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Encyclopedia > Rhubarb
Rhubarb

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Polygonaceae
Genus: Rheum
L.
Species

About 60, including: If you searched for rhubarb you may be looking for: rhubarb, a perennial plant whose long pink petioles (leaf stems) are cooked and eaten The Rhubarb Triangle, an area of England between Pontefract, Wakefield and Leeds where rhubarb is grown Rhubarb pie made from rhubarb and pastry Rhubarb crumble, a... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1499 KB) [edit] Beschreibung [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rhubarb Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families Achatocarpaceae Aizoaceae (Fig-marigold family) Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) Ancistrocladaceae Asteropeiaceae Barbeuiaceae Basellaceae (basella family) Cactaceae (cactus family) Caryophyllaceae (carnation family) Dioncophyllaceae Droseraceae (sundew family) Drosophyllaceae Frankeniaceae Molluginaceae (carpetweed family) Nepenthaceae Nyctaginaceae (four-oclock family) Physenaceae Phytolaccaceae (pokeweed family) Plumbaginaceae (plumbago family) Polygonaceae (buckwheat family) Portulacaceae (purslane family) Rhabdodendraceae... Genera See text The Polygonaceae, or the Knotweed Family, are a group of dicots including buckwheat, sorrel (but not wood sorrel), rhubarb, and knotgrass. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...

  • R. nobile
  • R. officinale
  • R. palmatum
  • R. rhabarbarum
  • R. rhaponticum

Rhubarb is a perennial plant that grows from thick short rhizomes, comprising the genus Rheum. This genus is in the family Polygonaceae, along with dock, sorrel, knotweeds, knotgrasses and buckwheat. The large, somewhat triangular leaf blades are elevated on long, fleshy petioles. The flowers are small, greenish-white, and borne in large compound leafy inflorescences. Binomial name Rheum nobile Hook. ... Turkey rhubarb is a plant, Rheum palmatum of the family Polygonaceae. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... For other uses, see Rhizome (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Leaf of Dog Rose (Rosa canina), showing the petiole and two leafy stipules In botany, the petiole is the small stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Red clover inflorescence (spike) An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ...


Rhubarb is actually a herb, but is often used in food as a fruit. In the United States until the 1940s it was considered a vegetable. It was reclassified as a fruit when US customs officials, baffled by the foreign food, decided it should be classified according to the way it was eaten.[1]

Contents

Cultivation and use

Rhubarb displayed for sale at a grocery in Boston
Rhubarb displayed for sale at a grocery in Boston

The plant is indigenous to Asia, and many suggest that it was often used by the Mongolians; particularly, the Tatars tribes of the Gobi. The plant has grown wild along the banks of the Volga for centuries; it may have been brought there by Eurasian tribes, such as the Scythians, Huns, Magyars or Mongols. Varieties of rhubarb have a long history as medicinal plants in traditional Chinese medicine, but the use of rhubarb as food is a relatively recent innovation, first recorded in 17th century England, after affordable sugar became available to common people. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 369 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (756 × 1228 pixel, file size: 789 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Rhubarb in Boston. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 369 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (756 × 1228 pixel, file size: 789 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Rhubarb in Boston. ... “Boston” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the people. ... Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ...


Rhubarb is now grown in many areas, primarily for its fleshy petioles, commonly known as rhubarb sticks or stalks. In temperate climates rhubarb is one of the first food plants to be ready for harvest, usually in mid to late Spring (April/May in the Northern Hemisphere, October/November in the Southern). The petioles can be cooked in a variety of ways. Stewed, they yield a tart sauce that can be eaten with sugar and other stewed fruit or used as filling for pies (see rhubarb pie), tarts, and crumbles. This common use led to the slang term for rhubarb, "pie plant". In Germany, this slang term is also used; the common name being Rhabarber in German. Cooked with strawberries as a sweetener, rhubarb makes excellent jam. It can also be used to make wine. Recently, it has been used in sandwiches. Leaf of Dog Rose (Rosa canina), showing the petiole and two leafy stipules In botany, the petiole is the small stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... Homemade rhubarb pie Rhubarb pie is a pie that is particularly popular in those areas where the rhubarb plant is actually cultivated, including the British Isles and the New England region of the United States. ... A tart is a pastry dish, usually sweet, that is a type of pie, with an open top that is not covered with pastry. ... A blackberry and apple crumble A crumble is a dish of British origin containing stewed fruit topped with a crumbly mixture of fat (usually butter), flour, and sugar. ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fruit wine. ...


In former days, a common and affordable sweet for children in parts of the United Kingdom and Sweden was a tender stick of rhubarb, dipped in sugar. In the UK the first rhubarb of the year is grown by candlelight in dark sheds dotted around the noted "Rhubarb Triangle" of Wakefield, Leeds and Morley[2]. This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... The Rhubarb Triangle is an area located between Bradford, Wakefield and Leeds. ... For other uses, see Wakefield (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation). ... Morleys Coat of Arms Morley is a town in the county of Yorkshire (since 1974, West Yorkshire), England, in the Metropolitan Borough of Leeds and is situated five miles south-west of Leeds City Centre. ...

A homemade rhubarb pie
A homemade rhubarb pie

In warm climates, rhubarb will grow all year round, but in colder climates the parts of the plant above the ground disappear completely during winter, and begin to grow again from the root in early spring. It can be forced, that is, encouraged to grow early, by raising the local temperature. This is commonly done by placing an upturned bucket over the shoots as they come up. Image taken by User:Leland 7/7/04. ... Image taken by User:Leland 7/7/04. ...


Rhubarb is used as a strong laxative and for its astringent effect on the mucous membranes of the mouth and the nasal cavity. Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... A bottle of tannic acid, an astringent Astringent medicines cause shrinkage of mucous membranes or exposed tissues and are often used internally to check discharge of blood serum or mucous secretions. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ...


Species

The plant is represented by about 60 extant species.[3] Among species found in the wild, those most commonly used in cooking are the Garden Rhubarb (R. rhabarbarum) and R. rhaponticum, which, though a true rhubarb, bears the common name False Rhubarb.[4] The many varieties of cultivated rhubarb more usually grown for eating are recognised as Rheum x hybridum in the Royal Horticultural Societies list of recognised plant names. The drug rheum is prepared from the rhizomes and roots of another species, R. officinale or Medicinal Rhubarb. This species is also native to Asia, as is the Turkey Rhubarb (R. palmatum). Another species, the Sikkim Rhubarb (R. nobile), is limited to the Himalayas. For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Rheum officinale is a rhubarb from the family Polygonaceae originating in Asia. ... Turkey rhubarb is a plant, Rheum palmatum of the family Polygonaceae. ... Binomial name Rheum nobile Hook. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ...


Rheum species have been recorded as larval food plants for some Lepidoptera species including Brown-tail, Buff Ermine, Cabbage Moth, Large Yellow Underwing, The Nutmeg, Setaceous Hebrew Character and Turnip Moth. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Binomial name Euproctis chrysorrhoea Linnaeus, 1758 The Brown-tail (Euproctis chrysorrhoea) is a moth of the family Lymantriidae. ... Binomial name Spilosoma luteum Hufnagel, 1766 The Buff Ermine (Spilosoma luteum) is a moth of the family Arctiidae. ... Binomial name Mamestra brassicae Linnaeus, 1758 The Cabbage Moth (Mamestra brassicae) is a common European moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Noctua pronuba Linnaeus, 1758 The Large Yellow Underwing (Noctua pronuba) is a moth, the type species for the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Discestra trifolii Hufnagel, 1758 The Nutmeg (Discestra trifolii), also known as the Clover Cutworm, is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Xestia c-nigrum Linnaeus, 1758 The Setaceous Hebrew Character (Xestia c-nigrum) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Agrotis segetum Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 The Turnip Moth (Agrotis segetum) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ...


Toxic effects

Rhubarb
Rhubarb flower.
Rhubarb flower.

Rhubarb leaves contain poisonous substances. Rhubarb leaves contain oxalic acid, a corrosive and nephrotoxic acid that is abundantly present in many plants. The LD50 (median lethal dose) for pure oxalic acid is predicted to be about 375 mg/kg body weight,[citation needed] or about 25 g for a 65 kg (~140 lb) human. While the oxalic acid content of rhubarb leaves can vary, a typical value is about 0.5%,[5] so a rather unlikely five kilograms of the extremely sour leaves would have to be consumed to reach an LD50 dose of oxalic acid. However, the leaves are believed to also contain an additional, unidentified toxin.[6] In the petioles, the amount of oxalic acid is much lower, especially when harvested before mid-June (in the northern hemisphere), but it is still enough to cause slightly rough teeth.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1367, 363 KB) Source: flickr. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1367, 363 KB) Source: flickr. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (595x665, 55 KB)[edit] Summary Rhubarb flower. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (595x665, 55 KB)[edit] Summary Rhubarb flower. ... The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... Oxalic acid (IUPAC name: ethanedioic acid, formula C2H2O4) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure (HOOC)-(COOH). ... Corrosion is the destructive reaction of a metal with another material, e. ... Nephrotoxicity is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxins and medication, on the kidney. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with human weight. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ...


The roots and stems are rich in anthraquinones, such as emodin and rhein. These substances are cathartic and laxative, which explains the sporadic abuse of Rhubarb as a slimming agent. Anthraquinones are yellow or orange and may colour the urine.[citation needed] Anthraquinone (9,10-dioxoanthracene) is an aromatic organic compound whose structure is shown to the right. ... Emodin (from Rheum emodi, a Himalayan rhubarb) 1. ... Rhein may refer to Rhine, a major river in Europe rhein, a substance in the anthraquinone group Rhein im Ostpreußen, a town in Germany, (now Ryn, Poland) Category: ... Catharsis is a sudden emotional breakdown or climax that constitutes overwhelming feelings of great pity, sorrow, laughter, or any extreme change in emotion that results in the renewal, restoration and revitalization for living. ... Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... Measuring body weight on a scale Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a regulated fashion to achieve a particular objective. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Other uses of the word

It is or was common for a crowd of extras in acting to shout the word "rhubarb" repeatedly and out of step with each other, to cause the effect of general hubbub. As a result, the word "rhubarb" sometimes is used to mean "length of superfluous text in speaking or writing", or a general term to refer to irrelevant chatter by chorus or extra actors. In drama, an extra is a performer in a film, television show, or stage production who has no role or purpose other than to appear in the background (for example, in an audience or busy street scene). ... Acting is the work of an actor or actress, which is a person in theatre, television, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. ...


Possibly from this usage, possibly from a variant on "rube", or perhaps some of both, the word also denotes a loud argument. The term has been most commonly used in baseball. For the painter see Peter Paul Rubens (1577 – 1640) Reubens is a city located in Lewis County, Idaho on the Camas Prairie. ... This article is about the sport. ...


In the 1989 film Batman, The Joker (Jack Nicholson) tells Bruce Wayne (Michael Keaton) to "never rub another man's rhubarb". The term was used as a threat to Bruce Wayne warning him to leave both men's love interest Vicki Vale (Kim Basinger) alone. Batman is a 1989 American Academy Award-winning superhero film based on the DC Comics character Batman. ... Nicholson as Wilbur Force in The Little Shop of Horrors (1960). ... Michael John Douglas (Better known by the stage name Michael Keaton) (born September 9, 1951) is an American actor, perhaps best known for his early comedic roles in films such as Night Shift, and Beetlejuice, and for his portrayal of Batman in the two Tim Burton directed films in the... Kimila Ann Basinger (born December 8, 1953) is an Academy Award-winning American film actress and former fashion model. ...


The phrase "out in the rhubarb patch" can be used to describe a place being in the far reaches of an area. Rhubarb is usually grown at the outer edges of the garden in the less desirable and unkept area.[citation needed]


"Donkey Rhubarb" refers to Japanese knotweed[7] and is used as a term when referring to the drug-oriented uses of cannabis.[citation needed] For example, the word takes the place of words such as "weed" or "pot" in some places in Canada. Binomial name Houtt. ...


Rhubarb, specifically in the form of the fictitious product "Be-Bop-A-Re-Bop Rhubarb Pie," is frequently mentioned in 'A Prairie Home Companion'. In the 2006 film adaptation of the program, the pies are not mentioned, but rhubarb itself is, including an explanation of the source of the name. This article is about the radio show. ...


References

  1. ^ BBC Magazine
  2. ^ Wakefield Metropolitan District Council. Rhubarb. Retrieved on 2006-03-12.
  3. ^ Ailan Wang, Meihua Yang and Jianquan Liu (2005). Molecular Phylogeny, Recent Radiation and Evolution of Gross Morphology of the Rhubarb genus Rheum (Polygonaceae) Inferred from Chloroplast DNA trnL-F Sequences. Annals of Botany. Retrieved on 2006-06-18.
  4. ^ Rheum rhaponticum L. Taxonomic Serial Number 21319. Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
  5. ^ GW Pucher, AJ Wakeman, HB Vickery. THE ORGANIC ACIDS OF RHUBARB (RHEUM HYBRIDUM). III. THE BEHAVIOR OF THE ORGANIC ACIDS DURING CULTURE OF EXCISED LEAVES. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1938
  6. ^ Rhubarb leaves poisoning. Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia.
  7. ^ Japanese Knotweed Alliance.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ...

External links

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Rheum
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Rhubarb History (1070 words)
Rhubarb is given to the Wu emperor of the Liang dynasty (reign: 557-579) to cure his fever but only after warning him that rhubarb, being a most potent drug, must be taken with great moderation.
Rhubarb was transported to the throne as tributes from the southern parts of China during the Tang dynasty (618-907).
When Hayward died, he left his rhubarb plantations to the ancestor of the present cultivators of the rhubarb fields at Banbury, where R. officinale is also now cultivated, from specimens first introduced into this country in 1873.
The Vegetarian Society - Rhubarb - recipe index (332 words)
Despite its being commonly regarded as a fruit, rhubarb is actually a close relative of garden sorrel, and is therefore a member of the vegetable family.
Rhubarb's crisp sour stalks are rich in vitamin C, dietary fibre and calcium, although the calcium is combined with oxalic acid and so is not easily absorbed by the body.
Six weeks later the rhubarb is picked in true Victorian style, by candlelight, to allow as little natural light as possible to reach the plants and harm their tender pink stalks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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