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Encyclopedia > Rhodesia
Rhodesia
Republic of Rhodesia
Unrecognized state

1965 – 1979
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
Sit Nomine Digna (Latin)
"May she be worthy of the name"
Anthem
"Rise O Voices of Rhodesia" (from 1974)
Capital Salisbury
Language(s) English
Government Republic
President¹
 - 1970–1975 Clifford Dupont
 - 1976–1978 John Wrathall
Officer Administering the Government¹
 - 1965–1970 Clifford Dupont
Prime minister
 - 1965–1979 Ian Smith
Historical era Cold War
 - Independence (UDI) November 11, 1965
 - Republic declared March 2, 1970
 - Zimbabwe-Rhodesia June 1, 1979
 - Zimbabwe April 17, 1980
Area
 - 1978 390,580 km² (150,804 sq mi)
Population
 - 1978 est. 6,930,000 
     Density 17.7 /km²  (46 /sq mi)
Currency Pound (until 1970)
Dollar (from 1970)
¹ The government recognised Queen Elizabeth II as the official Head of State from 1965 to 1970. The highest official of Rhodesia held the title "Officer Administering the Government" as he acted in lieu of a Governor-General, a post never appointed by the Queen. After the government declared Rhodesia a republic in March 1970 the president replaced the Governor-General as the highest official.
Zimbabwe
This article is part of the series:
History of Zimbabwe
Pre-colonial history
  • Mutapa Empire (c. 1250-1629)
  • Torwa dynasty (c. 1450-1683)
  • Rozwi Empire (1684 - 1834)
Colonial history
Rhodesia
Zimbabwe
WP:ZIM  This box: view  talk  edit 

Rhodesia was the name adopted when the formerly British colony of Southern Rhodesia declared itself independent (Unilateral Declaration of Indepence) on 11th November 1965. The name was also used with the establishment of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia in 1979. After a brief return to colonial status as Southern Rhodesia from 1979 to 1980, the country became the independent nation of Zimbabwe in April 1980. The country is landlocked and located in southern Africa. Predominantly white Settler Governments governed the country until 1979, initially as a self governing colony then, after the Unilateral Declaration of Independence as a self-proclaimed sovereign Dominion and latterly a Republic. The colony was named after Cecil John Rhodes, whose British South Africa Company acquired the land in the nineteenth century. The colony gained international recognition of its independence in 1980 as the Republic of Zimbabwe. Before 1964 the name "Rhodesia" referred to the territory of modern Zambia and Zimbabwe. Rhodesia refers primarily to two land-locked territories in southern Africa named, by British colonizers, after Cecil Rhodes, separated by a natural border provided by the Zambezi River. ... The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ... Flag Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1923-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1952 George VI  - 1952-1980¹ Elizabeth II Governor  - 1923-1928 Sir John Robert Chancellor  - 1959-1969² Sir Humphrey Gibbs  - 1979-1980 Lord Soames Premier, then Prime Minister... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rhodesia_(1964). ... Zimbabwe Rhodesia was the (largely unrecognised) name of Zimbabwe during 1979, adopted by Rhodesia soon after an Internal Settlement between the white minority Rhodesian Government led by Ian Smith and small, moderate African nationalist parties not involved in the war that had been raging in the country since 1977. ... Flag of Rhodesia (1964-1968) Flag of Rhodesia (1968-1979) The Flag of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) changed twice as a result of political changes in the country. ... The Coat of Arms of Rhodesia were first used for the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923, known simply as Rhodesia after 1964. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Rise O Voices of Rhodesia was adopted as the national anthem of Rhodesia in 1974, following its Unilateral Declaration of Independence from Britain in 1965. ... Image File history File links LocationRhodesia. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Motto: Pamberi Nekushandria Vanhu (Forward with Service to the People) Map of Zimbabwe showing the location of Harare. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Until 1970, the head of state of Rhodesia was the British Monarch, represented by the Governor, Sir Humphrey Gibbs. ... Clifford Walter Dupont (1905 - 1978) was a British-Rhodesian political figure. ... Presidential Flag (Rhodesia) John James Wrathall (1913 in Lancaster, England - 1978) was a British-Rhodesian political figure. ... Until 1970, the head of state of Rhodesia was the British Monarch, represented by the Governor, Sir Humphrey Gibbs. ... Clifford Walter Dupont (1905 - 1978) was a British-Rhodesian political figure. ... The Prime Minister of Rhodesia (until 1963 Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia) was the head of government in the colony of Rhodesia. ... For other persons named Ian Smith, see Ian Smith (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Republic President Josiah Zion Gumede Prime Minister Abel Muzorewa Historical era Cold War  - Established June 1, 1979  - Disestablished December 12, 1979 Area  - 1978 390,580 km2 150,804 sq mi Population  - 1978 est. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... The pound was the currency of Southern Rhodesia, then Rhodesia and Nyasaland and finally Rhodesia from 1932 until 1970. ... The Rhodesian Dollar was the currency used by Rhodesia between 1970 and 1980. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The history of Zimbabwe began with the transition to majority rule in 1980 and Britains ceremonial granting of independence. ... The pre-colonial history of Zimbabwe lasted from 500 to the British governments granting colonial status to Southern Rhodesia in 1923. ... The Mutapa Empire, also known as Mwene Mutapa (Portuguese: Monomotapa) or the Empire of Great Zimbabwe was a medieval kingdom (c. ... The Torwa dynasty arose from the collapse of the Great Zimbabwe Kingdom in the sixteenth and seventeenth century, founded perhaps by the legendary Dlembeu. ... The Rozwi Empire held sway in southeastern Africa, located south of the Zambezi River and centred on the stone city of Great Zimbabwe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Southern_Rhodesia. ... The history of Rhodesia extends from Prime Minister Ian Smiths unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 to the transition to majority rule in 1979. ... Image File history File links Flag of Rhodesia, 1965–1968. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Zimbabwe. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Flag Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1923-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1952 George VI  - 1952-1980¹ Elizabeth II Governor  - 1923-1928 Sir John Robert Chancellor  - 1959-1969² Sir Humphrey Gibbs  - 1979-1980 Lord Soames Premier, then Prime Minister... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the Smith administration, whose Rhodesian Front party[1] opposed black majority rule in the then British colony. ... Flag Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Republic President Josiah Zion Gumede Prime Minister Abel Muzorewa Historical era Cold War  - Established June 1, 1979  - Disestablished December 12, 1979 Area  - 1978 390,580 km2 150,804 sq mi Population  - 1978 est. ... A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... A dominant minority is a group that has overwhelming political, economic or cultural dominance in a country or region despite representing a small fraction of the overall population (a demographic minority). ... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the Smith administration, whose Rhodesian Front party[1] opposed black majority rule in the then British colony. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and a politician. ... The flag of the British South Africa Company The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Central Search Association and the Exploring Company, Ltd. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Rhodesia

The history of Rhodesia extends from Prime Minister Ian Smiths unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 to the transition to majority rule in 1979. ...

UDI

The British government adopted a policy of No Independence Before Majority African Rule (NIBMAR), dictating that colonies with a substantial population of white settlers would not receive independence except under conditions of universal suffrage and majority rule. The European minority Rhodesian Front (RF) government, led by Ian Smith, opposed the policy. The British Empire ruled over the self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia until negotiations between Smith's government and the UK government broke down in 1965. NIBMAR or No Independence Before Majority African Rule refers to the policy where Afro-Asian-Caribbean members of the British Empire were not to receive independence unless they had put in place democratic reforms resulting in majority rule rather than rule by the white colonial minority. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Majoritarianism (often also called majority rule) is a political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the... The Rhodesian Front (RF) was a political party in Southern Rhodesia, later known as Rhodesia, now called Zimbabwe, when the country was under white minority rule. ... For other persons named Ian Smith, see Ian Smith (disambiguation). ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Flag Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1923-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1952 George VI  - 1952-1980¹ Elizabeth II Governor  - 1923-1928 Sir John Robert Chancellor  - 1959-1969² Sir Humphrey Gibbs  - 1979-1980 Lord Soames Premier, then Prime Minister...


Smith's government declared the country independent from British rule on 11 November 1965 in what became known as UDI (Unilateral Declaration of Independence). Smith sent a telegram notifying British Prime Minister Harold Wilson at precisely 1 p.m. local time (11 a.m. in London) on 11 November, at the precise moment that the UK started its traditional two minutes of silence to mark the end of World War I and honour its war dead. The not-so-hidden message to "kith and kin," as Smith put it, recalled Southern Rhodesia's assistance and allegiance to the UK in its time of need in World War I and II. British High Commissioner John Baines Johnston, who disliked Smith, cleaned out the High Commission building of all official documents and left Rhodesia. Smith gave strict instructions to his government not to harm the High Commission building in any way, much to Johnston's surprise. is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the Smith administration, whose Rhodesian Front party[1] opposed black majority rule in the then British colony. ... For other persons named Harold Wilson, see Harold Wilson (disambiguation). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ...


The international community condemned UDI. The United Nations Security Council authorised the first use of sanctions, targeting Rhodesia at the behest of Britain, beginning in 1965 and lasting until the restoration of British rule in December 1979. The terms of these sanctions forbade most forms of trade or financial exchange with Rhodesia. However, not all members of the international community adhered to the sanctions. South Africa, Portugal, Israel, Iran and some Arab nations helped Rhodesia in various ways. In the case of the U.S., the 1971 Byrd Amendment allowed the importation of chrome, ferrochrome and nickel from Rhodesia.[1] Rhodesia evaded sanctions in the short term but few outsiders invested in Rhodesia after the sanctions.[2] “Security Council” redirects here. ... International sanctions are actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally. ...

Ian Smith signing the Unilateral Declaration of Independence on November 11, 1965 with his cabinet watching
Ian Smith signing the Unilateral Declaration of Independence on November 11, 1965 with his cabinet watching

The Rhodesian government struggled to obtain international recognition and the lifting of sanctions. No significant state ever granted recognition to Rhodesia and in 1970 the U.S. government categorically stated that "under no circumstances" would it recognise Rhodesian independence.[3] Image File history File links Udi2-rho. ... Image File history File links Udi2-rho. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


Initially, the state maintained its loyalty to Queen Elizabeth II as "Queen of Rhodesia" (a title to which she never consented) but not to her representative, the Governor Sir Humphrey Gibbs, whose constitutional duties were exercised by an "Officer Administering the Government," Clifford Dupont. On 2 March 1970, Rhodesia's government formally severed links with the British Crown, declaring Rhodesia a republic with Dupont as President. Dupont, a London solicitor, had emigrated to Rhodesia in 1953. The Rhodesians hoped that the declaration of a Republic would finally prompt sympathetic states to grant recognition. The UK government pressured Secretary of State William P. Rogers into closing the U.S. consulate in Salisbury. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Sir Humphrey Gibbs, c1965. ... In the Commonwealth Realms, the Administrator of the Government (often shortened to Administrator) is the person who, though acting in a gubernatorial capacity, is not given the title of Governor (or Governor-General or Lieutenant-Governor). ... Clifford Walter Dupont (1905 - 1978) was a British-Rhodesian political figure. ... -1... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... William Pierce Rogers (June 23, 1913 – January 2, 2001) was an American politician, who served as a Cabinet officer in the administrations of two U.S. Presidents in the third quarter of the 20th century. ... The rule of Napoleon Bonaparte after his coup detat in France had conducted the manners of French governmant under dictatorship and in a consulate. ... Motto: Pamberi Nekushandria Vanhu (Forward with Service to the People) Map of Zimbabwe showing the location of Harare. ...


Impact of UDI

In 2005 the 40th anniversary of UDI prompted memorial events of various kinds. Many individuals directly affected by, or who participated in, UDI still lived. The British Academy funded a two day conference on UDI ('UDI: 40 Years On') at the London School of Economics in January 2006. The conference portrayed UDI as a joint product of racial conflict and the Cold War.[4] UDI had an international dimension. Domestic events in Rhodesia alone did not produce Smith's declaration. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Critics of UDI sought to maintain that Smith intended only to defend the privileges of a small white elite at the expense of the black majority. In this view UDI created a vacuum which the Mugabe regime eventually filled.[5] Alternatively, many Rhodesians sought to justify UDI on the ground that the British government had delayed independence by 15 years. They said the delay contained the spread of communism in Africa and enabled Zimbabwe to avoid some of the economic and political problems suffered by many other newly independent African nations.[citation needed] Mugabe can refer to: Robert Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe. ... Zimbabwean women at Kariba, 1982 People of European ethnic origin (“whites”) first came as settlers to the African country now known as Zimbabwe during the late nineteenth century. ...


Tobacco generated more than half of Rhodesia's foreign currency throughout the UDI era and a highly-organised cartel smuggled it out to world markets disguised as South African or Portuguese product. However, sanctions that followed UDI affected tobacco production badly. The volume sold quickly declined from 150m kg (US$75m) in 1964 to around 60m kg (US$30m) per year.

From the industry's point of view, UDI was the worst setback it ever faced. Zimbabwe would be producing 400m kg of tobacco a year (double actual 1990 output) if it were not for UDI
Ted Jeffreys, President of the Rhodesia Tobacco Association from 1962 to 1965, in 1991[citation needed]

During UDI, white tobacco farmers switched to the production of maize and beef for sale on the domestic market. This provided severe competition to black farmers, whose share of marketed home food production declined from 65% to 30% during the UDI period.[citation needed] The black peasant farming sector never recovered. At the same time, sanctions provided an artificial protection for domestic manufacturing, which allowed the development of industries. These businesses later faltered when exposed to international competition in 1980.


Start of the Bush War

Main article: Rhodesian Bush War

A lengthy armed campaign by ZANLA, the military wing of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), and ZIPRA, the military wing of the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), against the Rhodesian government followed UDI. This became known as the "Bush War" by White Rhodesians and as the "Second Chimurenga" (or rebellion in Shona) by supporters of the guerrillas.[6] The war is generally considered to have started in 1972 with scattered attacks on isolated white-owned farms. Combatants Rhodesia ZANLA ZIPRA Government of Botswana Government of Tanzania Government of Zambia Mozambican Liberation Front [1] Commanders Ian Smith P. K. van der Byl Peter Walls ZANU: Robert Mugabe ZAPU: Joshua Nkomo Casualties unknown unknown Civilians killed = Around 30,000 The Rhodesian Bush War —­ as it was known at... ZANLA or the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army was the armed wing of the Zimbabwean political movement ZANU (the Zimbabwe African National Union) and participated in the Second Chimurenga against white minority rule in Rhodesia. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union was a political party during the struggle for Rhodesias, ultimately Zimbabwes, independence, formed as a split from ZAPU. It won the 1980 elections under the leadership of Robert Mugabe, and eight years later merged again with Joshua Nkomos ZAPU to form Zanu... ZIPRA or the Zimbabwe Peoples Revolutionary Army was the armed wing of the communist party ZAPU (the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union) and participated in the Second Chimurenga against white minority rule in the former Rhodesia. ... The Zimbabwe African Peoples Union was a political party in Zimbabwe. ... ShonaThe word Shona is derived from the Ndebele word itshonalanga(where the sun set)(or ChiShona) is native language of Zimbabwe and southern Zambia; the term is also used to identify those Bantu-language speaking peoples in Southern Africa who speak one of the Shona languages(dialects) namely Zezuru,Karanga...


Robert Mugabe, latterly based in Mozambique, led ZANU with support from the People's Republic of China. Joshua Nkomo, based in Zambia and supported by the Soviet Union, led ZAPU.[7] ZANU and ZAPU together formed 'the Patriotic Front'. Broadly, ZANU represented the 80% of the Black population who spoke Shona and ZAPU represented the 20% who spoke Ndebele.[8] Mugabe redirects here. ... Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (June 19, 1917 – July 1, 1999) was a Zimbabwean nationalist leader and revolutionary, a member of the Ndebele (or Matebele) ethnic group, and the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU). ... Shona is the principle language of Zimbabwe, in southern Africa. ... The Ndebele language, or isiNdebele, or Sindebele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, and spoken by the AmaNdebele (the Ndebele people). ...


An impression quickly took root during the war that the Rhodesians were going to lose. Even the South Africans considered sustaining white minority rule in a nation in which blacks outnumbered whites by 22:1 as untenable.[7] In 1978 there were 260,000 Rhodesians of European descent and more than six million of African descent.[9] International business groups involved in the country (e.g. Lonrho) transferred their support from the Rhodesian government to black nationalist parties. Business leaders and politicians feted Nkomo on his visits to Europe, funding his ZAPU party and associated ZIPRA military operations. This funding allowed ZIPRA to purchase sophisticated weaponry on the international arms market, which ultimately helped lead to the demise of the Rhodesian state. ZANU also attracted business supporters who saw the course that future events were likely to take.[10] Lonrho plc was incorporated in the United Kingdom on 13 May 1909 as the London and Rhodesian Mining Company Limited. ...


Initially, the Rhodesian government's overwhelming superiority in manpower, fire-power and mobility led the government to several victories. Containing the insurgency required little more than a police action. But the situation changed dramatically after the end of Portuguese colonial rule in Mozambique in 1975. Rhodesia now found itself almost entirely surrounded by hostile states and even South Africa, its only real ally, pressed for a settlement.


The Rhodesian government and the black nationalists met at Victoria Falls in August 1975 for negotiations brokered by South Africa and Zambia, but the talks never got beyond the procedural phase.[11] Rhodesian representatives made it clear they were prepared to fight an all out war to prevent majority rule.[12]

Having let slip one chance after another of reaching an accommodation with more moderate black leaders, Rhodesia's whites seem to have made the tragic choice of facing black nationalism over the barrel of a gun rather than the conference table. The downhill road toward a race war in Rhodesia is becoming increasingly slippery with blood.
Rand Daily Mail editorial, May 1976[13]

At this point, ZANU's alliance with FRELIMO and the porous border between Mozambique and eastern Rhodesia enabled large-scale training and infiltration of ZANU/ZANLA guerrillas. The governments of Zambia and Botswana were also emboldened sufficiently to allow guerrilla bases to be set up in their territories. Guerrillas began to launch operations deep inside Rhodesia, attacking roads, railways, economic targets and isolated security force positions, in 1976.[14] The Rand Daily Mail was a Johannesburg daily newspaper with an anti-apartheid bias that broke the news about the apartheid states disinformation funding scandal in 1979[1]. // Soon after it was founded, The Rand Daily Mail was bought by mining magnate Abe Bailey[2]. During the apartheid years... The Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO, pronounced fray-LEE-moo; Portuguese: Frente de Libertação de Moçambique) is a political party that has ruled Mozambique since independence in 1975. ...

Rhodesian national servicewoman takes aim with a Browning Hi-Power 9mm automatic, from 1976 army recruitment poster

The government adopted a 'strategic hamlets' policy of the kind used in Malaya and Vietnam to restrict the influence of insurgents over the population of rural areas. Local people were forced to relocate to protected villages (PVs) which were strictly controlled and guarded by the government. The protected villages were compared by some observers to concentration camps. Contemporary accounts indicate that this interference in the lives of local residents induced many of them who had previously been neutral to support the insurgents.[15] The war degenerated into rounds of increasing brutality from all three parties involved (Rhodesian army, ZANU and ZAPU). Mike Subritzky, a former NZ Army ceasefire monitor in Rhodesia, in 1980 described the war as "both bloody and brutal and brought out the very worst in the opposing combatants on all three sides."[16] Image File history File links Bushwar1. ... Image File history File links Bushwar1. ... The Browning Hi-Power is a single-action, 9 mm semi-automatic pistol. ... The 9x19mm Parabellum is a pistol cartridge introduced in 1902 by the German weapons manufacturer Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) for their Luger pistol. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand British colonies Federation of Malaya Rhodesia Fiji various British East African colonies Malayan Communist Party Malayan Races Liberation Army Commanders Harold Briggs Henry Gurney † Gerald Templer Henry Wells Chin Peng Strength 250,000 Malayan Home Guard troops 40,000 regular Commonwealth personnel 37,000... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ...


The Rhodesian government faced a serious economic struggle during the 1970s as a result of sanctions, emigration, and the strain imposed on the economic system by conscription of all white men. At this time volunteers were recruited from overseas to help in the fight. One particular source of volunteers, Vietnam War veterans mostly from the USA and Australia, who had found it difficult to adjust to civilian life in their home countries[citation needed]. Rhodesians began to take serious casualties in 1977, leaving few white families untouched.[17] Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


End of the Bush War

Rhodesia began to lose vital economic and military support from South Africa, which, while sympathetic to the white minority government, never accorded it diplomatic recognition. The South Africans placed limits on the fuel and munitions they supplied to the Rhodesian military. They also withdrew the personnel and equipment that they had previously provided to aid the war effort. In 1976 the South African and United States governments worked together to place pressure on Smith to agree to a form of majority rule. The Rhodesians now offered more concessions, but those concessions were insufficient to end the war. The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ...


At the time, some Rhodesians said the still embittered history between the British-dominated Rhodesia and the Afrikaner-dominated South Africa partly led South Africa to withdraw its aid to Rhodesia. Ian Smith said in his memoirs that even though many white South Africans supported Rhodesia, South African Prime Minister John Vorster's policy of détente with the Black African states ended up with Rhodesia being offered as the "sacrificial lamb" in order to buy more time for South Africa. Other observers perceive South Africa's distancing itself from Rhodesia as being an early move in the process that led to majority rule in South Africa itself.[18] This article is about the Southern African ethnic group. ... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, 1983), better known as John Vorster, was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ...

In 1976 South Africa saw settlement of the Rhodesian question as vital on several fronts: to cauterize the wound of the psychological blow … caused by her defeat in the Angolan conflict; to pre-empt possible Cuban intervention in Rhodesia and the possibility of South Africa being sucked into another Cold War regional conflict without the support and endorsement of the western powers
Dr Sue Onslow, 'South Africa and UDI'[19]
The Umniati was downed by ZIPRA insurgents using a SA-7 Grail surface-to-air missile on the 12 February 1979. All 59 passengers and crew aboard were killed.
The Umniati was downed by ZIPRA insurgents using a SA-7 Grail surface-to-air missile on the 12 February 1979. All 59 passengers and crew aboard were killed.

By early 1978 militant victories put the Rhodesian armed forces on the defensive. The government abandoned its early strategy of trying to defend the borders in favour of trying to defend key economic areas and lines of communication with South Africa, while the rest of the countryside became a patchwork of "no-go areas." Rhodesia's front-line forces never contained more than 25,000 troops, eight tanks (Polish build T-55LD tanks) and nine old Hawker Hunter jets. Those forces could still launch raids on enemy bases, but Rhodesia faced diplomatic isolation, economic collapse and military defeat.[20][21] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links YP-YND.JPG Summary Image of Air Rhodesia Viscount YP-TND, 1965 approx. ... Image File history File links YP-YND.JPG Summary Image of Air Rhodesia Viscount YP-TND, 1965 approx. ... A soldier posing with a Strela launcher. ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... Origin The term ‘no-go area’ has a military origin and was first widely used in the context of the Bush War in Rhodesia. ... The Hawker Hunter was a British jet fighter aircraft of the 1950s and 1960s. ...


During the closing stages of the conflict, the Rhodesian government resorted to biological warfare. Watercourses at several sites close to the Mozambique border were deliberately contaminated with cholera and the toxin Sodium Coumadin, an anti-coagulant commonly used as the active ingredient in rat poison. Food stocks in the area were contaminated with anthrax spores. These biological attacks had little impact on the fighting capability of ZANLA, but caused considerable distress to the local population. Over 10,000 people contracted anthrax in the period 1978 to 1980 of whom 200 died. The facts about this episode became known during the hearings of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission during the late 1990s.[22] Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Warfarin (also known under the brand names of Coumadin, Jantoven, Marevan, and Waran) is an anticoagulant medication that is administered orally or, very rarely, by injection. ... The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the end of Apartheid. ...


The work of journalists such as Lord Richard Cecil, son of the Marquess of Salisbury, stiffened the morale of Rhodesians and their overseas supporters.[23] Lord Richard produced regular news reports such as the Thames TV 'Frontline Rhodesia' features. These reports typically contrasted the incompetent insurgents with the "superbly professional" government troops.[24] A group of ZANLA insurgents killed Lord Richard on 20 April 1978 when he parachuted into enemy territory with a Rhodesian airborne unit and landed in the middle of a group of ZANLA fighters. Lord Richard Valentine Gascoyne-Cecil, commonly called Lord Richard Cecil (26 January 1948 – 20 April 1978) was the son of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 6th Marquess of Salisbury. ... The Most Honourable Robert Edward Peter Gascoyne-Cecil, 6th Marquess of Salisbury (October 24, 1916–July 11, 2003) was the son of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


The shooting down on 3 September 1978 of the civilian Vickers Viscount airliner Hunyani, Air Rhodesia Flight RH825, in the Kariba area by ZIPRA insurgents using a surface-to-air missile, and the subsequent massacre of its survivors, is widely considered to be the event that finally destroyed the Rhodesians' will to continue the war. Although militarily insignificant, the loss of this aircraft (and a second Viscount, the Umniati, in 1979) demonstrated the reach of insurgents extended to Rhodesian civil society.[25] is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The Viscount was a medium-range turboprop airliner introduced in 1953 by Vickers-Armstrongs, making it the first such aircraft to enter service in the world. ... Kariba is a town in Mashonaland West province, Zimbabwe, located close to the Kariba Dam at the northwestern end of Lake Kariba, near the Zambian border. ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... Umniati is a village in Matabeleland North, Zimbabwe and is located about 32km north of Kwekwe on the main Harare-Bulawayo road. ...


The Rhodesians' means to continue the war were also eroding fast. In December 1978 a ZANLA unit penetrated the outskirts of Salisbury and fired a volley of rockets and incendiary device rounds into the main oil storage depot – the most heavily defended economic asset in the country. The storage tanks burned for five days giving off a column of smoke that could be seen 80 miles (130 km) away. Half a million barrels of petroleum product (comprising Rhodesia’s strategic oil reserve) were lost. At a stroke, the country’s annual budget deficit was increased by 20%.[26] hey hey you no i rock at soccer cuz no i made the school team!! yay me aka katelyn ♥ Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus. ...


The government's defence spending increased from R$30m, 8.5% of the national budget in 1971 to 1972, to R$400m in 1978 to 1979, 47% of the national budget. In 1980 the post-independence government of Zimbabwe inherited a US$500m national debt.[27]


The end of UDI

The Rhodesian army continued its "mobile counter-offensive" strategy of holding key positions ("vital asset ground") while carrying out raids into the no-go areas and into neighbouring countries. These raids became increasingly costly and unproductive. For example, in April 1979 special forces carried out a raid on Joshua Nkomo's residence in Lusaka (Zambia) with the stated intention of assassinating him.[28] Nkomo and his family left hastily a few hours before the raid – having clearly been warned that the raid was coming. Rumours of treachery circulated within Rhodesia. It was variously suggested that the army command had been penetrated by British MI6 or that people in the Rhodesian establishment were positioning themselves for life after independence. The loyalty of the country's Central Intelligence Organization became suspect. Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (June 19, 1917 – July 1, 1999) was a Zimbabwean nationalist leader and revolutionary, a member of the Ndebele (or Matebele) ethnic group, and the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU). ... Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6)[1] is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... The Central Intelligence Organization (CIO) is the national intelligence agency or secret police of Zimbabwe. ...


In 1979, some special forces units were accused of using counter terrorist operations as cover for ivory poaching and smuggling. Colonel Reid-Daly (commander of the Selous Scouts) was court martialled and dismissed for insubordination. Meanwhile, support for ZANU-PF was growing amongst the black soldiers who made up 70% of the Rhodesian army.[29] Lieutenant Colonel Ronald Reid-Daly was a Rhodesian military officer, best know as the founder and commander of the elite Selous Scouts special forces unit that fought during the Rhodesian Bush War. ... The cap badge of the Selous Scouts was a stylised osprey. ...


By the end of 1978, the need to cut a deal was apparent to most Rhodesians, but not to all. Ian Smith had dismissed his intransigent Defence Minister, P. K. van der Byl as early as 1976.[30] "PK" had been a hard-line opponent of any form of compromise with domestic opposition or the international community since before UDI. Pieter Kenyon Fleming-Voltelyn van der Byl (11 November 1923 – 15 November 1999) served as the Foreign Minister of Rhodesia from 1974 to 1979 as a member of the Rhodesian Front. ...

...it is better to fight to the last man and the last cartridge and die with some honour. Because, what is being presented to us here is a degree of humiliation...
P. K. van der Byl in 1977, commenting on a British peace plan.[31]

PK eventually retired to his country estate outside Cape Town, but there were elements in Rhodesia, mainly embittered former security force personnel, who forcibly opposed majority rule up to and well beyond independence.[32] New white immigrants continued to arrive in Rhodesia right up to the eve of independence.[33] Nickname: Motto: Spes Bona (Latin for Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality Founded 1652 Government [1]  - Type City council  - Mayor Helen Zille  - City manager Achmat Ebrahim Area [2]  - Total 2,454. ...

P. K. van der Byl, hard-line Rhodesian Defence Minister

As the result of an "internal settlement" between the Rhodesian government and some fringe African nationalist parties, which were not in exile and not involved in the war, elections were held in April 1979. The UANC (United African National Council) party won a majority in this election, and its leader, Abel Muzorewa (a United Methodist Church bishop), became the country's nominal prime minister on June 1, 1979. The country's name was changed to Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The internal settlement left control of the country's police, security forces, civil service and judiciary in white hands. It assured whites of about one third of the seats in parliament. It was essentially a power-sharing arrangement which did not amount to majority rule.[34] However, the United States Senate voted to end economic sanctions against Zimbabwe Rhodesia on June 12.[35] Image File history File links PK2. ... Image File history File links PK2. ... Pieter Kenyon Fleming-Voltelyn van der Byl (11 November 1923 – 15 November 1999) served as the Foreign Minister of Rhodesia from 1974 to 1979 as a member of the Rhodesian Front. ... The United African National Council was a party led by Abel Muzorewa, which during the period of Internal Settlement of 1979 (the short-lived span when Rhodesia changed into Zimbabwe Rhodesia), held formal power. ... Bishop Abel Muzorewa Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa (born 1925 in former Rhodesia), a Methodist bishop and nationalist leader, was prime minister of the short-lived coalition government in what was called Zimbabwe Rhodesia; he held office for only a few months in 1979. ... This article is about the current Christian denomination based in the United States. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Zimbabwe Rhodesia was the (largely unrecognised) name of Zimbabwe during 1979, adopted by Rhodesia soon after an Internal Settlement between the white minority Rhodesian Government led by Ian Smith and small, moderate African nationalist parties not involved in the war that had been raging in the country since 1977. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


While the 1979 election was described by the Rhodesian government as non-racial and democratic, it did not include the main nationalist parties ZANU and ZAPU. In spite of offers from Ian Smith, the latter parties declined to participate in an election leading to anything less than full and immediate majority rule. The Zimbabwe African National Union was a political party during the struggle for Rhodesias, ultimately Zimbabwes, independence, formed as a split from ZAPU. It won the 1980 elections under the leadership of Robert Mugabe, and eight years later merged again with Joshua Nkomos ZAPU to form Zanu... The Zimbabwe African Peoples Union was a political party in Zimbabwe. ... For other persons named Ian Smith, see Ian Smith (disambiguation). ...


Bishop Muzorewa's government did not receive international recognition. The Bush War continued unabated and sanctions were not lifted. The international community refused to accept the validity of any agreement which did not incorporate the main nationalist parties. The British Government (then led by the recently elected Margaret Thatcher) issued invitations to all parties to attend a peace conference at Lancaster House. These negotiations took place in London in late 1979. The three-month-long conference almost failed to reach conclusion, due to disagreements on Land reform, but resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement. UDI ended, and Rhodesia reverted to the status of a British colony ('The British Dependency of Southern Rhodesia'). Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Lancaster House is a mansion in the St Jamess district in the West End of London. ... Land apportionment in Rhodesia in 1965. ... The Lancaster House Agreement ended biracial rule in Zimbabwe Rhodesia following negotiations between representatives of the Patriotic Front (PF), consisting of ZAPU (Zimbabwe African Peoples Union) and ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) and the Zimbabwe Rhodesia government, represented at that time by Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Ian Smith. ...


The outcome was an internationally supervised general election in early 1980. ZANU (PF) led by Robert Mugabe won this election. Elements in the Rhodesian armed forces toyed with the idea of mounting a coup ("Operation Quartz")[36] to prevent ZANU taking over government of the country, but the coup was never realised. The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling political party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party... Mugabe redirects here. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union was a political party during the struggle for Rhodesias, ultimately Zimbabwes, independence, formed as a split from ZAPU. It won the 1980 elections under the leadership of Robert Mugabe, and eight years later merged again with Joshua Nkomos ZAPU to form Zanu...


Independence

Mugabe and the victorious black nationalists were rather less concerned by Operation Quartz than by the possibility that there might be a mass exodus of the white community of the kind that had caused chaos in Mozambique five years earlier. Such an exodus had been prepared for by the South African government. With the agreement of the British Governor of Rhodesia, South African troops had entered the country to secure the road approaches to the Beit Bridge border crossing point. Refugee camps had been prepared in the Transvaal. On the day the election results became known, most white families had prepared contingency plans for flight, including the packing of cars and suitcases. Beit Bridge is a border post between South Africa and Zimbabwe. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ...


However, after a meeting with Robert Mugabe and the central committee of ZANU (PF), Ian Smith was reassured that whites could, and should stay in the new Zimbabwe. Mugabe promised that he would abide strictly by the terms of the Lancaster House Agreement and that changes in Zimbabwe would be made gradually and by proper legal process. The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling political party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party... The Lancaster House Agreement ended biracial rule in Zimbabwe Rhodesia following negotiations between representatives of the Patriotic Front (PF), consisting of ZAPU (Zimbabwe African Peoples Union) and ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) and the Zimbabwe Rhodesia government, represented at that time by Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Ian Smith. ...


On April 18, 1980 the country became independent as the Republic of Zimbabwe, and its capital, Salisbury, was renamed Harare two years later. is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Motto: Pamberi Nekushandria Vanhu (Forward with Service to the People) Map of Zimbabwe showing the location of Harare. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Rhodesia
Presidential flag of Rhodesia

Although Southern Rhodesia never gained full Dominion status within the old Commonwealth, Southern Rhodesians ruled themselves until 1923. Its electoral register had property and education qualifications, unexceptional for the early twentieth century, which allowed white settlers to dominate the government. Over the years various electoral arrangements made at a national and municipal level allowed whites to remain dominant. For example, the franchise for the first Legislative Council election in 1899 contained the following requirement: Rhodesia was a democratic nation in the sense that it had the Westminster parliamentary system with multiple political parties contesting the seats in parliament, but as the voting was dominated by the White settler minority and that the black africans only had a minority level of representation at that time... Image File history File links President of Rhodesia Flag File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links President of Rhodesia Flag File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


voters to be British subjects, male, 21 years of age and older, able to write their address and occupation, and then to fulfil the following financial requirements: (a) ownership of a registered mining claim in Southern Rhodesia, or (b) occupying immovable property worth £75, or (c) receiving wages or salary of £50 per annum in Southern Rhodesia. Six months' continuous residence was also required for qualifications (b) and (c).


Innocuous by the standards of the time, the requirement effectively excluded blacks from the electorate. Whites never comprised more than 5% of the country's total population, but up to 1979 they never had less than 95% of the total vote in national elections. Up until the 1950s, Southern Rhodesia had a vibrant political life with right and left wing parties (by white settler standards) competing for power. The Rhodesia Labour Party held seats in the Assembly and in municipal councils throughout the 1920s and 30s. From 1953 to 1958 the prime minister was Garfield Todd, a liberal who did much to promote the development of the Black community through investment in education, housing and healthcare. However, the government forced Todd from office when he attempted to widen the franchise in order to allow Blacks up to 20% of the total votes. See also: Elections in Rhodesia The Honourable Rev Sir Garfield Todd (July 13, 1908 - October 13, 2002) was prime minister of Southern Rhodesia from 1953 to 1958 and later became an opponent of white minority rule in Rhodesia. ... Since the granting of self-government in 1923, (Southern) Rhodesia used the Westminster parliamentary system as its basis of government. ...


From 1958 onwards, white settler politics consolidated and ossified around resistance to majority rule, setting the stage for UDI. The 1961 Constitution governed Southern Rhodesia and independent Rhodesia up until 1969, using the Westminster Parliamentary System modified by a system of separate voter rolls with differing property and education qualifications. The system ensured that whites had the majority of Assembly seats.


The 1969 republican constitution established a bicameral Parliament consisting of an indirectly-elected Senate and a directly-elected House of Assembly, effectively reserving the majority of seats for whites. The office of President had only ceremonial significance with the Prime Minister holding executive power. Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... For the band, see Senate (band). ... House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature or lower house of a bicameral legislature, in some countries, often at subnational level. ... Until 1970, the head of state of Rhodesia was the British Monarch, represented by the Governor, Sir Humphrey Gibbs. ...


The Constitution of the short-lived Zimbabwe Rhodesia, which saw a black-led government elected for the first time, reserved 28 of the 100 parliamentary seats for whites. The independence constitution agreed at Lancaster House reserved 20 out of 100 seats for whites in the House of Assembly and 8 out of 40 seats in the Senate. The constitution prohibited Zimbabwe authorities from altering the Constitution for seven years without unanimous consent and required a three quarters vote in Parliament for a further three years. The government amended the Constitution in 1987 to abolish the seats reserved for whites, and replace the office of Prime Minister with an executive President. In 1990 the government abolished the Senate. Zimbabwe Rhodesia was the (largely unrecognised) name of Zimbabwe during 1979, adopted by Rhodesia soon after an Internal Settlement between the white minority Rhodesian Government led by Ian Smith and small, moderate African nationalist parties not involved in the war that had been raging in the country since 1977. ... The Lancaster House Agreement ended biracial rule in Zimbabwe Rhodesia following negotiations between representatives of the Patriotic Front (PF), consisting of ZAPU (Zimbabwe African Peoples Union) and ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) and the Zimbabwe Rhodesia government, represented at that time by Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Ian Smith. ...


Foreign relations

Throughout the period of its Unilateral Declaration of Independence (1965 to 1979), Rhodesia pursued a foreign policy of attempting to secure recognition as an independent country, and insisting that its political system would include 'gradual steps to majority rule.' Ardently anti-communist, Rhodesia tried to present itself to the West as a front-line state against communist expansion in Africa, to little avail. Rhodesia never received any international recognition during its existence; recognition only occurred after elections in 1980 and a transition to black African rule. The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the Smith administration, whose Rhodesian Front party[1] opposed black majority rule in the then British colony. ...


Rhodesia wished to retain its economic prosperity and also feared communist elements in the rebel forces, and thus felt their policy of white minority rule was justified. However, the international community refused to accept this rationale, believing that their policies were perpetuating racism. This attitude was part of the larger decolonisation context, during which Western powers such as United Kingdom, France, and Belgium hastened to grant independence to their colonies in Africa. Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ...


Britain and the UDI

Rhodesia was originally a British colony. Although decolonisation in Africa had commenced after World War II, it began accelerating in the early 1960s, causing Britain to rapidly negotiate independence with several of its colonies. During this period, it adopted a foreign policy called NIBMAR, or No Independence Before Majority African Rule, mandating democratic reforms that placed governance in the hands of the majority black Africans. The governing white minority of Rhodesia, led by Ian Smith, opposed the policy and its implications. On 11 November 1965, Rhodesia's minority white government made a unilateral declaration of independence, or UDI, from the United Kingdom, as it became apparent that negotiations would not lead to independence under the white regime. A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ... NIBMAR or No Independence Before Majority Rule refers to the policy where Afro-Asian-Caribbean members of the Commonwealth advocated this position with respects to the future status of Rhodesia as a sovereign nation, and were heatedly pressuring British Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, to adopt the approach during a 21... For other persons named Ian Smith, see Ian Smith (disambiguation). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... A declaration of independence is a proclamation of the independence of a newly formed or reformed independent state from a part or the whole of the territory of another, or a document containing such a declaration. ...


Until late 1969, Rhodesia still recognised Queen Elizabeth II as head of state, even though it opposed the British government itself for hindering its goals of independence. The Queen, however, refused to accept the title Queen of Rhodesia. Eventually, the Smith government abandoned attempts to remain loyal to the Crown, and in 1969, a majority of whites voted in referendum to declare Rhodesia a republic. They hoped that this move would facilitate recognition as an independent state by the international community, but the issues of white minority control remained and hindered this effort, and like the UDI before it, the government lacked international recognition. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Sanctions

After the declaration of independence, and indeed for the entire duration of its existence, Rhodesia did not receive official recognition from any state, although it did maintain diplomatic relations with South Africa, another white minority regime, and Portugal, an authoritarian government which ceased relations with Rhodesia after its Carnation Revolution in 1974. The day following the declaration of independence, the United Nations Security Council passed a resolution (S/RES/216) calling upon all states to not accord Rhodesia recognition, and to refrain from any assistance. The Security Council also imposed selective mandatory economic sanctions, which were later made comprehensive. The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese, Revolução dos Cravos) was an almost bloodless, leftist, military-led coup détat, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, that effectively changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a liberal democracy after two years of a transitional period known as PREC... “Security Council” redirects here. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 216 was adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 12 November 1965, the day after the British Dependency of Southern Rhodesias Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the British Empire as the state of Rhodesia. ...


International perspective

Rhodesia campaigned for international acceptance and invoked the doctrine of non-intervention in internal affairs as justification for rebuking external criticism of its internal policies. However, the emerging doctrine of self-determination in colonial situations meant that most nations regarded Rhodesia as illegitimate. The undemocratic nature of the regime poured fuel on the fire. Non-intervention is the norm in international relations that one state cannot interfere in the internal politics of another state, based upon the principles of state sovereignty and self-determination // Overview The concept of non-intervention can be seen to have emerged from the system of sovereign nation states established... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


Zambia, formerly Northern Rhodesia, took a pragmatic approach towards Rhodesia. Kenneth Kaunda, heavily dependent on access through Rhodesia for his nation's copper ore exports, fuel, and power imports unofficially worked with the Rhodesian government. Rhodesia still allowed Zambia to export and import its goods through its territory to Mozambique ports, despite the Zambian government's official policy of hostility and non-recognition of the post-UDI Smith Administration. Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... Kenneth David Kaunda, commonly known as KK (born April 28, 1924) served as the first President of Zambia, from 1964 to 1991. ...


The United States, like all other Western nations, refused to recognise Rhodesia, but unlike others allowed its Consulate-General to function as a communications conduit between the American government in Washington, DC, and the Rhodesian government in Salisbury. When Rhodesia set up an information office in Washington, DC, OAU nations loudly protested. the U.S. government responded by saying the Rhodesian mission and its staff had no official diplomatic status and violated no U.S. laws. Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ...


Portugal pursued a middle path with Rhodesia. While not officially recognising Rhodesia under Ian Smith, the government of Antonio Salazar did permit Rhodesia to establish a diplomatic mission in Lisbon, and permitted Rhodesian exports and imports through their colony of Mozambique. The Portuguese government in power at that time, authoritarian and ardently anti-communist, gave active behind-the-scenes support in Rhodesia's fight against the guerrilla groups. Ant nio de Oliveira Salazar Ant nio de Oliveira Salazar (April 28, 1889—July 27, 1970) was the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968, noted for the dictatorial nature of his government. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


South Africa, itself under international pressure as a white minority regime, pursued a policy of détente with the black African states at the time. These states wanted South Africa to pressure Ian Smith to accept a faster transition to majority rule in Rhodesia, in return for pledges of non-interference in South Africa's internal affairs. Prime Minister John Vorster, believing majority rule in Rhodesia would lead to international acceptance for South Africa, used a number of tactics to pressure Smith. The South African government held up shipments of fuel and ammunition and pulled out friendly South African forces from Rhodesia. The combined loss of Mozambique and the loss of support from South Africa dealt critical blows to the Rhodesian government. Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... This is a list of South African Prime Ministers. ... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, 1983), better known as John Vorster, was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ...


Legations

After the UDI, Rhodesia House in London (the Rhodesian High Commission) simply became a representative office with no official diplomatic status. Other locations which had Rhodesian representative offices were: Rhodesia House was Rhodesias High Commission to the United Kingdom. ... A High Commissioner is a person serving in a special executive capacity. ...

The most important representative offices for Rhodesia were Lisbon and Pretoria. Maputo, formerly Lourenço Marques, is the capital and largest city of Mozambique. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


Results

Continuing civil war and a lack of international support eventually led the Rhodesian government to submit to an agreement with the UK in 1979. This led to internationally supervised elections, won by ZANU-PF and Robert Mugabe, establishing the internationally-recognised Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling political party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party...


Footnote

After independence in April 1980, the history of Rhodesians became that of the whites in Zimbabwe. However, many of the issues associated with UDI and the Bush War were not resolved immediately. In the early 1980s, South Africa sought to secure its position in the region by various means including the destabilisation of neighbouring states through support for dissident groups such as UNITA (in Angola) and Renamo (in Mozambique).[37] In Zimbabwe, the South African intelligence service promoted ZIPRA dissidents in what became known as the super-ZAPU insurgency in Matabeleland.[38] Zimbabwean women at Kariba, 1982 People of European ethnic origin (“whites”) first came as settlers to the African country now known as Zimbabwe during the late nineteenth century. ... A UNITA sticker The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, commonly known by the acronymn, UNITA, derived from its Portuguese name União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola, is an Angolan political faction and a former rebel force. ... The Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO; Portuguese: Resistência Nacional Moçambicana) is a conservative political party in Mozambique led by Afonso Dhlakama. ...


During the Bush War of the 1970s some white farmers were able to carry on operations due to the tolerance of guerrilla commanders (who did not want to damage vital economic assets) and/or by paying protection money to those commanders.[39] The super-ZAPU insurgency of the early 1980s was much less manageable. Super-ZAPU targeted white farmers, missionaries and tourists on the grounds that their murders would make "international headlines."[40]

...then the super-ZAPU element came in and this really unseated us – South Africa targeting white farmers. I mean it changed a few perspectives, I can tell you...
Ed Cumming, Matabeleland white farmer

The insurgency was equipped and coordinated by South African intelligence, working through white former members of the Rhodesian security services.[41] The super-ZAPU insurgency was eventually resolved at a military level by the Zimbabwe army Fifth Brigade's sweep through Matabeleland in 1983 (operation "Gukurahundi") and at a political level by the Unity Accord of 1987.[42] Operation Gukurahundi was associated with the massacre of between four and ten thousand civilians. Those last figures are estimated by sources ranging from the Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace to Parade magazine.[43] Gukurahundi is a traditional term in Shona (one of Zimbabwes native languages), which means the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains. The chaff, i. ... Gukurahundi is a traditional term in Shona (one of Zimbabwes native languages), which means the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains. The chaff, i. ...


The Matabeleland police reserve, still a largely white force in 1983, provided a degree of support to operation Gukurahundi. White police officers manning roadblocks and checkpoints were a commonly observed feature in Matabeleland at the time of the operation.[44]


In the ten years after independence, around 60% of the white population of Zimbabwe emigrated. Most emigrated to white, English speaking countries where they formed expatriate communities. Many expatriates and some of the whites who stayed in Zimbabwe became deeply nostalgic for Rhodesia. These individuals are known as "Rhodies." Native whites who are more accepting of the new order are known as "Zimbos." Rhodie is a colloquial and, occasionally, derogatory term. ...


See also

Image File history File links Flag_of_Southern_Rhodesia. ... Image File history File links Flag of Rhodesia, 1965–1968. ... The history of Rhodesia extends from Prime Minister Ian Smiths unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 to the transition to majority rule in 1979. ... This is a timeline of the History of Zimbabwe. ... The pre-colonial history of Zimbabwe lasted from 500 to the British governments granting colonial status to Southern Rhodesia in 1923. ... Combatants United Kingdom, British South Africa Police Ndebele Commanders Cecil Rhodes, Leander Starr Jameson King Lobengula, Mjaan, chief induna Casualties fewer than 100 Over 10,000 British Artillery, ca 1900. ... Burnham & Armstrong after the assassination of Mlimo. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War II. The western allies are shown in blue, the eastern allies in red, the Axis Powers in black, and neutral countries in grey. ... The colonial history of Zimbabwe lasted from the British governments establishment of the government of Southern Rhodesia on October 1, 1923 to Prime Minister Ian Smiths unilateral declaration of independence in 1965. ... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the Smith administration, whose Rhodesian Front party[1] opposed black majority rule in the then British colony. ... The history of Rhodesia extends from Prime Minister Ian Smiths unilateral declaration of independence in 1965 to the transition to majority rule in 1979. ... The Internal Settlement refers to the negotiations between Rhodeisan Prime Minister Ian Smith and the moderate black nationalist leaders in 1978. ... The Lancaster House Agreement ended biracial rule in Zimbabwe Rhodesia following negotiations between representatives of the Patriotic Front (PF), consisting of ZAPU (Zimbabwe African Peoples Union) and ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) and the Zimbabwe Rhodesia government, represented at that time by Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Ian Smith. ... Combatants Rhodesia ZANLA ZIPRA Government of Botswana Government of Tanzania Government of Zambia Mozambican Liberation Front [1] Commanders Ian Smith P. K. van der Byl Peter Walls ZANU: Robert Mugabe ZAPU: Joshua Nkomo Casualties unknown unknown Civilians killed = Around 30,000 The Rhodesian Bush War —­ as it was known at... Flag Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Republic President Josiah Zion Gumede Prime Minister Abel Muzorewa Historical era Cold War  - Established June 1, 1979  - Disestablished December 12, 1979 Area  - 1978 390,580 km2 150,804 sq mi Population  - 1978 est. ... Rhodesia was a democratic nation in the sense that it had the Westminster parliamentary system with multiple political parties contesting the seats in parliament, but as the voting was dominated by the White settler minority and that the black africans only had a minority level of representation at that time... This page contains a list of Governors of Southern Rhodesia from 1923 to 1980, and includes the period of UDI (1965–1970) when a competing position to the legal Governor was created. ... Until 1970, the head of state of Rhodesia was the British Monarch, represented by the Governor, Sir Humphrey Gibbs. ... The Prime Minister of Rhodesia (until 1963 Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia) was the head of government in the colony of Rhodesia. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Elections in Southern Rhodesia were used from 1899 to 1923 to elect part of the Legislative Council and from 1924 to elect the whole of the Legislative Assembly which governed the colony. ... Since the granting of self-government in 1923, (Southern) Rhodesia used the Westminster parliamentary system as its basis of government. ... The Rhodesian Front (RF) was a political party in Southern Rhodesia, later known as Rhodesia, now called Zimbabwe, when the country was under white minority rule. ... ZANLA or the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army was the armed wing of the Zimbabwean political movement ZANU (the Zimbabwe African National Union) and participated in the Second Chimurenga against white minority rule in Rhodesia. ... ZIPRA or the Zimbabwe Peoples Revolutionary Army was the armed wing of the communist party ZAPU (the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union) and participated in the Second Chimurenga against white minority rule in the former Rhodesia. ... The cap badge of the Selous Scouts was a stylised osprey. ... The Rhodesian Light Infantry, or R.L.I., was a regular army infantry regiment in the Rhodesian army. ... BSAPolice Flag 1949 - 1960 The British South Africa Police (BSAP) was the police force of the British South Africa Company (BSAC) of Cecil Rhodes which became the national police force of Southern Rhodesia and its successor after 1965, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). ... Zimbabwe is divided into 8 provinces and 2 cities with provincial status: Bulawayo (city) Harare (city) Manicaland Mashonaland Central Mashonaland East Mashonaland West Masvingo Matabeleland North Matabeleland South Midlands Categories: | ... Districts of Zimbabwe The Provinces of Zimbabwe are divided into 59 districts and 1,200 municipalities. ... The Districts of Zimbabwe are divided into 1,200 municipalities. ... Course and Watershed of the Limpopo River The Limpopo River rises in the interior of Africa, and flows generally eastwards towards the Indian Ocean. ... Zambezi River in North Western Zambia The Zambezi (also spelled Zambesi) is a river in Southern Africa. ... Chimanimani is a mountainous area in the east of Zimbabwe. ... Map of Zimbabwe This is a list of cities, towns and villages in Zimbabwe. ... The Rhodesian Dollar was the currency used by Rhodesia between 1970 and 1980. ... All journalists are prevented from reporting from within the country by the Zanu-PF elite. ... Population: 12,576,742 (July, 2003 est. ... Zimbabwean women at Kariba, 1982 People of European ethnic origin (“whites”) first came as settlers to the African country now known as Zimbabwe during the late nineteenth century. ... Rhodie is a colloquial and, occasionally, derogatory term. ... Shona (IPA: ) is the name collectively given to several groups of people in Zimbabwe and western Mozambique. ... The Ndebele people are three tribes or nations of people living in South Africa and Zimbabwe; there are three main groups of Ndebele: The Southern Transvaal Ndebele, who live around Bronkhorstspruit The Northern Transvaal Ndebele, who live in Limpopo Province (formerly Northern Transvaal or Northern Province) around the towns of... Categories: | | | ... South African English is a dialect of English spoken in South Africa and in neighbouring countries with a large number of Anglo-Africans living in them, such as Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. ... ShonaThe word Shona is derived from the Ndebele word itshonalanga(where the sun set)(or ChiShona) is native language of Zimbabwe and southern Zambia; the term is also used to identify those Bantu-language speaking peoples in Southern Africa who speak one of the Shona languages(dialects) namely Zezuru,Karanga... The Northern Ndebele language, or isiNdebele, or Sindebele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, and spoken by the Ndebele or Matabele people of Zimbabwe. ... // Catherine Buckle Shimmer Chinodya winner of 1992 Commonwealth Prize for Literature Tsitsi Dangarembga (1959- ) Adrian Magombedze-1982 - Writer of college drama Up The Hill, co-writer of TV soap Estate Blues-) Chenjerai Hove (1956- ) Dambudzo Marechera (1952-1987) ) One of the finest writers of yesteryear Nozipa Maraire (1966- ) Charles Mungoshi... A Zimbabwe market scene Zimbabwe has many different cultures which may include beliefs and ceremonies, one of them being Shona. ... The Coat of Arms of Rhodesia were first used for the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923, known simply as Rhodesia after 1964. ... Flag of Rhodesia (1964-1968) Flag of Rhodesia (1968-1979) The Flag of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) changed twice as a result of political changes in the country. ... This is a list of flags used in Rhodesia between 1896 and 1979 National Flags Vice-Regal and Presidential See also Unilateral Declaration of Independence (Rhodesia) Categories: | ... The stone-carved Zimbabwe Bird is an emblem of Zimbabwe, appearing on the national flag as well as on banknotes and coins. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Hippotragus niger Harris, 1838 The Sable Antelope (Hippotragus niger) is an antelope that inhabits wooded savannah in East Africa south of Kenya, and in Southern Africa. ... Zimbabwean music includes folk and pop styles, much of it based on the well-known instrument the mbira. ...

References

  1. ^ Meredith, Martin. The Past is Another Country, 218. 
  2. ^ Elizabeth Schmidt (2003). Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1 (March 2003), pp. 311-312 (HTML). JSTOR. Retrieved on 2007-11-10, 2007.
  3. ^ 1970: Ian Smith declares Rhodesia a republic (HTML). BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-11-10, 2007.
  4. ^ Dr. Sue Onslow. UDI: 40 Years On (HTML). LSE. Retrieved on 2007-11-10, 2007.
  5. ^ Michael Hartnack (2005). 40 years in wilderness after UDI declaration (HTML). The Herald. Retrieved on 2007-11-10, 2007.
  6. ^ Spring, William (1986). The Long Fields: Zimbabwe Since Independence, 38. 
  7. ^ a b APF newsletter, "Appraisal of Rhodesia in 1975".
  8. ^ Chachage, C. S. L.; Magnus Ericsson and Peter Gibbon (1993). Mining and Structural Adjustment: Studies on Zimbabwe and Tanzania, 34. 
  9. ^ Ian Beckett. Report on Bush War, paragraph 10.
  10. ^ The Guardian, 21 April 2000 British Multimillionaire bankrolls Mugabe party
  11. ^ Brookings Institution: p156, study on conflict resolution
  12. ^ Peace talks fail (HTML). BBC news (1975). Retrieved on 2007-11-27, 2007.
  13. ^ Rhodesia: A Strike At the Lifeline 2. Rand Daily Mail via TIME magazine (1976). Retrieved on 2007-11-23, 2007.
  14. ^ A Strike at the Lifeline (HTML). TIME magazine (1976). Retrieved on 2007-11-23, 2007.
  15. ^ APF Newsletter, 1976 :Rhodesia's "Protected" Blacks
  16. ^ Operation Agila, "The British Empire's Last Sunset" (HTML). NZ History. Retrieved on 2007-11-23, 2007.
  17. ^ Mazoe: Rhodesian Roll of Honour
  18. ^ APF newsletter, 1976: appraisal of Rhodesia in 1976
  19. ^ LSE conference, UDI - 40 years on abstracts [1]
  20. ^ Time magazine, 7 August 1978: Rhodesia faces collapse
  21. ^ Time magazine, 1 August 1978: taking the chicken run
  22. ^ Southern African News Feature:the plague wars
  23. ^ The Guardian, 15 July 2003: obituary of sixth Marquess of Salisbury
  24. ^ Nick Downie report: caution, partisan comment
  25. ^ The Viscount Disasters - The Story
  26. ^ The Atlantic Monthly : The Fragility of Domestic Energy, see page 5
  27. ^ Selby thesis:p88
  28. ^ Ian Beckett :report on Bush War, para 7
  29. ^ Ian Beckett :report on Bush War
  30. ^ Rhodesia Worldwide:"PK"
  31. ^ The Past is Another Country, Martin Meredith, p291
  32. ^ Newsnet report :saboteurs hit Zimbabwean military, partisan comment
  33. ^ Time magazine, October 1977 :The Land of Opportunity
  34. ^ BBC "On this day" report :1 June 1979
  35. ^ SENATE VOTES DOWN A MOVE TO PRESERVE RHODESIA SANCTIONS; ARMS-BILL VETO THREATENED White House Says 52-to-41 Margin Shows President Has Support to Prevent an Override, June 13, 1979. The New York Times.
  36. ^ Operation Quartz :possible military coup Rhodesia 1980
  37. ^ Wars of the World :Renamo insurgency, 1976–1992
  38. ^ Selby thesis :p170
  39. ^ Selby thesis :p84
  40. ^ Selby thesis :p171
  41. ^ Newsnet report: caution, partisan comment
  42. ^ Selby thesis :p175
  43. ^ Selby thesis :p174
  44. ^ Selby thesis: p174

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
index (99 words)
We are an educational and informational resource for the Republic of Rhodesia.
We are not a commercial venture, protest or pressure group, nor are we affiliated to any political grouping or party either within Africa or internationally.
The Embassy of Rhodesia in Iceland - RHODESIAN.NET : 1998 - 2008
Rhodesia - definition of Rhodesia in Encyclopedia (644 words)
Rhodesia (after Cecil Rhodes) is the former name of a British colony in Africa governed by a white minority.
At an earlier period, the name "Rhodesia" was used to refer to a larger region that corresponds to both Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia) and Zambia (Northern Rhodesia).
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was dissolved on January 1, 1964 upon the independence of Malawi and Zambia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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