FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Rhododendron" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Rhododendron
Rhododendron
Rhododendron ponticum
Rhododendron ponticum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Rhododendron
L.
Subgenera

Source: RBG, Edinburgh Rhododendron This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families See text. ... Genera See text The plant Family Ericaceae (Heath Family) or ericaceous plants are mostly lime-hating or calcifuge plants that thrive in acid soils. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Subsections See text Rhododendron subgenus Hymenanthes is a subgenus of the genus Rhododendron, with a widespread distribution in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. ... Sections See text Rhododendron subgenus Pentanthera is a subgenus of the genus Rhododendron. ... Species see text Source: The Rhododendron page, and some research. ... Sections See text Rhododendron subgenus Rhododendron is a subgenus of the genus Rhododendron. ... Species see text Source: The Rhododendron page, and some research. ...

Rhododendron (from the Greek: rhodos, "rose", and dendron, "tree") is a genus of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae. It is a large genus with over 1000 species and most have showy flower displays. It includes the plants known to gardeners as azaleas. Genera See text The plant Family Ericaceae (Heath Family) or ericaceous plants are mostly lime-hating or calcifuge plants that thrive in acid soils. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Species see text Source: The Rhododendron page, and some research. ...


The Rhododendron is an interesting genus characterized by shrubs and small to (rarely) large trees, the smallest species growing to 10-20 cm tall, and the largest, R. arboreum, reported to 50 m tall. The leaves are spirally arranged; leaf size can range from 1-2 cm to over 50 cm, exceptionally 100 cm in R. sinogrande. They may be either evergreen or deciduous. In some species the underside of the leaves are covered with scales (lepidote) or hairs (indumentum). Some of the best known species are noted for their many clusters of large flowers. There are alpine species with small flowers and small leaves, and tropical species such as subgenus Vireya that often grow as epiphytes. A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Deciduous forest after leaf fall Like many deciduous plants, Forsythia flowers during the leafless season For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Distribution

Rhododendron is the national flower of Nepal. It is mostly found in Himalayan countries such as Nepal. It is a very widely distributed genus, occurring throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere except for dry areas, and extending into the Southern Hemisphere in southeastern Asia and northern Australasia. The highest species diversity is found in the Sino-Himalayan mountains from central Nepal and Sikkim east to Yunnan and Sichuan, with other significant areas of diversity in the mountains of Indo-China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan. In addition, there are a significant number of tropical rhododendron species from southeast Asia to northern Australia, with 55 known species in Borneo and 164 in New Guinea [1]. Relatively fewer species occur in North America and Europe. Rhododendrons have not been found in South America or Africa. Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Yunan redirects here. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Indochina, or French Indochina, was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in south-east Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Classification

Rhododendron wardii var. puralbum
Rhododendron wardii var. puralbum

The species are organized by subgenus, section, subsection and series. These are currently divided into four large and four small subgenera: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 771 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2389 × 1859 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 771 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2389 × 1859 pixel, file size: 3. ...

  • Subgenus Rhododendron L.: small leaf or lepidotes (with scales on the underside of their leaves); several hundred species, type: Rhododendron ferrugineum. The tropical rhododendrons (sect. Vireya, about 300 species) are usually included as a section in this subgenus, but sometimes split off as a ninth subgenus.
  • Subgenus Hymenanthes (Blume) K.Koch: large leaf or elepidotes (without scales on the underside of their leaves); about 140 species, type: Rhododendron degronianum.
  • Subgenus Pentanthera G.Don: deciduous azaleas; about 25 species, type Rhododendron luteum.
  • Subgenus Tsutsusi: evergreen azaleas, about 15 species; type Rhododendron indicum.
  • Subgenus Azaleastrum Planch.: five species; type Rhododendron ovatum.
  • Subgenus Candidastrum (Sleumer) Philipson & Philipson: one species; Rhododendron albiflorum.
  • Subgenus Mumeazalea: one species, Rhododendron semibarbatum.
  • Subgenus Therorhodion: one species, Rhododendron camtschaticum.

Recent genetic investigations have caused an ongoing realignment of species and groups within the genus, and also have caused the old genus Ledum to be reclassified within subgenus Rhododendron. Further realignment within the subgenera is currently proposed [2][3], including the merging of subgenus Hymenanthes into subgenus Pentanthera. Binomial name Rhododendron ferrugineum L. Rhododendron ferrugineum (sometimes called alpenrose, snow-rose, or rusty-leaved alpenrose) is an evergreen shrub that grows just above the treeline in the Alps, Pyrenees, Jura and northern Apennines, on acid soils. ... Binomial name Rhododendron luteum Sweet Rhododendron luteum (Yellow Azalea or Honeysuckle Azalea) is a species of Rhododendron native to southeastern Europe and southwest Asia. ... Species See text. ...


Rhododendrons are extensively hybridized in cultivation, and natural hybrids often occur in areas where species ranges overlap. There are over 28,000 cultivars of Rhododendron in the International Rhododendron Registry held by the Royal Horticultural Society. Most have been bred for their flowers, but a few are of garden interest because of ornamental leaves and some for ornamental bark or stems. This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... The Royal Horticultural Society was founded in 1804 as the London Horticultural Society, and gained its present name in a Royal Charter granted in 1861 by Prince Albert. ...


Some species (e.g. Rhododendron ponticum in the United Kingdom) are invasive as introduced plants, spreading in woodland areas replacing the natural understory. R. ponticum is difficult to eradicate, as its roots can make new shoots. Binomial name Rhododendron ponticum L. Rhododendron ponticum (Common Rhododendron or Pontic Rhododendron) is a species of Rhododendron native to southern Europe and southwest Asia. ...

Sample species

A sample hybrid: Binomial name Rhododendron atlanticum (Ashe) Rehd. ... Binomial name Rhododendron canadense (L.) Torr. ... Binomial name Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. ... Binomial name A. Gray Rhododendron chapmanii, also known as Chapmans Rhododendron, is an evergreen shrub which is endemic to Florida. ... Binomial name Rhododendron ferrugineum L. Rhododendron ferrugineum (sometimes called alpenrose, snow-rose, or rusty-leaved alpenrose) is an evergreen shrub that grows just above the treeline in the Alps, Pyrenees, Jura and northern Apennines, on acid soils. ... Binomial name Rhododendron groenlandicum (Oeder) Kron & Judd Bog Labrador Tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum, formerly Ledum groenlandicum), is a flowering plant in the subsection Ledum of the large genus Rhododendron in the family Ericaceae. ... Binomial name F. Muell. ... Binomial name Rhododendron luteum Sweet Rhododendron luteum (Yellow Azalea or Honeysuckle Azalea) is a species of Rhododendron native to southeastern Europe and southwest Asia. ... Binomial name Rhododendron macrophyllum D.Don ex G. Don 1834 (R. californicum Hook. ... Binomial name Rhododendron maximum L. Rhododendron maximum is a species of Rhododendron native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia south to northern Alabama. ... Binomial name Rhododendron moulmainense Hook. ... Binomial name Rhododendron occidentale Torr. ... Binomial name Rhododendron ponticum L. Rhododendron ponticum (Common Rhododendron or Pontic Rhododendron) is a species of Rhododendron native to southern Europe and southwest Asia. ... Binomial name Rhododendron schlippenbachii Maxim. ... Binomial name Rhododendron spinuliferum Franch. ... Binomial name Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja Marsh Labrador Tea, Northern Labrador Tea or Wild Rosemary (Rhododendron tomentosum, formerly Ledum palustre), is a flowering plant in the subsection Ledum of the large genus Rhododendron in the family Ericaceae. ...

Binomial name Rhododendron The Rhododendron President Roosevelt is a popular variegated variety of Rhododendron with striking variegated leaves and trusses of bright red flowers that fade to white in the centre. ...

Toxicology

Some species are poisonous to grazing animals. These Rhododendrons have a toxin called grayanotoxin in their pollen and nectar. People have been known to become ill from eating honey made by bees feeding on rhododendron and azalea flowers. Xenophon described the odd behavior of Greek soldiers after having consumed honey in a village surrounded by rhododendrons. Later, it was recognized that honey resulting from these plants have a slightly hallucinogenic and laxative effect. The suspect rhododendrons are Rhododendron ponticum and Rhododendron luteum (formerly Azalea pontica), both found in northern Asia Minor. Eleven similar cases have been documented in Istanbul, Turkey during the 1980s [4]. Rhododendron is extremely toxic to horses, with some animals dying within a few hours of ingesting the plant, although most horses tend to avoid it if they have access to good forage. For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... Grayanotoxin is a toxin found in rhododendrons and other plants of the family Ericaceae. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Nectar of camellia Nectar, in botany, is a sugar-rich liquid produced by the flowers of plants in order to attract pollinating animals. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Hallucinogenic drugs or hallucinogens are drugs that can alter sensory perceptions, elicit alternate states of consciousness, or cause hallucinations. ... Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... Binomial name Rhododendron ponticum L. Rhododendron ponticum (Common Rhododendron or Pontic Rhododendron) is a species of Rhododendron native to southern Europe and southwest Asia. ... Binomial name Rhododendron luteum Sweet Rhododendron luteum (Yellow Azalea or Honeysuckle Azalea) is a species of Rhododendron native to southeastern Europe and southwest Asia. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


Use in landscaping

Both species and hybrid rhododendrons (including azaleas) are used extensively as ornamental plants in landscaping in many parts of the world, and many species and cultivars are grown commercially for the nursery trade. Rhododendrons are often valued in landscaping for their structure, size, flowers, and the fact that many of them are evergreen [5]. Azaleas are frequently used around foundations and occasionally as hedges, and many larger-leafed rhododendrons lend themselves well to more informal plantings and woodland gardens, or as specimen plants. In some areas, larger rhododendrons can be pruned to encourage more tree-like form, with some species such as R. arboreum and R. falconeri eventually growing to 10-15 m or more tall [5]. Petunia This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including but not limited to: living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly referred to as Gardening efforts in the gestalt, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of... A nursery is a place where plants are propagated, usually for sale as a business, though some gardeners and farmers keep private nurseries. ...


Commercial growing

Rhododendrons are grown commercially in many areas for sale, and are occasionally collected in the wild, a practice now rare in most areas. Larger commercial growers often ship long distances; in the United States most of them are located on the west coast (Oregon, Washington and California). Large-scale commercial growing often selects for different characteristics than hobbyist growers might, such as resistance to root rot when over-watered, ability to be forced into budding early, ease of rooting or other propagation, and saleability. [6] Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Planting and care

Like other ericaceous plants, most rhododendrons prefer acid soils with a pH of roughly 4.5-5.5; some tropical Vireyas and a few other rhododendron species grow as epiphytes and require a planting mix similar to orchids. Rhododendrons have fibrous roots and prefer well-drained soils high in organic material. In areas with poorly-drained or alkaline soils, rhododendrons are often grown in raised beds using mediums such as composted pine bark.[7]. Mulching and careful watering are important, especially before the plant is established. Genera See text The plant Family Ericaceae (Heath Family) or ericaceous plants are mostly lime-hating or calcifuge plants that thrive in acid soils. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ...


Insects and diseases

There are a number of insects that either target rhododendrons or will opportunistically attack them. Rhododendron borers and various weevils are major pests of rhododendrons, and many caterpillars will attack rhododendrons. Major diseases include Phytophthora root rot, stem and twig fungal dieback; Ohio State University Extension provides information on maintaining health of rhododendrons. This article is a list of diseases of rhododendron (Rhododendron spp. ... Species Phytophthora arecae Phytophthora botryosa Phytoohthora cactorum Phytophthora cajani Phytophthora cambivora Phytophthora capsici Phytophthora cinnamomi Phytophthora citricola Phytophthora citrophthora Phytophthora clandestina Phytophthora colocasiae Phytophthora cryptogea Phytophthora drechslera Phytophthora erythroseptica Phytophthora fragariae Phytophthora gonapodyides Phytophthora heveae Phytophthora humicola Phytophthora idaei Phytophthora ilicis Phytophthora infestans Phytophthora inflata Phytophthora iranica Phytophthora katsurae Phytophthora...


Rhododendron species are used as food plants by the larvae of some members of the Order Lepidoptera (See List of Lepidoptera which feed on Rhododendron). A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Rhododendron species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including: Coleophora case bearers: (recorded on ) (recorded on ) Copper Underwing Amphipyra pyramidea The Dun-bar Cosmia trapezina The Engrailed Ectropis crepuscularia The Gothic Naenia typica Mottled Beauty Alcis repandata Scalloped Hazel Odontopera bidentata Svenssons Copper...


Symbolism

Rhododendron arboreum (Lali Gurans) is the national flower of Nepal. Rhododendron niveum is the state tree of Sikkim in India. Rhododendron catawbiense, the predominant Rhododendron in the Appalachian Mountains, is the state flower of West Virginia, and is in the Flag of West Virginia. Rhododendron macrophyllum, the predominant rhododendron on the Pacific Coast and in the Cascade Mountains is the state flower of Washington. , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Binomial name Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. ... Appalachians in North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Flag of West Virginia The flag of West Virginia consists of the States coat of arms on a pure white field with a dark blue border. ... Binomial name Rhododendron macrophyllum D.Don ex G. Don 1834 (R. californicum Hook. ... Mount Adams in Washington state The Cascade Range is a mountainous region famous for its chain of tall volcanos called the High Cascades that run north-south along the west coast of North America from British Columbia to the Shasta Cascade area of northern California. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ...


Gallery

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Rhododendron
Wikispecies has information related to:
  • Cox, P. A. & Kenneth, N. E. The Encyclopedia of Rhododendron Species. 1997. Glendoick Publishing. ISBN 0-9530533-0-X.
  • Davidian, H. H. The Rhododendron Species. In four volumes from 1982-1995. Timber Press. ISBN 0-917304-71-3, ISBN 0-88192-109-2, ISBN 0-88192-168-8, ISBN 0-88192-311-7.
  1. ^ Argent, G. Rhododendrons of subgenus Vireya. 2006. Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 1-902896-61-0
  2. ^ Goetsch, L. A., Eckert, A. J. & Hall, B. D. (2005). The molecular systematics of Rhododendron (Ericaceae): A Phylogeny based upon RPB2 gene sequences. Sys. Bot. 30(3): 616-626.
  3. ^ Summary of Goetsch-Eckert-Hall results
  4. ^ Nurhayat Sütlüpmar, Afife Mat and Yurdagül Satganoglu Poisoning by toxic honey in Turkey. Archives of Toxicology. Volume 67, Number 2, pages 148-150, February, 1993
  5. ^ a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan
  6. ^ Peter A. Cox (1993). The Cultivation of Rhododendrons. B. T. Batsford, London ISBN 0-7134-5630-2 (pp80-1)
  7. ^ Soil information for planting rhododendrons

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ...

External links

Rhododendron Societies


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rhododendron Page (4373 words)
Many delegates to the conference were astounded to hear that rhododendrons in the wild actually grow right in the limestone, not on the top or in organic layers, as usually understood.
Some rhododendron enthusiasts from the Longview, Washington area have been growing some of his hybrids for many years and are sharing their experiences and successes with the Garden Committee.
Rhododendron 'Sammamish' is recognized by the American Rhododendron Society, as well as the Royal Horticultural Society.
Rhododendron (2054 words)
Rhododendrons are not difficult to grow in South Carolina where the soil and environment are suitable for their culture.
Rhododendrons come in many shapes and sizes, from the low-growing Carolina (5 to 6 feet tall), to the large native rosebay (20 feet and more).
Rhododendrons can be used in an open woodland setting under tall pines or oaks, in a small city garden, as a foundation planting for a suburban home or to landscape a large city building.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m