative (short-long), or countercumulative (long-short). Cumulation is associated with closure or relaxation, countercumulation with openness or tension, while additive rhythms are open-ended and repetitive. Richard Middleton points out this method cannot account for syncopation and suggests the concept of transformation. Jump to: navigation, search In music, syncopation is the stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or the failure to sound a tone on an accented beat. ... Transformation may refer to: In molecular biology: In genetics transformation involves the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign DNA. In cell division, the transformation process converts normal cells into cells that will continue to divide without limit. ...


A rhythmic unit is a durational pattern which occupies a period of time equivalent to a pulse or pulses on an underlying metric level, as opposed to a rhythmic gesture which does not (DeLone et. al. (Eds.), 1975, chap. 3). A rhythmic unit is a durational pattern which occupies a period of time equivalent to a pulse or pulses on an underlying metric level, as opposed to a rhythmic gesture. ... A duration is an amount of time or a particular time interval. ... In music, a pulse is an unbroken series of distinct yet identical periodically occurring short stimuli perceived as points in time (DeLone et. ... Metre is the measurement of a musical line into measures of stressed and unstressed beats, indicated in Western notation by a symbol called a time signature. ... A rhythmic gesture is a durational pattern which, in contrast to a rhythmic unit, does not occupy a period of time equivalent to a pulse or pulses on an underlying metric level. ...


Sources

  • London, Justin (2004). Hearing in Time: Psychological Aspects of Musical Meter. ISBN 0195160819.
  • Middleton, Richard (1990/2002). Studying Popular Music. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 0335152759.
  • Narmour (1980). Cited in DeLone et. al. (Eds.) (1975). Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0130493465.
  • Sandow, Greg (2004). "A Fine Madness", The Pleasure of Modernist Music. ISBN 1580461433.

Journal Articles

  • Honing, H. (2002). "Structure and interpretation of rhythm and timing." Tijdschrift voor Muziektheorie [Dutch Journal of Music Theory] 7(3): 227-232.

External links

  • Research group specializing in rhythm, timing, and tempo, University of Amsterdam

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Rhythm and Blues - MSN Encarta (1198 words)
Typically, the rhythm section consists of a drum kit, bass (electric or acoustic), piano (sometimes organ instead of or in addition to piano), and guitar, while the horn section features saxophones, trumpets, and occasionally trombones (though confusingly almost never, despite its name, horns).
In popular music, new styles were created to meet the changing tastes of this demographic group, leading to the development of the urban sounds of R&B. Big band jazz figures such as Count Basie and Lionel Hampton successfully brought more vibrant rhythms into their repertoires, prompting a more energetic style of audience participation.
The profound sociological changes of the war period were accompanied by two significant technological developments: the invention of the electric guitar in the late 1930s and the discovery of the German-invented tape recorder by the music industry at the end of the war.
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This style was born in the late 1940's with the rise of Western Swing - a hybrid of western-themed songs with jazz rhythm and harmony.
Though this style of rhythm guitar could be played on a flattop instrument, an archtop guitar was typically used.
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