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Encyclopedia > Rhodes Scholarship
Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker.
Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker.

The Rhodes Scholarship is an international award for study at the University of Oxford and was the first large-scale program of international scholarships.[1] Rhodes Scholars may study any full-time postgraduate course offered by the University except for the MBA – whether a taught Master’s programme, a research degree, or a second undergraduate degree (senior status). Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 314 KB)Rhodes House in Oxford, 2004-09-09. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 314 KB)Rhodes House in Oxford, 2004-09-09. ... Rhodes House from South Parks Road. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Sir Herbert Baker 9 June 1862 Cobham, Kent - 4 February 1946 Cobham, Kent, was the dominant force in South African architecture for two decades, 1892–1912. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


The Scholarship is for two years in the first instance, though may be held for one year only; applications for a third year are considered during the course of the 2nd year.


University and College fees are paid by the Rhodes Trust. In addition, Scholars receive a monthly maintenance stipend to cover accommodation and living expenses. Although all scholars become affiliated with a residential college while at Oxford, they also enjoy access to Rhodes House, an early 20th century mansion with numerous public rooms, gardens, a library, study areas, and other facilities. A residential college is an organisational pattern for a division of a university that places academic activity in a community setting of students and faculty, usually at a residence and with shared meals, the college having a degree of autonomy and a federated relationship with the overall university. ... Rhodes House from South Parks Road. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


The scholarships are administered and awarded by the Rhodes Trust which was established in 1902 under the terms and conditions of the will of Cecil John Rhodes, and funded by his estate. Scholarships have been awarded to applicants annually since 1904 on the basis of academic achievement and strength of character. There have been over 7,000 Rhodes Scholars since the inception of the Trust. Over 4,000 are still living.[2] Rhodes House from South Parks Road. ... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and a politician. ...

Contents

Standards

Rhodes' legacy specified four standards by which applicants were to be judged:

  • literary and scholastic attainments;
  • energy to use one's talents to the full, as exemplified by fondness for and success in sports;
  • truth, courage, devotion to duty, sympathy for and protection of the weak, kindliness, unselfishness and fellowship;
  • moral force of character and instincts to lead, and to take an interest in one's fellow beings.

This legacy originally provided for scholarships for the British colonies, the United States, and Germany. These three were chosen so that "an understanding between the three great powers will render war impossible." For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ...


Rhodes, who attended Oxford University, chose his alma mater as the site of his great experiment because he believed its residential colleges provided the ideal environment for intellectual contemplation and personal development. A residential college is an organisational pattern for a division of a university that places academic activity in a community setting of students and faculty, usually at a residence and with shared meals, the college having a degree of autonomy and a federated relationship with the overall university. ...


Rhodes' original aim with the Scholarship, and subsequent changes

There has been some controversy over the original aim of the scholarships, as it has been alleged that Rhodes held racist opinions about the superiority of the Anglo race, and that his intention was to use the scholarships to educate future foreign leaders in Britain so that they could help spread British influence when they returned to their home countries. The Secretary of the Rhodes Trust 1925-1939 was Philip Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian who was a progressive imperialist, and an ex-member of Milner's Kindergarten. Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... Look up anglo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Philip Henry Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian (1882–1940) was a British politician and diplomat. ... Milners Kindergarten is an informal reference to a group of Britons who served in the South African Civil Service under High Commissioner Alfred, Lord Milner, between the Second Boer War and the founding of the Union of South Africa. ...


An early change was the elimination of the scholarships for Germany during World Wars I and II. No German scholars were chosen from 1914 to 1932[3], nor from 1939 to 1970. Also, between the wars, for political and propaganda reasons Erich Vermehren was prevented by the German government from taking up a Rhodes Scholarship. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Erich Vermehren (December 23, 1919-April 28, 2005) was a German agent of the Abwehr, the German intelligence organization, whose well-publicized defection to the British in early 1944 led directly to the abolishment of the Abwehr. ...


Rhodes' bequest was whittled down considerably in the first decades after his death, as various scholarship trustees were forced to pay taxes upon their own deaths. A change occurred in 1929, when an Act of Parliament established a fund separate from the original proceeds of Rhodes's will. This made it possible to expand the number of scholarships. For example, between 1993 and 1995, scholarships were extended to other countries in the European Community. An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Because the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 in the United Kingdom did not affect wills, it took another Act of Parliament to change the Rhodes' will to extend selection criteria in 1977 to include women. The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to protect men and women from discrimination on the grounds of gender. ...


For at least its first 75 years, scholars usually studied for a Bachelor of Arts degree. While that remains an option, more recent scholars usually study for an advanced degree. A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... This article concerns the degrees of Oxford University. ...


Allocations

There were originally 52 scholarships. During the ensuing 100 years, the Trustees added at one time or another approximately another 40 scholarships, though not all have continued. Some of these extended the scheme to Commonwealth countries not mentioned in the Will.[2] A more detailed allocation by region by year can be found at Rhodes Scholarship Allocations. Very brief summaries of some of the terms and conditions can be found on the Trust's web site.[4][5] Complete details can be obtained from the nominating countries.[6]


Currently, scholars are selected from citizens of 14 specified geographic constituencies,[7][8] namely: Australia; Bermuda; Canada; Germany; Hong Kong; India; Jamaica & Commonwealth Caribbean; Kenya; New Zealand; Pakistan; Southern Africa (South Africa and neighbours Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia and Swaziland); USA; Zambia; and Zimbabwe.


From 2006, 11 scholarships were suspended for a period of 5 years.[citation needed] The scholarships for Hong Kong were abolished in July 1997 following its withdrawal from the Commonwealth (due to the transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China). However, with the benefaction from the Lee Hysan Foundation (described by the Rhodes Trust as "substantial and generous"[citation needed]), the Rhodes Scholarships for Hong Kong are to be reintroduced.[9] The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Lee Hysan (利希慎; born 1879 - death 1928) was a renowned land developer and enterpreneur in Hong Kong. ...

"Geographic
constituency"
2006
allocation
1902
allocation
Australia[10] 9 6
Bermuda[11] 1 1
Canada 11 2
& Newfoundland
(now part of Canada)
1 1
Germany[12] 2 -
Hong Kong - -
India[13] 6 -
Jamaica[14] 1 1
& CommonwealthCaribbean 1 -
Kenya 2 -
New Zealand[15] 3 1
Pakistan 1 -
Southern Africa[16] 10 5
USA[17] 32 32
Zambia 1
Zimbabwe 2
(formerly Rhodesia) 3
Total 83 52

This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... West Indies redirects here. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ...

Notable Rhodes Scholarship recipients

A table of Notable Rhodes Scholarship recipients can be found at Notable Rhodes Scholars. Notable Rhodes Scholars - This page provides a list of Notable Rhodes Scholarship recipients - in sort by Year by Surname. ...

See also: Rhodes scholars category

Centenary degrees

In recognition of the centenary of the foundation of the Rhodes Trust in 2003, four scholars were awarded honorary degrees by the University of Oxford: A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ...

  • John Brademas (Indiana & Brasenose 1950), President of New York University, U.S. Congressman (Indiana), 1959-1981
  • Robert J. L. (Bob) Hawke (Western Australia & University 1953), Prime Minister of Australia, 1983-1991
  • Rex Nettleford (Jamaica & Oriel 1957), Vice-Chancellor of the University of the West Indies, author, dance director
  • David R. Woods (Rhodes & University 1963), Vice-Chancellor of Rhodes University

John Brademas, Ph. ... Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia after previously being an Australian trade union leader. ... The Honourable Ralston Milton Nettleford OM (Jamaica) (b. ...

Current trustees

The Trust[18] is governed by a Board of Trustees:

The business of the Trust is administered by the Warden of Rhodes House and Secretary to the Trust, Colin Lucas William Arthur Waldegrave, Baron Waldegrave of North Hill, PC (born August 15, 1946), educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford and now a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford is a British Conservative politician who served in the Cabinet from 1990 until 1997. ... Robert Fellowes, Baron Fellowes, GCB GCVO QSO PC (b. ... Arms of Baron Butler of Brockwell The Right Honourable Frederick Edward Robin Butler, Baron Butler of Brockwell, KG, GCB, CVO, PC (born 3 January 1938) is a retired British civil servant, now sitting in the House of Lords as a life peer. ... Julian Ogilvie Thompson (born 1934 in Cape Town, South Africa) is a South African businessman and former chairman of De Beers and Anglo American. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jon Vickers. ... Sir Colin Renshaw Lucas (1940- ) was the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University. ...


Former trustees

Albert Grey Albert Henry George Grey, 4th Earl Grey (November 28, 1851 – August 29, 1917) was the ninth Governor General of Canada from 1904 to 1911. ... Douglas McGarel Hogg, 1st Viscount Hailsham was a British lawyer and politician. ... This article is about the British author. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ The American Rhodes Scholarships: A Review of the First Forty Years, Review author[s]: Harvie Branscomb, The American Historical Review © 1947 American Historical Association
  2. ^ a b Brief history of the Rhodes Trust
  3. ^ Adam von Trott zu Solz was Germany's Rhodes Scholar in 1931. He was executed by the Nazis in 1944.
  4. ^ Rhodes Scholarship FAQ
  5. ^ Information about the Scholarships
  6. ^ Country Websites and Information
  7. ^ Rhodes Scholarship constituencies
  8. ^ Countries from which Rhodes Scholars are selected
  9. ^ The Rhodes Scholarship for Hong Kong - Memorandum for 2007
  10. ^ The Rhodes Scholarships in Australia
  11. ^ The Rhodes Scholarships in Bermuda
  12. ^ The Rhodes Scholarships in Germany
  13. ^ The Rhodes Scholarships in India
  14. ^ The Rhodes Scholarships for Jamaica & the Commonwealth Caribbean
  15. ^ The Rhodes Scholarships in New Zealand
  16. ^ The Rhodes Scholarships in South Africa
  17. ^ The Rhodes Trust, USA
  18. ^ Rhodes Trust Board of Trustees
  19. ^ Top 100 Women in European Finance 2007 Financial News Online, 29 Oct 2007

Adam von Trott zu Solz (born August 9, 1909 in Potsdam, Germany - died August 26, 1944 in Berlin, Germany) was a lawyer and diplomat who opposed the Nazi regime. ...

Further reading

  • R.I. Rotberg, "The Founder: Cecil Rhodes and the Pursuit of Power" (Oxford University Press, New York, 1988)
  • Anthony Kenny (ed.), "The History of the Rhodes Trust" (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Rhodes Scholarship Memorandum (2060 words)
The Rhodes Trustees have instituted two (2) Rhodes Scholarships tenable at the University of Oxford to be awarded to candidates from the Commonwealth Caribbean as follows:
Election to the Scholarship, once confirmed, is normally for two years but the scholarship may be held for one year only, depending upon the degree programme pursued by the scholar.
Since June 1995, marriage could apply for Rhodes scholarships, and a scholarship was forfeited by marriage is no longer a bar to applying for, or holding, a Rhodes Scholarship.
The Rhodes Trust - an educational charity enabling study at Oxford University (406 words)
The Rhodes Scholarship is a postgraduate award for study at the University of Oxford.
Rhodes Scholars may study any full-time postgraduate course offered by the University except for the MBA – whether a taught Master’s programme or a research degree; or a second undergraduate degree (senior status), over two years.
The Scholarship is for two years in the first instance, though may be held for one year only; applications for a third year of Scholarship (for those pursuing the DPhil) are considered during the course of the 2nd year.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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