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Encyclopedia > Rhotic consonant

Rhotic consonants, or "R"-like sounds, are non-lateral liquid consonants. This class of sounds is difficult to characterise phonetically, though most of them share some acoustic peculiarities, most notably a lowered third formant in their sound spectrum. However, "being r-like" is a strangely elusive feature, and the very same sounds that function as rhotics in some systems may pattern with fricatives, semivowels or even stops in others. The most typical rhotic sounds found in the world's languages are the following: Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ... Spectrogram of American English vowels [i, u, É‘] showing the formants f1 and f2 A formant is a peak in an acoustic frequency spectrum which results from the resonant frequencies of any acoustical system. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...

  • Trill (popularly known as rolled r): The airstream is interrupted several times as one of the organs of speech (usually the tip of the tongue or the uvula) vibrates, closing and opening the air passage. If a trill is made with the tip of the tongue against the upper gum, it is called an apical (tongue-tip) alveolar trill; the IPA symbol for this sound is [r]. If it is made with the uvula against the back of the tongue, it is a uvular trill; the IPA symbol for this sound is [ʀ]. The bilabial trill, however, is not considered a rhotic.
    Many languages, for example Russian, Italian or Spanish, use trilled rhotics. In the English-speaking world, the stereotyped (if not actually very common) Scottish rolled [r] is well-known. The "stage pronunciation" of German specifies the alveolar trill for clarity. Rare kinds of trills include Czech ř [r̭] (fricative trill) and Welsh rh [r̥] (voiceless trill).
  • Tap or flap (these terms refer to very similar articulations): Not unlike a trill, but involving just one brief interruption of airflow. In many languages taps are used as reduced variants of trills, especially in fast speech. Note, however, that in Spanish, for example, taps and trills contrast, as in pero /ˈpeɾo/ ("but") versus perro /ˈpero/ ("dog"). In some English dialects (for example American, Australian) flaps do not function as rhotics but are realizations of intervocalic apical stops (/t/ or /d/, for example in rider or butter). The IPA symbol for this sound is [ɾ].
  • Alveolar or retroflex approximant, as in most accents of English (with minute differences): The front part of the tongue approaches the upper gum, or the tongue-tip is curled back towards the roof of the mouth ("retroflexion"). No or little friction can be heard, and there is no momentary closure of the vocal tract. The IPA symbol for the alveolar approximant is [ɹ] and the symbol for the retroflex approximant is [ɻ].

In broad transcription rhotics are usually symbolised as /r/ unless there are two or more types of rhotic in the same language. The IPA has a full set of different symbols which can be used whenever more phonetic accuracy is required: an r rotated 180° [ɹ] for the alveolar approximant, a small capital R [ʀ] for the uvular trill, and a flipped small capital R [ʁ] for the voiced uvular fricative. In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... The uvula is a small cone-shaped mass of tissue hanging down from the soft palate, near the back of the throat. ... The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages (such as Russian, Spanish, Armenian, and Polish). ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The bilabial trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator is thrown against another. ... The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... The voiced uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... A lisp is a speech impediment. ...


See also

The Letter "R" English pronunciation is divided into two main accent groups, the rhotic and the non-rhotic, depending on when the phoneme (the letter r, equivalent to Greek rho) is pronounced. ... Spectrogram of a regular vowel and its rhotacized counterpart. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

General: The letter R · Rhotic consonants (R-like sounds) · R-colored vowels · Guttural R · Linking R and Intrusive R · Rhotic and non-rhotic accents
Pronunciations: Alveolar trill /r/ · Alveolar approximant /ɹ/ · Alveolar flap / Alveolar tap /ɾ/ · Alveolar lateral flap /ɺ/ ·Retroflex approximant /ɻ/ · Retroflex flap /ɽ/ ·Uvular trill /ʀ/ ·Voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/ ·Voiced velar fricative /ɣ/

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rhotic consonant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (667 words)
Rhotic consonants, or "R"-like sounds, are non-lateral liquid consonants.
However, "being r-like" is a strangely elusive feature, and the very same sounds that function as rhotics in some systems may pattern with fricatives, semivowels or even stops in others.
Trill (popularly known as rolled r): The airstream is interrupted several times as one of the organs of speech (usually the tip of the tongue or the uvula) vibrates, closing and opening the air passage.
Rhotic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (494 words)
Rhotic speakers pronounce written r in all positions, while non-rhotic speakers pronounce it only if it is followed by a vowel.
In England, rhotic accents are found in Northumbria, the South West, and parts of Lancashire.
The case of New York is especially interesting because of a classic study in sociolinguistics by William Labov showing that the non-rhotic accent is associated with older and lower-class speakers, and is being replaced by the rhotic accent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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