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Encyclopedia > Rhythm and blues
Rhythm and blues
Stylistic origins
Cultural origins
Typical instruments
Mainstream popularity Significant from 1940s to 1960s; iconic afterwards
Derivative forms Contemporary R&B - Reggae - Ska - Rock and roll - Soul music - Funk
Subgenres
Doo wop

Rhythm and blues (also known as R&B or RnB) is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences, first performed by African American artists. Contemporary R&B is a music genre of American popular music, the current iteration of the genre that began in the 1940s as rhythm and blues music. ... Rhythm and blues is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Blues music redirects here. ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ... Gospel music is music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life, as well as (in terms of the varying music styles) to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular music. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... A sunburst-colored Fender Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass[1][2]; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... A harmonica is a free reed wind instrument. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... A drum kit (or drum set or trap set) is a collection of drums, cymbals and sometimes other percussion instruments, such as a cowbell, wood block, chimes or tambourines, arranged for convenient playing by a single drummer. ... Pianoforte redirects here. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... An electronic keyboard. ... Contemporary R&B is a music genre of American popular music, the current iteration of the genre that began in the 1940s as rhythm and blues music. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... This article is about the genre. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ... For the Lauryn Hill single, see Doo Wop (That Thing). ... For the music genre, see Pop music. ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Gospel music is music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life, as well as (in terms of the varying music styles) to give a Christian alternative to mainstream secular music. ... Blues music redirects here. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


Writer/producer Robert Palmer defined "rhythm & blues as a catchall term referring to any music that was made by and for black Americans."[1] He has used the term R&B as a synonym for jump blues.[2] Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that rhythm and blues was an umbrella term invented for industry convenience. According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts. [3] Robert Franklin Palmer Jr. ... Jump blues is a type of up-tempo blues music influenced by big band sound. ... An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the present. ... Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. ...

Contents

Late 1940s

In 1947, the term rhythm and blues was coined as a musical marketing term in the United States by Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine.[4] It replaced the term race music, which originally came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world.[5] In that year, Louis Jordan dominated the top five listings of the R&B charts with three songs, and two of the top five songs were based on the boogie-woogie rhythms that had come to prominence during the 1940s.[6] Jordan's band, the Tympany Five (formed in 1938), consisted of him on saxophone and vocals, along with musicians on trumpet, tenor saxophone, piano, bass and drums.[7] - - Lawrence Cohn described the music as "grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues".[8] Robert Palmer described it as "urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat".[9] Jordan's cool music, along with that of Big Joe Turner and Wynonie Harris, is now also referred to as jump blues. - - In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing black music under the name Blues and Rhythm. That year found the Wynonie Harris song "Good Rockin' Tonight" in the #2 spot, following band leader Sonny Thompson's "Long Gone" at #1.[10][11] - - In 1949, the term rhythm and blues replaced the Billboard category Harlem Hit Parade.[3] Also in that year, "The Huckle-Buck", recorded by band leader and saxophonist Paul Williams, was the #1 R&B tune, remaining on top of the charts for nearly the entire year. Written by musician and arranger Andy Gibson, the song was described as a "dirty boogie" because it was risque and raunchy.[12] Paul Williams and His Hucklebuckers' concerts were sweaty riotous affairs that got shut down on more than one occasion. Their lyrics, by Roy Alfred (who later co-wrote the 1955 hit "(The) Rock and Roll Waltz"), were mildly sexually suggestive, and one teenager from Philadelphia said "That Hucklebuck was a very nasty dance."[13] The Clovers, a vocal trio who sang a distinctive sounding combination of blues and gospel, had the #5 hit of the year with "Don't You Know I Love You" on Atlantic Records.[14][15][16] Also in July 1951, Cleveland, Ohio DJ Alan Freed started a late-night radio show called "The Moondog Rock Roll House Party" on WJW-AM (850).[17] Freed's show was sponsored by Fred Mintz, whose R&B record store had a primarily African American clientele. Freed began referring to the rhythm and blues music he played as rock and roll. Next big thing redirects here. ... Gerald Jerry Wexler (born January 10, 1917) is a music journalist turned highly influential music producer, and is regarded as one of the major record industry players behind 1960s soul music. ... It has been suggested that Billboard be merged into this article or section. ... An African American man gives a piano lesson to a young African American woman, in 1899 or 1900, in Georgia, USA. Photograph from a collection of W.E.B. DuBois. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... Louis Jordan swinging on sax, Paramount Theatre, NYC, 1946 (Photo: William P. Gottlieb) Louis Jordan (July 8, 1908 – February 4, 1975) was a pioneering African-American blues, jazz and rhythm & blues musician and songwriter who enjoyed his greatest popularity from the late 1930s to the early 1950s. ... Boogie-woogie is a style of piano-based blues that became very popular in the late 1930s and early 1940s, and was extended from piano, to three pianos at once, guitar, big band, and country and western music, and even gospel. ... Big Joe Turner (born Joseph Vernon Turner Jr. ... Wynonie Mr. ... Jump blues is a type of up-tempo blues music influenced by big band sound. ... Sony BMG Music Entertainment is the result of a 50/50 joint venture between Sony Music Entertainment (part of Sony) and BMG Entertainment (part of Bertelsmann AG) completed in August 2004. ... Sonny Thompson (b August 22, 1923, Centreville, Mississippi - d August 11, 1989, Chicago) was an American R&B bandleader and pianist popular in the 1940s and 1950s. ... Paul Williams (1915 – 2002) was an American blues and rhythm and blues alto and baritone saxophonist and composer. ... The Clovers are an American doo wop group. ... Atlantic Records (Atlantic Recording Corporation) is an American record label, and operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Music Group. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For the complete history of WKNR in Cleveland from 1990 to 2001, and its predecessor WGAR (AM), see WHKW. WKNR is an AM all-sports station in Cleveland, Ohio, broadcasting at 850 kHz with its transmitter in North Royalton, Ohio and studios at its former transmitter site in Broadview Heights... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ...


Ruth Brown, on the Atlantic Records label, placed hits in the top 5 every year from 1951 through 1954: "Teardrops from My Eyes", "Five, Ten, Fifteen Hours", "(Mama) He Treats Your Daughter Mean" and "What a Dream". Faye Adams‘s "Shake a Hand" made it to #2 in 1952. In 1953, the R&B record-buying public made Willie Mae Thornton's original recording of Leiber and Stoller's Hound Dog the #3 hit that year.[18] That same year The Orioles, a doo-wop group, had the #4 hit of the year with Crying in the Chapel.[19] Ruth Brown (January 12, 1928–November 17, 2006) was an American R&B singer. ... Atlantic Records (Atlantic Recording Corporation) is an American record label, and operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Music Group. ... Teardrops from My Eyes, written by Rudy Toombs, was the first upbeat major hit for Ruth Brown, establishing her as an important figure in rhythm and blues. ... What a Dream is a popular song. ... Faye Adams (born Faye Tuell circa 1923) is an American vocalist best known for a string of hits in the 1950s, including Shake A Hand, Hurts Me To My Heart, Ill Be True and Anything For A Friend. Born in Newark, New Jersey, Adams began her career in gospel... Big Mama Thornton album cover Willie Mae (Big Mama) Thornton (December 11, 1926 – July 25, 1984) was an American blues singer. ... Jerry Leiber (born April 25, 1933) and Mike Stoller (born March 13, 1933) are among the most important songwriters and music producers in post-World War II popular music. ... The term Hound Dog may refer to: The song Hound Dog, which was first recorded by Big Mama Thornton in 1953 as a blues song. ... The Orioles were an American R&B and doo-wop group, one of the earliest such vocal bands. ... Doo-wop is a style of vocal-based rhythm and blues music popular in the mid-1950s to the early 1960s in America. ... Crying In The Chapel was a song written by Artie Glenn for his son Darrell to sing. ...


In 1954 The Chords' "Sh-Boom" became the first hit to cross over from the R&B chart to hit the top 10 early in the year. Late in the year, and into 1955, "Hearts of Stone" by The Charms made the top 20.[20] The Chords is a named shared by two unrelated musical groups of the 20th Century. ... 10:10, 8 September 2006 (UTC)87. ... Hearts Of Stone is a popular song. ... For the doo-wop group, see Otis Williams and the Charms. ...


Mid to late 1950s

Fats Domino made the top 30 of the pop charts in 1952 and 1953, then the top 10 with "Ain't That a Shame".[21] Ray Charles came to national prominence in 1955 with "I Got a Woman". It was an upfront use of gospel music conventions in an R&B context. Big Bill Broonzy said of Charles' music: "He's mixing the blues with the spirituals... I know that's wrong."[22] At the urging of Leonard Chess at Chess Records, Chuck Berry had reworked a fiddle tune with a long history, "Ida Red". The resulting "Maybellene" was not only a #3 hit on the R&B charts that year, but it also reached into the top 30 on the pop charts. Alan Freed, who had moved to the much larger market of New York City, helped the record become popular with white teenagers. Freed had been given part of the writers' credit by Chess in return for his promotional activities; a common practice at the time.[23] Also at Chess Records in 1955, Bo Diddley's debut record "Bo Diddley"/"I'm A Man" climbed to #2 on the R&B charts and popularized the Bo Diddley beat. Antoine Dominique Fats Domino (born February 26, 1928) is a classic R&B and rock and roll singer, songwriter and pianist. ... Aint That a Shame is a song by Fats Domino and Dave Bartholomew, recorded in New Orleans, Louisiana for Imperial Records and released in 1955. ... For Ray Charles, the composer and conductor of the Ray Charles Singers, see Ray Charles (composer). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Big Bill Broonzy (1893 or 1898-1958) was a prolific United States composer, recorder and performer of blues songs. ... Leonard Chess (March 12, 1917 - October 16, 1969) was a record company executive, founder of Chess Records. ... The Chess Records logo, as featured on this Memphis Slim single. ... Charles Edward Anderson Chuck Berry (born 18 October 1926, St. ... Maybellene is a song by Chuck Berry that tells the story of a hot rod race and a broken romance. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Whites redirects here. ... Bo Diddley (born December 30, 1928) aka The Originator, is an influential American rock and roll singer, songwriter, and guitarist. ... Bo Diddley is a rhythm and blues song first recorded and sung by Bo Diddley at the Universal Recording Studio in Chicago and released on the Chess Records subsidiary, Checker Records in 1955. ... Im A Man (song) may refer to: Im A Man (Spencer Davis Group song) Im A Man (Bo Diddley song) Category: ... Bo Diddley (born December 30, 1928) aka The Originator, is an influential American rock and roll singer, songwriter, and guitarist. ...


In 1956 an R&B "Top Stars of '56" tour took place. With headliners Al Hibbler, Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers, and Carl Perkins, whose "Blue Suede Shoes" was very popular with R&B music buyers. Some of the performers completing the bill were Chuck Berry, Cathy Carr, Shirley & Lee, Della Reese, the Cleftones, and the Spaniels with Illinois Jacquet's "Big Rockin' Rhythm Nand. Cities visited by the tour included Columbia, SC, Annapolis, MD, Pittsburgh, PA, Syracuse, Rochester and Buffalo, NY, into Canada, and through the mid Western US ending in Texas. In Columbia the concert ended with a near riot as Perkins began his first song as the closing act. Perkins is quoted as saying, "It was dangerous. Lot of kids got hurt. There was a lot of rioting going on, just crazy, man! The music drove 'em insane." In Annapolis 70,000 to 50,000 people tried to attend a sold out performance with 8,000 seats. Roads were clogged for seven hours.[24] Albert George Hibbler (August 16, 1915-April 24, 2001) was a singer. ... Frank Joseph Frankie Lymon (September 30, 1942 – February 27, 1968) was an African-American rock and roll/Rhythm and blues singer, best known as the boy soprano lead singer of a New York City-based early rock and roll group called The Teenagers. ... For other persons named Carl Perkins, see Carl Perkins (disambiguation). ... Blue Suede Shoes is a rock and roll standard written and first recorded by Carl Perkins in 1955. ... Charles Edward Anderson Chuck Berry (born 18 October 1926, St. ...


Two Elvis Presley records made the R&B top five in 1957: "Jailhouse Rock"/"Treat Me Nice" at #1, and "All Shook Up" at #5, an unprecedented acceptance of a non-African American artist into a music category known for being created by blacks.[25] Nat King Cole, a former jazz pianist who had had #1 and #2 hits on the pop charts in the early 1950s ("Mona Lisa" at #2 in 1950 and "Too Young" at #1 in 1951), had a record in the top 5 in the R&B charts in 1958, "Looking Back"/"Do I Like It". Elvis redirects here. ... Jailhouse rock or JHR is a name which is used to describe a collection of different fighting styles that are alleged to have been practiced and/or developed within urban street gang culture and US penal institutions. ... All Shook Up is one of the many hit songs of Elvis Presley. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Nathaniel Adams Coles (March 17, 1919 – February 15, 1965), known professionally as Nat King Cole, was a popular American jazz singer-songwriter and pianist. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Mona Lisa is an Academy Award-winning song written by Ray Evans and Jay Livingston for the film . ... Too Young is a popular song. ...


In 1959, two black-owned record labels, one of which would become hugely successful, made their debut: Sam Cooke's Sar, and Berry Gordy's Motown Records.[26] Brook Benton was at the top of the R&B charts in 1959 and 1960 with one #1 and two #2 hits. Benton had a certain warmth in his voice that attracted a wide variety of listeners, and his ballads led to comparisons with performers such as Cole, Sinatra and Tony Bennett.[27] Motown Records, also known as Tamla-Motown outside of the United States, is a record label originally based out of Detroit, Michigan (Motor City, hence mo(tor)town), from where it achieved widespread international success. ... Brook Benton (19 September 1931 — 9 April 1988) was an American singer and songwriter most remembered for his mournful R&B ballad, Rainy Night in Georgia. ... Nathaniel Adams Coles (March 17, 1919 – February 15, 1965), known professionally as Nat King Cole, was a popular American jazz singer-songwriter and pianist. ... Sinatra redirects here. ... For other persons named Tony Bennett, see Tony Bennett (disambiguation). ...


1960s and later

Sam Cooke‘s #5 hit "Chain Gang" is indicative of R&B in 1960, as is Chubby Checker's #5 hit "The Twist". [28][29] By the early 1960s, the music industry category previously known as rhythm and blues was being called soul music, and similar music by white artists was labeled blue eyed soul.[30] In 1961, Stax Records introduced Memphis soul with the Mar-Keys' "Last Night", an instrumental featuring horns, electric organ, and drums.[31] The record label also released Carla Thomas's "Gee Whiz", which featured violins, piano, drums and backup singers.[32] That same year, Motown had its first million-seller with Smokey Robinson and the Miracles' "Shop Around".[33] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1894 illustration of chain gang performing manual labour. ... Chubby Checker is the stage name of Ernest Evans (born October 3, 1941), an American Rock and Roll singer best known for popularizing the dance The Twist with his 1960 song The Twist. He was born in Spring Gulley, South Carolina,[1] and raised in South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and attended... The Twist is a 1960 and 1962 hit song performed by American singer Chubby Checker. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... Blue-eyed soul is soul music as performed by white people and usually as intended for white audiences. ... Stax Records is an American record label, originally based out of Memphis, Tennessee. ... Memphis soul is stylish, funky, uptown soul music that is not as hard edged as Southern soul. ... The Mar-Keys, formed in 1958, were a studio session band for the Stax label from Memphis, Tennessee in the 1960s. ... Carla Thomas (born December 21, 1942 in Memphis, Tennessee) is often referred to as the Queen of Memphis Soul. ... William Smokey Robinson, Jr. ... Shop Around is a 1960 single by The Miracles (credited as The Miracles featuring Bill Smokey Robinson) for the Tamla (Motown) label. ...


By the 1970s, the term rhythm and blues was being used as a blanket term to describe soul and funk. In the 2000s, the initialism R&B is almost always used instead of the full rhythm and blues, and mainstream use of the term usually refers to contemporary R&B, which is a modern version of soul and funk-influenced pop music that originated as disco faded from popularity. A blanket term is a word or phrase that is used to describe multiple groups of related things. ... For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ... Look up acronym, initialism, alphabetism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Contemporary R&B is a music genre of American popular music, the current iteration of the genre that began in the 1940s as rhythm and blues music. ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ... This article is about the music genre. ...


References

  1. ^ Palmer, Robert (1995-kk09-19). Rock & Roll: An Unruly History. Harmony. ISBN 978-0517700501. 
  2. ^ Palmer, Robert [1981-05-21]. Deep Blues: A Musical and Cultural History of the Mississippi Delta. Viking Adult. ISBN 978-0670495115. 
  3. ^ a b Cohn, Lawrence; Aldin,Mary Katherine; Bastin,Bruce [September 1993]. Nothing but the Blues: The Music and the Musicians. Abbeville Press. 
  4. ^ Sacks, Leo. "The Soul of Jerry Wexler", New York Times, 1993--08-29. Retrieved on 2007-01-11. 
  5. ^ Cohn, Lawrence; Aldin,Mary Katherine; Bastin,Bruce [September 1993]. Nothing but the Blues: The Music and the Musicians. Abbeville Press, 314. 
  6. ^ "Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs 1947", Billboard. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. 
  7. ^ [1] [2]
  8. ^ Cohn, Lawrence; Aldin,Mary Katherine; Bastin,Bruce [September 1993]. Nothing but the Blues: The Music and the Musicians. Abbeville Press, 173. 
  9. ^ Palmer, Robert (1982-07-29). Deep Blues: A Musical and Cultural History of the Mississippi Delta, paperback, Penguin, 146. ISBN 978-0140062236. 
  10. ^ The Vocal Group Harmony Web Site
  11. ^ "Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs 1948", Billboard. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. 
  12. ^ Andy Gibson (II) - Biography
  13. ^ [http://

    Early to mid 1950s

    Working with African American musicians, Greek American Johnny Otis, who had signed with the Newark, New Jersey-based Savoy Records, produced many R&B hits in 1951, including: "Double Crossing Blues", "Mistrustin' Blues" and "Cupid's Boogie", all of which hit number one that year. Otis scored ten top ten hits that year. Other hits include: "Gee Baby", "Mambo Boogie" and "All Nite Long".<ref>[http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/bio/index.jsp?JSESSIONID=QPBXHGLFbQhkhw1S20fwnLwvQ2Nqb6zCmJLZ6NLnQQ2zNnyMWg9Q!-72533986&pid=1388 Billboard.com - Biography - Johnny Otis<!-- Bot generated title -->]</li> <li id="cite_note-13">'''[[#cite_ref-13|^]]''' [http://www.history-of-rock.com/vocal_groups.htm The Vocal Groups<!-- Bot generated title -->]</li> <li id="cite_note-14">'''[[#cite_ref-14|^]]''' [http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/bio/index.jsp?JSESSIONID=QPBXHGLFbQhkhw1S20fwnLwvQ2Nqb6zCmJLZ6NLnQQ2zNnyMWg9Q!-72533986&pid=1388 Billboard.com - Biography - Johnny Otis<!-- Bot generated title -->]</li> <li id="cite_note-15">'''[[#cite_ref-15|^]]''' [http://www.cduniverse.com/search/xx/music/pid/6730003/a/Don't+You+Know+I+Love+You+&+Other+Favorites.htm Clovers Don't You Know I Love You & Other Favorites CD<!-- Bot generated title -->]</li> <li id="cite_note-16">'''[[#cite_ref-16|^]]''' [http://library.case.edu/digitalcase/SearchResults.aspx?q=mintz Digital Case - Search Results<!-- Bot generated title -->]</li> <li id="cite_note-17">'''[[#cite_ref-17|^]]''' {{cite news|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/yearend_chart_display.jsp?f=Hot+R%26B%2FHip-Hop+Songs&g=Year-end+Singles&year=1953|title=Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs 1953|publisher=[[Billboard (magazine)|Billboard]]|accessdate=2007-12-23}}</li> <li id="cite_note-18">'''[[#cite_ref-18|^]]''' {{cite web|url=http://www.colorradio.com/orioles.htm|title=The Orioles Record Label Shots|accessdate=2007-12-23}}</li> <li id="cite_note-19">'''[[#cite_ref-19|^]]''' Go, Cat, Go! by Carl Perkins and David McGee 1996 page 111 Hyperion Press ISBN 0-7868-6073-1</li> <li id="cite_note-20">'''[[#cite_ref-20|^]]''' Go, Cat, Go! by Carl Perkins and David McGee 1996 pages 111 Hyperion Press ISBN 0-7868-6073-1</li> <li id="cite_note-21">'''[[#cite_ref-21|^]]''' {{cite book|last=Cohn|first=Lawrence|title=Nothing but the Blues: The Music and the Musicians|origmonth=September|origyear=1993|coauthors=Aldin,Mary Katherine; Bastin,Bruce|publisher=Abbeville Press|isdn=978-1558592711|pages=173}}</li> <li id="cite_note-22">'''[[#cite_ref-22|^]]''' [http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/bio/index.jsp?JSESSIONID=gwpQHnLPbv4cYhCG80yCBx6Pg878GwrkyyZ9196BdWhZwLT2271G!1236061003&&pid=4076 Billboard.com - Biography - Chuck Berry<!-- Bot generated title -->]</li> <li id="cite_note-23">'''[[#cite_ref-23|^]]''' Go, Cat, Go! by Carl Perkins and David McGee 1996 pages 188, 210, 212-214 Hyperion Press ISBN 0-7868-6073-1</li> <li id="cite_note-24">'''[[#cite_ref-24|^]]''' {{cite news|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/yearend_chart_display.jsp?f=Hot+R%26B%2FHip-Hop+Songs&g=Year-end+Singles&year=1957|title=Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs 1957|publisher=[[Billboard (magazine)|Billboard]]|accessdate=2007-12-23}}</li> <li id="cite_note-25">'''[[#cite_ref-25|^]]''' {{cite book|last=Palmer|first=Robert|authorlink=Robert Palmer (author/producer)|title=Rock & Roll: An Unruly History|date=1995-09-19|publisher=Harmony|isbn=978-0517700501|page 82}}</li> <li id="cite_note-26">'''[[#cite_ref-26|^]]''' {{cite web|url=http://www.shewins.com/bio.htm|last=Simon|first=Tom|title=Brook Benton Biography|accessdate=2007-12-23}}</li> <li id="cite_note-27">'''[[#cite_ref-27|^]]''' {{cite news|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/yearend_chart_display.jsp?f=Hot+R%26B%2FHip-Hop+Songs&g=Year-end+Singles&year=1959|title=Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs 1959|publisher=[[Billboard (magazine)|Billboard]]|accessdate=2007-12-23}}</li> <li id="cite_note-28">'''[[#cite_ref-28|^]]''' {{cite news|url=http://www.billboard.com/bbcom/charts/yearend_chart_display.jsp?f=Hot+R%26B%2FHip-Hop+Songs&g=Year-end+Singles&year=1960|title=Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs 1960|publisher=[[Billboard (magazine)|Billboard]]|accessdate=2007-12-23}}</li> <li id="cite_note-29">'''[[#cite_ref-29|^]]''' {{cite book|last=Palmer|first=Robert|authorlink=Robert Palmer (author/producer)|title=Rock & Roll: An Unruly History|date=1995-09-19|publisher=Harmony|page=82|isbn=978-0517700501}}</li> <li id="cite_note-30">'''[[#cite_ref-30|^]]''' [http://www.mp3fiesta.com/mar_keys_last_night_song1014658/] sample</li> <li id="cite_note-31">'''[[#cite_ref-31|^]]''' ]http://music.barnesandnoble.com/search/mediaplayer.asp?ean=610583191929&disc=2&track=14] sample of "Gee Whiz"</li> Robert Franklin Palmer Jr. ... Robert Franklin Palmer Jr. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Billboard be merged into this article or section. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Franklin Palmer Jr. ... It has been suggested that Billboard be merged into this article or section. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Greek-American is a citizen of the United States who has significant Greek heritage. ... Johnny Otis Johnny Otis (born Ioannis (Yannis) Veliotes on December 28, 1921 in Vallejo, California) is an American blues and rhythm and blues pianist, vibraphonist, drummer, singer, bandleader, and impresario. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - Total 26. ... Savoy Records the name of two record labels, one in the United States of America, and the other in the United Kingdom. ...

    <li id="cite_note-32">'''[[#cite_ref-32|^]]''' {{cite book|last=Palmer|first=Robert|authorlink=Robert Palmer (author/producer)|title=Rock & Roll: An Unruly History|date=1995-09-19|publisher=Harmony|page=83,84|isbn=978-0517700501}}</li></ol></ref>

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