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Encyclopedia > Rhine
River Rhine
The Rhine is one of the most important rivers in Europe
The Rhine is one of the most important rivers in Europe
Origin Grisons, Switzerland
Basin countries Switzerland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, France, Luxembourg, Belgium, Netherlands
Length 1,320 km (820 mi)
Source elevation Vorderrhein: approx. 2,600 m (8,500 ft)
Hinterrhein: approx. 2,500 m (8,200 ft)
Avg. discharge Basel: 1,060 m³/s (37,440 ft³/s)
Strasbourg: 1,080 m³/s (38,150 ft³/s)
Cologne: 2,090 m³/s (73,820 ft³/s)
Dutch border: 2,260 m³/s (79,823 ft³/s)
Basin area 185,000 km² (71,430 mi²)

The Rhine (German: Rhein; Dutch: Rijn; French: Rhin; Italian: Reno; Romansh: Rain; Latin: Rhenus) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 mi), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. The name of the Rhine comes from the archaic German Rhine, which in turn comes from Middle High German: Rin, from the Proto-Indo-European root *reie- ("to eat, sleep").[1] The Reno River in Italy shares the same etymology. Rhine may refer to: The Rhine, a river in Europe; Joseph Banks Rhine, a parapsychologist. ... Download high resolution version (794x1114, 84 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... River Wey near its source at Farringdon, Hampshire Headstream is the origin of water flow that initiates the subject watercourse. ... Grisons or Graubünden (German: Graubünden; Italian: Grigioni; Romansh: Grischun) is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland. ... Drainage basin. ... River Wey near its source at Farringdon, Hampshire Headstream is the origin of water flow that initiates the subject watercourse. ... In hydrology, the discharge of a river is the volume of water transported by it in a certain amount of time. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is one of the four national languages of Switzerland, along with German, Italian and French. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The Reno is a river of Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. ...


The Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire, and since those days the Rhine has been a vital navigable waterway, carrying trade and goods deep inland. It has also served as a defensive feature, and been the basis for regional and international borders. The many castles and prehistoric fortifications along the Rhine testify to its importance as a waterway. River traffic could be stopped at these locations, usually for the purpose of collecting tolls, by the state controlling that portion of the river. This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Geography

The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland.
The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland.
The Rhine between the upper (Obersee) and lower part (Untersee) of Lake Constance.
The Rhine between the upper (Obersee) and lower part (Untersee) of Lake Constance.
The Rhine in Basel.
The Rhine in Basel.
The Marksburg near Koblenz was built in 1231.
The Marksburg near Koblenz was built in 1231.
Rhine with chemical industry at Wesseling near Cologne.
Rhine with chemical industry at Wesseling near Cologne.
Rhine flowing through Düsseldorf, Germany.
Rhine flowing through Düsseldorf, Germany.

Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 595 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Rhine Rivers of Switzerland List of European rivers with alternative names Categories: Rivers of Switzerland ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 595 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Rhine Rivers of Switzerland List of European rivers with alternative names Categories: Rivers of Switzerland ... Graubünden or Grisons (German:  ; Italian: Grigioni; Romansh: Grischun, French: Grisons) is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3932x1762, 2018 KB) Eine Badi am Rhein zwischen dem Boden- und dem Untersee Source: Selber File links The following pages link to this file: Rhine ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3932x1762, 2018 KB) Eine Badi am Rhein zwischen dem Boden- und dem Untersee Source: Selber File links The following pages link to this file: Rhine ... For other uses, see Lake Constance, New Zealand. ... Rhine falls with castle Laufen The Rhine Falls (Rheinfall in German) are the largest waterfalls of Europe. ... Schaffhausen (German:  , French: Schaffhouse, Italian: Sciaffusa) is a city in northern Switzerland and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 33,527 as of March 31, 2005. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2008x1507, 354 KB) Description: Marksburg - view from west Photographer: Holger Weinandt (taken from the german Wikipedia, uploaded there by Schaengel) File links The following pages link to this file: Rhine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2008x1507, 354 KB) Description: Marksburg - view from west Photographer: Holger Weinandt (taken from the german Wikipedia, uploaded there by Schaengel) File links The following pages link to this file: Rhine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Die Marksburg The Marksburg on the Rhine above Braubach 2005 - from the southwest The Marksburg is a castle above the town of Braubach in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... For other places with the same name, see Koblenz (disambiguation) Koblenz (also Coblenz in pre-1926 German spellings; French Coblence) is a city situated on both banks of the Rhine at its confluence with the Moselle, where the Deutsches Eck (German Corner) and its monument (Emperor William I on horseback... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1254x840, 133 KB) Summary Rhine at Wesseling with chemical industrie own photo 2004 (bodoklecksel) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1254x840, 133 KB) Summary Rhine at Wesseling with chemical industrie own photo 2004 (bodoklecksel) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Wesseling is a city in Germany, located 20 km south of Cologne, in the Rhein-Erft-Kreis. ... Download high resolution version (1360x910, 712 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1360x910, 712 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. ...

Switzerland

The Rhine's origins are in the Swiss Alps in the canton of Graubünden, where its two main initial tributaries are called Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein. The Vorderrhein (anterior Rhine) springs from Lake Tuma near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta (the Swiss Grand Canyon). The Hinterrhein (posterior Rhine) starts from the Paradies glacier near the Rheinquellhorn at the southern border of Switzerland. One of the latter tributaries originates in Val di Lei in Italy. Both tributaries meet near Reichenau, still in Graubünden. From Reichenau, the Rhine flows north as the Alpenrhein passing Chur and forming the border between Liechtenstein and then Austria on the east side, and canton St. Gallen of Switzerland on the west side, then emptying into Lake Constance. Emerging from Lake Constance, flowing generally westward as the Hochrhein it passes the Rhine Falls and is joined by the Aare river which more than doubles its water discharge to an average of nearly 1,000 cubic meters per second. It forms the boundary with Germany until it turns north at the so-called Rhine knee at Basel. The Rhine rises in a mountain lake, the Lai da Tuma above the Graubünden village of Disentis. ... Satellite image of Switzerland The Swiss Alps are the central portion of the Alps mountain range that lies within Switzerland, because of their central position they are also known as Central Alps. ... Graubünden or Grisons (German:  ; Italian: Grigioni; Romansh: Grischun, French: Grisons) is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland. ... Look up tributary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Road sign Oberalppass 2046 m. ... Ruinaulta is a canyon on the Vorder Rhine just upstream of its confluence with the Hinter Rhine at Reichenau, Eastern Switzerland. ... Alternate uses: Reichenau island Reichenau is a village in the municipality of Tamins in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland, where the two Rhine tributaries Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein meet. ... Chur (French: Coire, German Chur (khoor) [kuːr] (in Graubünden); [xuːr] (elsewhere), Romansh Cuira (KWAY-rah) [ˈkwera] or (KWOI-rah) [ˈkwojra], Italian Coira (KOI-rah) [ˈkojra], Latin: Curia, Curia Rhaetorum and Curia Raetorum), is the capital of the Swiss canton of Graubünden and lies in the northern... St. ... For other uses, see Lake Constance, New Zealand. ... Rhine falls with castle Laufen The Rhine Falls (Rheinfall in German) are the largest waterfalls of Europe. ... For other possible meanings, see AAR, a disambiguation page The Aar (in German Aare) is the greatest river which both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. ... The Rhine knee (or Rhines knee, in German Rheinknie) is the name of a few geographical curves in the Rhine river. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ...


Germany and France

The Rhine is the longest river in Germany. It is here that the Rhine encounters some of its main tributaries, such as the Neckar, the Main and later the Moselle, which contributes an average discharge of over 300 cubic meters per second. The Neckar is a 367 km long river in Germany, a major right tributary of the River Rhine, which it joins at Mannheim. ... For other uses, see Main (disambiguation). ... This article is about the river in France, Luxembourg & Germany. ...


Between Bingen and Bonn, the Middle Rhine flows through the Rhine Gorge, a formation created by erosion, which happened at about the same rate as an uplift in the region, leaving the river at about its original level, and the surrounding lands raised. This gorge is quite deep, and is the stretch of the river known for its many castles and vineyards. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site (2002) and known as "the romantic Rhine" with more than 40 castles and fortresses from the Middle Ages (see links) and many lovely little quaint wine villages. Location map of Bingen am Rhein Bingen am Rhein, or Bingen, or Bingen on the Rhine is a modern-day city located at the junction of the rivers Rhine and Nahe in western Germany near the city of Mainz. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... St. ... St. ... A tectonic uplift is a geological process most often caused by plate tectonics which increases elevation. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... A common vineyard. ... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Though many industries can be found along the Rhine up into Switzerland, it is along the Lower Rhine in the Ruhr area that the bulk of them are concentrated, as the river passes the major cities of Cologne, Düsseldorf, and Duisburg. Duisburg is the home of Europe's largest inland port representing an inland hub to the sea ports of Rotterdam, Antwerp and Amsterdam. The Ruhr, which joins the Rhine in Duisburg, is nowadays a clean river, given the fact that most of industry has disappeared over the last decades. The Ruhr currently provides the region with drinking water. It adds another 70 cubic meters per second to the Rhine. However, other rivers from the Ruhr area, above all the Emscher, still bring a considerable degree of pollution. Approaching the Dutch border, the Rhine has an average discharge of 2,290 cubic metres per second and an average width of 400 metres (1,300 ft). i hate erin saunders ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Duisburg (IPA: ) is a German city in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... The Emscher is a relatively small river flowing through the Ruhr area in North Rhine-Westphalia in western Germany. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ...


Netherlands

The Rhine then turns west and enters the Netherlands, where together with the rivers Meuse and Scheldt it forms the extensive Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta, one of the larger river deltas in western Europe. Crossing the border into the Netherlands at Spijk, close to Nijmegen and Arnhem the Rhine is at its widest, but the river then splits into three main distributaries: the Waal, Nederrijn ("Lower Rhine") and IJssel. The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ... The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French Escaut) is a 350 km[1] long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Spijk () is a village in the Dutch province of Gelderland. ... Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area (2006)  - Municipality 57. ... This article is about the Dutch city and municipality. ... distributary in Else and Hase at Melle A seasonal Distributary of the Kaveri river on the Kaveri delta, near Nannilam, India. ... For other uses, see Waal. ... Categories: Netherlands geography stubs | Rivers of the Netherlands | Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta ... Satellite image of the IJssel basin River IJssel, sometimes called Gelderse IJssel (Gelderland IJssel) to avoid confusion with its Holland counterpart, is a 120 km long branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel. ...


From here the situation becomes more complicated, as the Dutch name "Rijn" no longer coincides with the main flow of water. Most of the Rhine water (two thirds) flows farther west through the Waal and then via the Merwede and Nieuwe Merwede (Biesbosch) and, merging with the Meuse, through the Hollands Diep and Haringvliet estuaries into the North Sea. The Beneden Merwede branches off near Hardinxveld-Giessendam and continues as the Noord, to join the Lek near the village of Kinderdijk to form the Nieuwe Maas, then flows past Rotterdam and continues via Het Scheur and the Nieuwe Waterweg to the North Sea. The Oude Maas branches off near Dordrecht, farther down rejoining the Nieuwe Maas to form Het Scheur. The Merwede (etymology uncertain, possibly derived from the ancient Dutch word meaning wide water) is the name of several interconnected stretches of river in The Netherlands, all part of the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta. ... The Nieuwe Merwede (New Merwede) is a canal that was constructed in 1870 to form a branch in the Rhine-Meuse delta. ... Satellite image of the Rhine-Meuse delta, showing the Biesbosch (8) The Biesbosch (Reed Woods) is one of the largest natural parks of the Netherlands. ... Hollands Diep is a wide river in the Netherlands and an estuary of the Rhine and Meuse river. ... The Haringvliet is a large inlet of the North Sea, in the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Beneden Merwede is a stretch of river in the Netherlands, the continuation of the Boven Merwede after the branching-off of the Nieuwe Merwede ship canal. ... Hardinxveld-Giessendam (population: 17,828 in 2004) is a municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... The Noord (North) is a stretch of river in South Holland in the Netherlands. ... Satellite image of the east bit of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing river Lek (e) — the Kromme Rijn stream is too small to show up on this picture. ... The windmills of Kinderdijk Kinderdijk is a village in the Netherlands, partly in the municipality Nieuw-Lekkerland, partly in the municipality of Alblasserdam. ... Satellite image of the northwest part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing river Nieuwe Maas (n). ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... Satellite image of the northwest part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing river Het Scheur (s). ... Satellite image of the northwest part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing the Nieuwe Waterweg (t) The Nieuwe Waterweg (New Waterway) is a ship canal in the Netherlands from het Scheur (a branch of the Rhine-Meuse delta) west of the town of Maassluis to the North Sea at Hook... Satellite image of part of the Rhine-Meuse delta, showing the Island of Dordrecht and the eponymous city (7) Dordrecht (population 119,649 (2004)), or in English: Dort, is a city in the Dutch province of South Holland, the third largest city of the province. ... Satellite image of the northwest part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing river Nieuwe Maas (n). ... Satellite image of the northwest part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing river Het Scheur (s). ...


The other third portion of the water flows through the Pannerdens Kanaal and redistributes in the IJssel and Nederrijn. The IJssel branch carries one ninth of the water volume north into the IJsselmeer (a former bay), while the Nederrijn flows west parallel to the Waal and carries approximately two ninths of the flow. However, at Wijk bij Duurstede the Nederrijn changes its name and becomes the Lek. It flows farther west to rejoin the Noord into the Nieuwe Maas and to the North Sea. Processed satellite image of the Rhine-Waal fork showing the location of the Pannerdens Kanaal (blue). ... Traditional boat on the IJsselmeer Landsat photo The IJsselmeer (or Lake IJssel) is a shallow lake of some 1250 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. ... Wijk bij Duurstede is a municipality and a city in the central Netherlands. ... Satellite image of the east bit of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing river Lek (e) — the Kromme Rijn stream is too small to show up on this picture. ... The Noord (North) is a stretch of river in South Holland in the Netherlands. ... Satellite image of the northwest part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing river Nieuwe Maas (n). ...


The name "Rijn" from here on is used only for smaller streams farther to the north which together once formed the main river Rhine in Roman times. Though they retained the name, these streams do not carry water from the Rhine anymore, but are used for draining the surrounding land and polders. From Wijk bij Duurstede, the old north branch of the Rhine is called Kromme Rijn ("Crooked Rhine") and past Utrecht, first Leidse Rijn ("Rhine of Leiden") and then Oude Rijn ("Old Rhine"). The latter flows west into a sluice at Katwijk, where its waters can be discharged into the North Sea. This branch once formed the line along which the Upper Germanic limes were built. During periods of lower sea levels within the various ice ages, the Rhine took a left turn, creating the Channel River, the course of which now lies below the English Channel. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographical feature. ... Satellite image of the central part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing the city of Utrecht and its surroundings, including the Kromme Rijn branch (b). ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... The Leidse Rijn (Dutch for Leidens Rhine) is a short river in Utrecht (province), the Netherlands. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ... Sluice gates near Henley, on the River Thames A small wooden sluice in Magome, Japan, used to power a waterwheel. ... Katwijk Location Flag Country Netherlands Province South Holland Population 61. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Upper Germanic Limes, also called Rhaetian Limes or simply the Limes, was the border between the Roman Empire and the unsubdued Germanic peoples. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ...


Large cities

Basel, Strasbourg, Karlsruhe, Mannheim, Ludwigshafen, Wiesbaden, Mainz, Koblenz, Bonn, Cologne, Düsseldorf, Krefeld, Duisburg, Nijmegen (Waal), Utrecht (Kromme Rijn), Rotterdam (Nieuwe Maas). For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Wiesbaden is a city in central Germany. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... For other places with the same name, see Koblenz (disambiguation) Koblenz (also Coblenz in pre-1926 German spellings; French Coblence) is a city situated on both banks of the Rhine at its confluence with the Moselle, where the Deutsches Eck (German Corner) and its monument (Emperor William I on horseback... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Krefeld is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Duisburg (IPA: ) is a German city in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area (2006)  - Municipality 57. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ...


Smaller cities

Chur, Konstanz, Schaffhausen, Breisach, Speyer, Worms, Bingen, Rüdesheim, Neuwied, Andernach, Bad Honnef, Königswinter, Niederkassel, Wesseling, Dormagen, Zons, Monheim, Wesel, Xanten, Emmerich, Zutphen (IJssel), Deventer (IJssel), Zwolle (IJssel), Kampen (IJssel) along side Paris and Madrid. Chur (French: Coire, German Chur (khoor) [kuːr] (in Graubünden); [xuːr] (elsewhere), Romansh Cuira (KWAY-rah) [ˈkwera] or (KWOI-rah) [ˈkwojra], Italian Coira (KOI-rah) [ˈkojra], Latin: Curia, Curia Rhaetorum and Curia Raetorum), is the capital of the Swiss canton of Graubünden and lies in the northern... Konstanz in 1925 seen from the lake Schnetztor, a section of the former city wall Another gate from city wall Shops in Konstanz The Konzilgebäude in Konstanz Konstanz (in English formerly known as Constance) is a university town of around 80,000 inhabitants at the western end of Lake... Schaffhausen (German:  , French: Schaffhouse, Italian: Sciaffusa) is a city in northern Switzerland and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 33,527 as of March 31, 2005. ... now. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... Wormser Dom Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Location map of Bingen am Rhein Bingen am Rhein, or Bingen, or Bingen on the Rhine is a modern-day city located at the junction of the rivers Rhine and Nahe in western Germany near the city of Mainz. ... Rüdesheim is a town in the Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis, Hesse, Germany. ... Missing image Map of Germany showing Neuwied Neuwied is a town in the Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany, lies on the right bank of the Rhine, 8 miles below Coblenz, on the railway from Frankfurt am Main to Cologne. ... // Andernach (pronounced: [ˈandÉ™rËŒnax], the syllable -ach as in Gaelic) is a town in the district of Mayen-Koblenz, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany of currently about 30,000 inhabitants which are named der/die Andernacher (male singular and plural forms are identical), and the lady/-ies are die Andernacherin... Bad Honnef seen from the Drachenfels Bad Honnef is a spa town in Germany near Bonn in the Rhein-Sieg district, North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Königswinter is a town and summer resort of Germany in North Rhine-Westphalia, on the right bank of the Rhine, 24 m. ... Niederkassel is a town and a municipality in the Rhein-Sieg district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Wesseling is a city in Germany, located 20 km south of Cologne, in the Rhein-Erft-Kreis. ... Dormagen is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany in the Rhein-Kreis Neuss. ... Wappen der Stadt Dormagen The city of Zons, or Feste Zons (Fortress Zons) is an old city in the Rhein-Kreis Neuss, Germany. ... Monheim am Rhein is a North-Rhine-Westphalian (Germany) medium-sized municipality in the district of Mettmann in the southern suburban area of Düsseldorf on the right shore of the river Rhine. ... Wesel (IPA: ) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Xanten (IPA: ) is a historic town in the North Rhine-Westphalia state of Germany, located in the district of Wesel. ... The city of Emmerich (or in full Emmerich am Rhein, meaning Emmerich on the Rhine; Dutch Emmerik) stands on the lower part of the River Rhine in the northwest of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ... Deventer is a municipality and city in the Salland region of the Dutch province of Overijssel. ... For other places with the same name, see Zwolle (disambiguation). ... Kampen is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. ...


Railway bridges

Existing and former railway bridges (with nearest train station on the left and right bank): This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... This article is about the structure. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ...


Vorderrhein

  • Switzerland
    • a total of five bridges on the line Andermatt - Reichenau-Tamins (all single tracked, electrified, 1000 mm gauge)

Hinterrhein

  • Switzerland
    • a total of two bridges on the line Filisur - Reichenau-Tamins (both single tracked, electrified, 1000 mm gauge)

Alpenrhein

  • Switzerland
    • at Untervaz (industrial branch line, single tracked and non-electrifed, combined 1000 mm and 1435 mm gauge)
    • between Bad Ragaz and Maienfeld (double tracked, electrified, 1435 mm gauge)
  • Austria and Switzerland
    • a total of two bridges of the Internationale Rheinregulierungsbahn (both single tracked, electrified, 750 mm gauge)
    • between Lustenau and St. Margrethen (single tracked, electrified)

Schaan is the biggest municipality of Liechtenstein. ... Buchs is a municipality in the Wahlkreis (constituency) of Werdenberg, in the canton of St. ... lo hallo| Federal State: || Vorarlberg Lustenau in Vorarlberg, Austria Lustenau is a town in the westernmost Austrian province of Vorarlberg, in the Dornbirn district. ... St. ...

Hochrhein

  • Germany
    • between Konstanz Hbf and Konstanz-Petershausen (single tracked, electrified)
  • Switzerland
    • between Etzwillen and Hemishofen (single tracked, non electrified, line closed for traffic)
    • between Feuerthalen and Schaffhausen (single tracked, electrified)
    • between Dachsen and Neuhausen am Rheinfall (single tracked, electrified)
    • between Eglisau and Hüntwangen-Will (single tracked, electrified)
  • Switzerland and Germany
    • between Koblenz and Waldshut (single tracked, electrified)
  • Switzerland
    • between Basel SBB and Basel Badischer Bahnhof (double tracked, electrified, soon to have four tracks)

Schaffhausen (German:  , French: Schaffhouse, Italian: Sciaffusa) is a city in northern Switzerland and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 33,527 as of March 31, 2005. ... Neuhausen am Rheinfall (which was officially called Neuhausen until 1938) is a border municipality in the Canton of Schaffhausen. ... Eglisau is a city in the district of Bülach, in the Canton of Zürich, Switzerland. ... This article is about the Swiss town Koblenz. ... Waldshut-Tiengen is a city in southwestern Baden-Württemberg right at the Swiss border. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... Basel SBB is the central railway station in the city of Basel in Switzerland. ... , Basel Badischer Bahnhof is a railway station situated in the Swiss city of Basel. ...

Upper Rhine

  • France and Germany
    • between Huningue and Weil am Rhein (single tracked, destroyed in WW2)
    • between Chalampé and Neuenburg (single tracked, electrified, freight only - passenger service only on weekends)
    • between Neuf-Brisach and Breisach (single tracked, destroyed in WW2)
    • between Strasbourg and Kehl (single tracked, electrified, soon to be double tracked again)
    • between Roeschwoog and Rastatt-Wintersdorf (double tracked, used as street bridge since 1949, line closed 1960, rails were preserved for strategic purpose until 1999)
  • Germany
    Bridge at Karlsruhe
    Bridge at Karlsruhe
    • between Karlsruhe-Maxau and Wörth am Rhein-Maximiliansau (double tracked, electrified)
    • between Germersheim and Philippsburg (single tracked, electrified)
    • between Ludwigshafen and Mannheim (four tracks, electrified)
    • between Worms-Brücke and Hofheim (double tracked, electrified)
    • between Mainz-Süd and Mainz-Gustavsburg (double tracked, electrified)
    • between Mainz-Nord and Wiesbaden-Ost (double tracked, electrified)

For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Kehl is a town in southwestern Germany in the Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg. ... Map of Germany showing Rastatt Rastatt is a city in the District of Rastatt, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1278x605, 147 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Rhine ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1278x605, 147 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Rhine ... Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ... Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ... Wörth am Rhein is a town and a municipality in the district of Germersheim, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Germersheim is a town in the Bundesland (State) of Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Germany and has abound 20,000 inhabitants. ... Philippsburg is a small town in Germany, in the district of Karlsruhe in Baden-Württemberg. ... Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... Wormser Dom Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ...

Middle Rhine

  • Germany
    • between Rüdesheim/Geisenheim and Münster-Sarmsheim/Ockenheim (double tracked, destroyed in WW2)
    • between Koblenz Hbf and Niederlahnstein (double tracked, electrified)
    • between Koblenz-Lützel and Neuwied (double tracked, electrified)
    • The bridge at Remagen between Sinzig/Bad Bodendorf and Unkel (double tracked, destroyed in WW2)

The Ludendorff Bridge was a railroad bridge across the Rhine in Germany, connecting the cities of Remagen and Erpel. ...

Lower Rhine

  • Germany
    • two bridges at Cologne:
      • the Südbrücke south of the City (double tracked, electrified)
      • the Hohenzollernbrücke between Köln Hauptbahnhof and Köln Messe/Deutz (six tracks, electrified)
    • between Neuss-Rheinpark Center and Düsseldorf-Hamm (four tracks, electrified)
    • between Rheinhausen-Ost and Duisburg-Hochfeld Süd (double tracked, electrified)
    • between Moers and Duisburg-Beeck (single tracked (formerly double tracked), electrified, freight only)
    • between Büderich and Wesel (double tracked, destroyed in WW2)

Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Hohenzollern bridge Hohenzollern bridge, with Cologne Cathedral and Museum Ludwig in the background The Hohenzollernbrücke (German for: Hohenzollern bridge) is a bridge crossing the river Rhine in the German city of Cologne. ... Köln Hauptbahnhof (usually translated from German as Köln Central Station, short form Köln Hbf) is the Hauptbahnhof for the city of Köln (Cologne) in western Germany. ...

Delta

The bridges at Huningue, Rastatt, Rüdesheim (Hindenburgbrücke) and Remagen (Ludendorffbrücke) were built for strategic military reasons only, in order to allow the Imperial German Army (and later the Wehrmacht) to quickly transport forces by rail to Germany's western border in the event of a war with France. Unlike other bridges built for the same purpose (like the ones at Koblenz or Cologne), these bridges were of almost no use in peacetime and thus were never rebuild after their destruction during the last months of World War 2 (except for the one at Rastatt, which was used to supply units of the French Army stationed in the area). Overbetuwe is a municipality in the province of Gelderland in the eastern Netherlands. ... Elst is a village in the Dutch province of Gelderland, situated in the Betuwe, between the cities of Nijmegen and Arnhem. ... For other uses, see Waal. ... Zaltbommel is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. ... Geldermalsen is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Waal. ... Martinus Nijhoff (b. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... Meuse is a département in northeast France, named after the Meuse River. ... Overbetuwe is a municipality in the province of Gelderland in the eastern Netherlands. ... This article is about the Dutch city and municipality. ... Categories: Netherlands geography stubs | Rivers of the Netherlands | Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta ... Culemborg is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. ... Houten ( (help· info)) is a municipality in the Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. ... Satellite image of the east bit of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing river Lek (e) — the Kromme Rijn stream is too small to show up on this picture. ... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ... Satellite image of the IJssel basin River IJssel, sometimes called Gelderse IJssel (Gelderland IJssel) to avoid confusion with its Holland counterpart, is a 120 km long branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel. ... Deventer is a municipality and city in the Salland region of the Dutch province of Overijssel. ... Satellite image of the IJssel basin River IJssel, sometimes called Gelderse IJssel (Gelderland IJssel) to avoid confusion with its Holland counterpart, is a 120 km long branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel. ... For other places with the same name, see Zwolle (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of the IJssel basin River IJssel, sometimes called Gelderse IJssel (Gelderland IJssel) to avoid confusion with its Holland counterpart, is a 120 km long branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... Driebergen-Rijsenburg is a municipality and a town in the central Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht. ... Satellite image of the central part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing the city of Utrecht and its surroundings, including the Kromme Rijn branch (b). ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... The Oude Rijn (Old Rhine) is a branch of the Rhine delta in the Dutch provinces of Utrecht and South Holland. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... Woerden is a municipality and a city in the central Netherlands. ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...


Tributaries

Tributaries from source to mouth: A tributary (or affluent or confluent) is a contributory stream, a river that does not reach the sea, but joins another major river (a parent river), to which it contributes its waters, swelling its discharge. ...

Left

Vorderrhein.
Vorderrhein.

Right Thur is a 131 km long river in north-eastern Switzerland. ... Look up Aar, AAR in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The BIRS Index is a share index of the 12 largest companies listed on the Banja Luka Stock Exchange (BLSE), established on 1 May 2004. ... The Birsig river is a small river, which sources in eastern France near the Swiss border. ... The Ill is a river of Alsace, in north-eastern France. ... The Nahe is a river in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, a tributary to the Rhine. ... This article is about the river in France, Luxembourg & Germany. ... The Ahr is a river in Germany, a left tributary of the Rhine. ... The Erft is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (990x1488, 565 KB) Rhein vor dem Oberalppasses (nach der sog. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (990x1488, 565 KB) Rhein vor dem Oberalppasses (nach der sog. ...

The Ill is a 72 km long tributary of the Rhine river in the western Austrian province of Vorarlberg. ... Wutach is a town in the district of Waldshut in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Kinzig is a German river that runs for 95 km from the Black Forest through the Upper Rhine River Plains. ... The Rench is a river in Ortenau County, Baden-Württemberg, Germany and a right-side tributary of the Rhine River. ... The Acher is a river in Ortenau County, Baden-Württemberg, Germany and a tributary of the Rhine River. ... The Murg is a right tributary of the Rhine, located in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... The Pfinz is a right-side tributary of the Rhine in Baden-Württemberg. ... The Neckar is a 367 km long river in Germany, a major right tributary of the River Rhine, which it joins at Mannheim. ... For other uses, see Main (disambiguation). ... The river Lahn in Limburg The Lahn is a river in Germany. ... The Wied is a river in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... The Sieg is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany named after the folk of the Sigambrer. ... The Wupper is a tributary to the Rhine river in Northrhine-Westfalia of Germany. ... The Düssel is a small right tributary of the River Rhine in North Rhine Westphalia. ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... The Emscher is a relatively small river flowing through the Ruhr area in North Rhine-Westphalia in western Germany. ... The Lippe is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Satellite image of the IJssel basin River IJssel, sometimes called Gelderse IJssel (Gelderland IJssel) to avoid confusion with its Holland counterpart, is a 120 km long branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel. ... The Berkel is a tributary of the River IJssel in the Netherlands. ... Look up Erin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Distributaries

Former distributaries

order: panning North to South through Western Netherlands

  • Utrechtse Vecht (minor channel in Roman times, flowing into former Zuiderzee lagoon)
  • Kromme Rijn - Oude Rijn (main channel in Roman times, dammed in 12th century AD)
  • Hollandse IJssel (formed after Roman times, dammed in 13th century AD)
  • Linge (big channel in Roman times, dammed in 14th century AD)
  • Biesbosch-area (initiated by 1421-1424 AD storm surges and river floods, by-passed since the digging of Nieuwe Merwede canal in 1904 AD)

Satellite image of the surroundings of Utrecht showing river Vecht (c) and the Amsterdam-Rhine Canal (g). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Landsat photo The Zuider Zee (Dutch: Zuiderzee, pronounced ZIGH-der-zee) was a former shallow inlet of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km inland and at most 50 km wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 meters and a coastline... Satellite image of the central part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing the city of Utrecht and its surroundings, including the Kromme Rijn branch (b). ... The Oude Rijn (Old Rhine) is a branch of the Rhine delta in the Dutch provinces of Utrecht and South Holland. ... Categories: Netherlands geography stubs | Rivers of the Netherlands | Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta ... Linge is a river in the Betuwe that is over 100 km long, which makes it the longest river in the Netherlands. ... Satellite image of the Rhine-Meuse delta, showing the Biesbosch (8) The Biesbosch (Reed Woods) is one of the largest natural parks of the Netherlands. ... The Nieuwe Merwede (New Merwede) is a canal that was constructed in 1870 to form a branch in the Rhine-Meuse delta. ...

Canals include

order: upstream to downstream

the Rhine-Main Danube Canal (in the foreground) near Nuremberg The Rhine-Main-Danube Canal (also called Main-Danube Canal, RMD Canal or Europa Canal) connects the Main and Danube from Bamberg by Nuremberg to Regensburg. ... The Grand Canal of Alsace (French: , German: ) is a canal in eastern France, channeling the Rhine river. ... This translation is incomplete. ... The Dortmund-Ems canal in winter The Dortmund-Ems Canal is a 269 km long canal in Germany between the river port of the city of Dortmund and Emden. ... The Mittellandkanal is, at 320 km, the longest artificial waterway in Germany. ... The Amsterdam-Rhine Canal or Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal is a canal in the Netherlands that was built to connect the port city of Amsterdam to the main shipping artery of the Rhine. ... Satellite image of the Scheldt delta showing the Scheldt-Rhine Canal (h and j) The Scheldt-Rhine Canal (Schelde-Rijn Kanaal) in the Netherlands connects Antwerp with the Volkerak, and thereby the Scheldt with the Rhine. ...

Geologic history

Alpine orogeny

The Rhine flows from the Alps to the North Sea Basin and the geography and geology of its present day watershed has developed since the Alpine Orogeny began. Alp redirects here. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Alps arose as a result of the pressure exerted on sediments of the Tethys Ocean basin as its Mesozoic and early Cenozoic strata were pushed against the stable Eurasian landmass by the northward-moving African landmass. ...


In southern Europe, the stage was set in the Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era, with the opening of the Tethys Sea between the Eurasian and African plates, between about 240 MBP and 220 MBP. The present Mediterranean descends from this somewhat larger Tethys sea. At about 180 MBP, in the Jurassic Period, the two plates reversed direction and began to compress the Tethys floor, causing it to be subducted under Eurasia and pushing up the edge of the latter plate in the Alpine Orogeny of the Oligocene and Miocene Periods. Several microplates were caught in the squeeze and rotated or were pushed laterally, generating the individual features of Mediterranean geography: Iberia pushed up the Pyrenees; Italy the Alps, and Anatolia, moving west, the mountains of Greece and the islands. The compression and orogeny continue today, as shown by the ongoing raising of the mountains a small amount each year and the active volcanoes. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 to 199 Ma (million years ago). ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Tethys Sea was a shallow inland body of water that existed between Laurasia and Gondwana, the geological ancestor of the modern Black, Caspian and Aral Seas. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...

Schematic cross section of the Rhine Graben.
Schematic cross section of the Rhine Graben.

In northern Europe, the North Sea Basin had formed during the Triassic and Jurassic period, and continued to be a sediment receiving basin since. In between the zone of Alpine Orogeny and North Sea Basin subsidence, remained highlands resulting from an earlier orogeny (Variscan), such as the Ardennes, Eifel, and Vosges. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 to 199 Ma (million years ago). ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event recorded in the European mountains and hills called the Variscan Belt. ... The Ardennes (IPA pronunciation: ) (Dutch: Ardennen) is a volcanic region of extensive forests and rolling hill country, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France (lending its name to the Ardennes département and the Champagne-Ardenne région). ... Not to be confused with Eiffel Tower. ... Vosges is a French department, named after the Vosges mountain range. ...


From the Eocene onwards, the ongoing Alpine Orogeny caused a N-S rift system to develop in this zone. The main elements of this rift are the Upper Rhine Graben in southeast Germany/eastern France and the Lower Rhine Embayment in northwest Germany/southeast Netherlands. By the time of the Miocene, a river system had developed in the Upper Rhine Graben, that continued northward and is considered the first Rhine river. At that time it did not yet carry discharge from the Alps: instead the watersheds of Rhone and Danube drained the northern flanks of the Alps. hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The Alps arose as a result of the pressure exerted on sediments of the Tethys Ocean basin as its Mesozoic and early Cenozoic strata were pushed against the stable Eurasian landmass by the northward-moving African landmass. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Alp redirects here. ... The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...


Stream capture

The watershed of the Rhine reaches into the Alps today, but it did not start out that way (Berendsen & Stouthamer, 2001; Fig. 2.2 [1]). In the Miocene period, the watershed of the Rhine reached south only to the Eifel and Westerwald hills, about 450 km north of the Alps. The Rhine then had the Sieg as a tributary, but not yet the Mosel. The northern Alps were drained by the Danube then. Alp redirects here. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Not to be confused with Eiffel Tower. ... The Westerwald is a mountain chain in Germany. ... The Sieg is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany named after the folk of the Sigambrer. ... This article is about the river in France, Luxembourg & Germany. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...


Through stream capture, the Rhine extended its watershed southward. By the Pliocene period, the Rhine had captured streams down to the Vosges mountains, including the Mosel, the Main, and the Neckar. The northern Alps were drained by the Rhône then. By the early Pleistocene period, the Rhine had captured most of its current Alpine watershed from the Rhône, including the Aare. Since that time, the Rhine has added the watershed above Lake Constance (Vorderrhein, Hinterrhein, Alpenrhein; captured from the Rhône), the upper reaches of the Main (beyond Schweinfurt), and the Vosges mountains (captured from the Meuse) to its watershed. Stream capture is a geological or hydrological phenomenon which occurs when a stream from a neighboring drainage system erodes through the divide between two streams and captures another stream which then is diverted from its former bed and now flows down the bed of the capturing stream. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Vosges mountains are range of mountains in central-western Europe, stretching along the west side of the Rhine valley in a NNE direction, from Basel to Mainz, for a distance of 250 km (150 miles). ... For other uses, see Main (disambiguation). ... The Neckar is a 367 km long river in Germany, a major right tributary of the River Rhine, which it joins at Mannheim. ... The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... For other possible meanings, see AAR, a disambiguation page The Aar (in German Aare) is the greatest river which both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Lake Constance, New Zealand. ... At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (German Rhein, French Rhin, Dutch Rijn, Romansch: Rein, Italian: Reno) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (German Rhein, French Rhin, Dutch Rijn, Romansch: Rein, Italian: Reno) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... Schweinfurt is a city in the Unterfranken region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the canalized Main, which is here spanned by several bridges, 27 km North-East of Würzburg. ... The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ...


Ice Ages

The Pleistocene (~2.5 million years ago - 11,600 years ago) was the geological period of the Ice Ages. Since approximately 600,000 years ago six major Ice Ages have occurred, in which sea level dropped 120 m, and much of the continental margins became exposed. In the Early Pleistocene, the Rhine followed a course to the northwest, through the present North Sea. During the so-called Anglian glaciation (~450,000 yr BP, marine oxygen isotope stage 12) the northern part of the present North Sea was blocked by the ice, and a large lake developed that overflowed through the English Channel. This caused the Rhine's course to be diverted through the English Channel. Since then, during glacial times, the river mouth was located offshore Brest (France), and rivers like the Thames and the Seine became tributaries to the Rhine. During interglacials, when sea level rose to approximately the present level, the Rhine built deltas in what is now the Netherlands. The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... This article is about the river in France. ...


The last Ice Age ran from (~74,000 BP = Before Present) until the end of the Pleistocene (~11,600 BP). In northwest Europe, it saw two very cold phases, peaking around 70,000 BP and around 29,000-24,000 BP. The last phase slightly predates the global last ice age maximum (Last Glacial Maximum). During this time the lower Rhine flowed roughly west through the Netherlands and extended to the southwest, through the English Channel, and finally to the Atlantic Ocean. The English and Irish Channels, and most of the North Sea were dry land, mainly because sea level was approximately 120 m lower than today. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Temperature proxies for the last 40,000 years The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glaciation, approximately 21 thousand years ago. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


Most of the Rhine's current course was not under the ice during the last Ice Age, although its source must then have been a glacier. A tundra with Ice Age flora and fauna stretched across middle Europe from Asia to the Atlantic Ocean. Such was the case during the Last Glacial Maximum, ca. 22,000-14,000 yr BP, when ice-sheets covered Scandinavia and the Baltic, Scotland and the Alps, but left the space between as open tundra. The loess, or wind-blown dust over that tundra settled in and around the Rhine Valley, contributing to its current agricultural usefulness. For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... Temperature proxies for the last 40,000 years The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glaciation, approximately 21 thousand years ago. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


End of the Last Ice Age

As northwest Europe slowly began to warm up from 22,000 years ago onward, frozen subsoil began to thaw, expanded alpine glaciers began to thaw, and fall-winter snow covers melted in spring. Much of the discharge was routed to the Rhine and its downstream extension (e.g. Menot et al. 2006, Science). Rapid warming and change of vegetation to open forest began about 13,000 BP. By 9000 BP, Europe was fully forested.


With globally shrinking ice-cover, ocean water levels rose and the English Channel and North Sea re-inundated. Meltwater adding to the ocean and land subsidence drowned the former coasts of Europe (transgression). About 11000 yr ago, the Rhine estuary was in the Dover Strait. There remained some dry land in the southern North Sea, connecting mainland Europe to Britain. About 9000 yr ago, that last divide was overtopped / dissected. These events were well within the residence of man. A road destroyed by subsidence and shear. ... A transgression is a geologic event during which sea level rises relative to the land and the shoreline moves toward higher ground, resulting in coastal flooding. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Since 7500 yr ago, a situation with tides and currents very similar to present has existed. Rates of sea-level rise had dropped so far that natural sedimentation by the Rhine and coastal processes together could compensate the transgression by the sea: in the last 7000 year the coast line was roughly at the same location. In the southern North Sea, due to ongoing tectonic subsidence, the sea-level is still rising, at the rate of about 1-3 cm per century (1 meter in last 3000 years). The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


About 7000-5000 BP a general warming encouraged migration up the Danube and down the Rhine by peoples to the east, perhaps encouraged by the sudden massive expansion of the Black Sea as the Mediterranean burst into it through the Bosphorus about 7500 BP. This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ...


Holocene delta

At the begin of the Holocene (~11,700 years ago) the Rhine occupied its Late-Glacial valley. As a meandering river, it reworked its ice-age braidplain. As sea-level continued to rise, in the Netherlands the formation of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta began (~8,000 years ago). Coeval absolute sea-level rise and tectonic subsidence have strongly influenced delta evolution. Other factors of importance to the shape of the delta are local tectonic activity of Peel Boundary Fault, the substrate and geomorphology as inherited from the Last Glacial, and coastal-marine dynamics such as barrier and tidal inlet formation (Cohen et al., 2002). For other uses, see Meander (disambiguation). ...


Since ~3000 yr BP (= years Before Present) human impact is seen in the delta. As a result of increasing land clearance (Bronze Age agriculture) in the upland areas (central Germany), the sediment load of the Rhine River has strongly increased (Hoffmann et al. 2007) and delta growth has sped up (Gouw & Erkens, 2007). This caused increased flooding and sedimentation, and ended peat formation in the delta. The shifting of river channels to new locations on the floodplain (termed avulsion) was the main process distributing sediment across the subrecent delta. Over the past 6000 years, approximately 80 avulsions have occurred (documented by Berendsen & Stouthamer, 2001). Direct human impact in the delta started with peat mining for salt and fuel from Roman times onward. This was followed by embankment of the major distributaries and damming of minor distributaries which took place in the 11-13th century AD. Thereafter, canals were dug, bends were short cut and groynes were built to prevent the river's channels from migrating or silting up. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


At present, the branches Waal and Nederrijn-Lek discharge to the North Sea through the former Meuse estuary near Rotterdam. The river IJssel branch flows to the north and enters the IJssel Lake (formerly the Zuiderzee brackish lagoon, since 1932 a freshwater lake). The discharge of the Rhine is divided among three branches: the River Waal (6/9 of total discharge), the River Nederrijn - Lek (2/9 of total discharge) and the River IJssel (1/9 of total discharge). This discharge distribution has been maintained since 1709 by river engineering works (digging of Pannerdens canal) and since the 20th century with the help of weirs in the Nederrijn river. For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... Traditional boat on the IJsselmeer Landsat photo The IJsselmeer (or Lake IJssel) is a shallow lake of some 1250 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. ... Landsat photo The Zuider Zee (Dutch: Zuiderzee, pronounced ZIGH-der-zee) was a former shallow inlet of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km inland and at most 50 km wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 meters and a coastline...


Prehistory

Palaeolithic

During the Middle Palaeolithic, ca 100,000-30,000 BP (the dates vary a great deal) western Europe, including the Rhine and Danube Valleys, was occupied by Neanderthal Man, to which belonged the Mousterian culture of stone tools. Mousterian sites are not considered intrusive. It is believed that the Neanderthals may have evolved from the preceding Homo erectus in the vicinity of the glaciers, but the question has by no means been settled definitively. In Europe and Africa the Middle Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is the period of the middle Paleolithic (early Stone Age) that lasted between around 120,000 and 40,000 years ago. ... Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ... Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly flint tools (or industry) associated primarily with Homo neanderthalensis and dating to the Middle Paleolithic, the middle part of the Old Stone Age. ... Binomial name (Dubois, 1892) Synonyms † Pithecanthropus erectus † Sinanthropus pekinensis † Javanthropus soloensis † Meganthropus paleojavanicus Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo. ...


Neanderthal sites are denser to the south, where open forest prevailed and the limestone terrain offered more caves as dwelling. The Rhine ran through an open tundra, where Neanderthals hunted big game, such as the rhinoceros and the woolly mammoth. Accordingly, open air Mousterian sites have been discovered in and around the Rhine valley. For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... For the rock band, see Wooly Mammoth (band). ...


Mesolithic

Before about 5600 BC, the Rhine Valley, along with most of Europe, was occupied by Cro-magnon man in the Mesolithic stage of cultural development; that is, they hunted and gathered, but owned a larger and more specialized tool kit than the Palaeolithic people, knew more about the plants and animals, and even may have kept a few animals. For the avant garde collective, see Cromagnon (band). ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic – lit. ...


Iron Age

During the early Iron Age, both banks of the Rhine were inhabited by Celtic tribes. However, in the beginning of the Pre-Roman Iron Age, ca 600 BC, the Proto-Germanic tribes crossed the Weser River and the Aller River, and expanded the whole distance to the banks of the Rhine. This expansion is shown archaeologically in the form of the Jastorf culture. From ca 500 BC and onwards, the lower Rhine and not the Weser and the Aller would increasingly mark the border between the Celtic tribes and the Germanic tribes. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... This is a list of Celtic tribes with their geographical localization. ... A map of the area covered by the Pre-Roman Iron Age, ca 500 BC-1 AD The Pre-Roman Iron Age (also called the Celtic Iron Age) (ca 600 BC or 500 BC - ca 1 AD) designates the earliest part (i. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Weser watershed Orthographic projection centred over Bremen The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... The Aller is a river in Saxony-Anhalt and Lower Saxony, Germany. ... The Jastorf culture is an Iron Age material culture in northern Europe, dated from about 600 BC to 1. ... This is a list of Celtic tribes with their geographical localization. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ...


Historic and military relevance

The human history of the Rhine begins with the writers of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. Nearly all the classical sources mention the Rhine, and the name is always the same: Rhenus in Latin, Greek Rhenos. The Romans viewed the Rhine as the outermost border of civilization and reason, beyond which were mythical creatures and the wild Germanic tribesmen, not far themselves from being beasts of the wilderness they inhabited. As it was a wilderness, the Romans were eager to explore it. This view is typified by Res Gestae Divi Augusti, a long public inscription of Augustus in which he (or his ghost writer) boasts of his exploits, including sending an expeditionary fleet north of the Rheinmouth to Old Saxony and Jutland, which he claims no Roman had ever done. Image File history File links Loreley, Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland Photograph: Luidger 23. ... Image File history File links Loreley, Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland Photograph: Luidger 23. ... The Rock of Lorelei by the Rhine Lorelei Lorelei Loreley sign on the bank of the Rhine View of the Rhine as seen by Lorelei The Loreley (also written as Lorelei) is a rock on the eastern bank of the Rhine near St. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Res Gestae Divi Augusti, (Latin: The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Duchy of Saxony. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ...


Throughout the long history of Rome, the Rhine was considered the border between Gaul or the Celts and the Germanic peoples, although it should be noted that the historical ethnonyms do not carry their modern ethno-linguistic definitions. Typical of this point of view is a quote from Maurus Servius Honoratus, Commentary on the Aeneid of Vergil (On Book 8 Line 727): Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC  maximal Celtic expansion, by the 3rd century BC  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today Celts (pronounced or , see pronunciation... Maurus (or Marius) Servius Honoratius, Roman grammarian and commentator on Virgil, flourished at the end of the 4th century AD. He is one of the interlocutors in the Saturnalia of Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius, and allusions in that work and a letter from Quintus Aurelius Symmachus to Servius show that he...

"(Rhenus) fluvius Galliae, qui Germanos a Gallia dividit"
"(The Rhein is a) river of Gaul, which divides the Germanic people from Gaul."

The Rhine in the earlier sources was always a Gallic river.


As the Roman Empire grew, the Romans found it necessary to station troops along the Rhine. They kept two army groups there (exercitus), the inferior, or "lower", and the superior, or "upper", which is the first distinction between upper Germania and lower Germania. It originally probably only meant upstream and downstream, the Niederrhein and Oberrhein regions of the map included with this article. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The Romans kept eight legions in five bases along the Rhine. The actual number of legions present at any base or in all depended on whether a state or threat of war existed. Between about 14 AD and 180 AD the assignment of legions was as follows. For the army of Germania Inferior, two legions at Vetera (Xanten): I Germanica and XX Valeria (Pannonian troops); two legions at oppidum Ubiorum ("town of the Ubii"), which was renamed to Colonia Agrippina, descending to Cologne. The legions were V Alaudae, a Celtic legion recruited from Gallia Transalpina, and XXI, possibly a Galatian legion from the other side of the empire. The Roman province of Germania Inferior, 120 AD Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in todays southern and western Netherlands, the whole of Belgium and Luxembourg, parts of north-eastern France, and western Germany. ... Xanten (IPA: ) is a historic town in the North Rhine-Westphalia state of Germany, located in the district of Wesel. ... Legio I Germanica, the German legion, was a Roman legion, possibly levied in 48 BC by Julius Caesar to fight for him in the civil war against Pompey. ... Legio XX Valeria Victrix was a Roman legion, probably raised by Augustus sometime after 31 BC. It served in Spain, Illyricum, and Germany before participating in the invasion of Britain in 43 AD, where it remained and was active until at least the beginning of the 4th century. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... The Ubii were a Germanic tribe first encountered dwelling on the right bank of the Rhine in the time of Julius Caesar, who formed an alliance with them in 55 BC in order to launch attacks across the river. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Legio V Alaudae, the larks, sometimes known as Gallica, was levied by Julius Caesar in 52 BC from native Gauls. ... Transalpine Gaul was a Roman province whose name was chosen to distinguish it from Cisalpine Gaul. ... Legio XXI Rapax, the predator, was a Roman legion levied in 31 BC by Augustus, probably from men previously enlisted in other legions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


For the army of Germania superior, one legion, II Augusta, at Argentoratum (Strasbourg), and one, XIII Gemina, at Vindonissa (Windisch). Vespasian had commanded II Augusta before his promotion to imperator. In addition were a double legion, XIV and XVI, at Moguntiacum (Mainz). Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces | German history | Germany | History of the Germanic peoples ... Legio II Augusta, or Second Augustan Legion, was a Roman legion, levied by Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus in 43 BC, and still operative in Britannia in 4th century. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Sestertius minted in 248 by Philip the Arab to celebrate Dacia province and its legions, V Macedonica and XIII Gemina. ... Windisch is a municipality of the Canton of Aargau, Switzerland. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ...


The two originally military districts of Germania Inferior and Germania Superior came to influence the surrounding tribes, who later respected the distinction in their alliances and confederations. For example, the upper Germanic peoples combined into the Alemanni. For a time the Rhine ceased to be a border when the Franks crossed the river and occupied Roman-dominated Celtic Gaul as far as Paris. The Roman province of Germania Inferior, 120 AD Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in todays southern and western Netherlands, the whole of Belgium and Luxembourg, parts of north-eastern France, and western Germany. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces | German history | Germany | History of the Germanic peoples ... The Alamanni, Allemanni or Alemanni, are a Germanic tribe, first mentioned by Dio Cassius, under the year 213. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


The first urban settlement on the grounds of what today is the centre of Cologne along the Rhine was Oppidum Ubiorum, which was founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Germanic tribe. Cologne became acknowledged as a city by the Romans in 50 AD by the name of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium. Considerable Roman remains can be found in contemporary Cologne, especially near the wharf area along the Rhine, where a notable discovery of a 1900 year old Roman boat was made on the Rhine banks in late 2007.[2] The Ubii were a Germanic tribe first encountered dwelling on the right bank of the Rhine in the time of Julius Caesar, who formed an alliance with them in 55 BC in order to launch attacks across the river. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ...


Subsequently language changes began to play a major political role. West Germanic dissimilated into Low Saxon, Low Franconian languages and High German languages roughly along the old lines. Perhaps it had been doing so all along. Charlemagne united all the Franks in the Holy Roman Empire, but he did not rule over a people of uniform language. After his death the empire split more or less along language lines, with the Low Franconian being spoken in the Netherlands and the Low Saxon and High German in what became Germany. The Romanized Franks became the French. The Rhine once again became a political border. The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... Low Franconian is any of several West Germanic languages spoken in The Netherlands, northern Belgium, and South Africa. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


The Rhine as border has been and is a mystical and political symbol. German authors and composers have written reams about it. During World War II, it was still considered the sacred border of Germany, and was still a defensive barrier. The Germans fought especially hard to defend it.


The Rhine is closely linked to many important historical events — particularly military ones — as well as myths. For example:

  • It was a historic object of frontier trouble between France and Germany. Establishing "natural borders" on the Rhine was a long term goal of French foreign policy since the Middle Ages, though the language border was - and is - far more to the west. French leaders such as Louis XIV and Napoleon Bonaparte tried with varying degrees of success to annex lands west of the Rhine. The Confederation of the Rhine was established by Napoleon as a French satellite state in 1806 and lasted until 1814, during which time it served as a significant source of resources and military manpower for the French Empire. In 1840 the Rhine crisis evolved, because the French prime minister Adolphe Thiers started to talk about the Rhine border. In response, the poem and song Die Wacht am Rhein ("The Watch on the Rhine") was composed at that time, calling for the defense of the western bank of the Rhine against France. During the Franco-Prussian War it rose to the de-facto status of a national anthem in Germany. The song remained popular in World War I and was used in the movie Casablanca
  • At the end of World War I the Rheinland was subject to the Treaty of Versailles. This decreed that it would be occupied by the allies until 1935, and after that it would be a demilitarised zone, with the German army forbidden to enter. The Treaty of Versailles in general, and this particular provision, caused much resentment in Germany and are often cited as helping Adolf Hitler's rise to power. The allies left the Rheinland in 1930, and the German army re-occupied it in 1936, which was enormously popular in Germany. Although the allies could probably have prevented the re-occupation, Britain and France were not inclined to do so, a feature of their policy of appeasement of Hitler.
  • In World War II it was recognised that the Rhine would present a formidable natural obstacle to the invasion of Germany by the western allies. The Rhine bridge at Arnhem, immortalized in the book and film A Bridge Too Far, was a central focus of the battle for Arnhem during the failed Operation Market Garden of September 1944. The bridges at Nijmegen over the Waal distributary of the Rhine were also an objective of Operation Market Garden. In a separate operation, the Ludendorff Bridge crossing the Rhine at Remagen became famous when U.S. forces were able to capture it intact — much to their own surprise — after the Germans failed to demolish it. This also became the subject of a film, The Bridge at Remagen.
  • In November 1986, a terrible disaster happened as fire broke out in a chemical factory near Basel, Switzerland. Chemicals soon made their way into the river and caused pollution problems. About 30 tons of chemicals were discharged into the river. Locals were told to stay indoors, as foul smells were present in the area. The pollutants included chemicals such as: pesticides, mercury and other highly poisonous agricultural chemicals.
  • Mainz Cathedral — this more than 1,000-year-old cathedral is seat to the Bishop of Mainz. It holds significant historic value as the seat of the once politically powerful secular prince-archbishop within the Holy Roman Empire. It houses historical funerary monuments and religious artifacts.
  • The Nibelungenlied, an epic poem in Middle High German, tells the saga of Siegfried/Sigurd, who killed a dragon on the Drachenfels (Siebengebirge) ("dragons rock") near Bonn at the Rhine, of the Burgundians and their court at Worms at the Rhine, and Kriemhild's golden treasure which is thrown into the Rhine by Hagen
  • The Loreley/Lorelei is a rock on the eastern bank of the Rhine that is associated with several legendary tales, poems and songs. The river spot has a reputation for being a challenge for inexperienced navigators.
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Combatants Germanic tribes (Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, Bructeri and Chauci) Roman Empire Commanders Arminius Publius Quinctilius Varus † Strength 10,000 to 18,000 3 Roman legions, 3 alae and 6 auxiliary cohorts, probably 20,000 - 25,000 Casualties Unknown; but far less than Roman losses 15,000-20,000 The Battle... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A natural border is a border between states which are composed of natural objects such as rivers, mountain ranges, or deserts. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A language border is a border between two language areas. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... During Napoleons invasions to Italy,many client (puppet) republics were established. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Constitutional Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... Die Wacht am Rhein (English: The Watch/Guard on the Rhine) is a German patriotic anthem. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about the 1942 film. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . Left to right, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France... Hitler redirects here. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the Dutch city and municipality. ... A Bridge Too Far, a book by Cornelius Ryan published in 1974, tells the story of Operation Market Garden, a failed Allied attempt to break through German lines at Arnhem in the occupied Netherlands during World War II. The title of the book comes from a comment made by British... A Bridge Too Far is a 1977 film based on the 1974 book of the same name. ... Belligerents Poland United Kingdom United States Germany Commanders Field Marshal Montgomery Lieutenant-General Dempsey Lieutenant-General Horrocks Major-General Urquhart Major General Taylor Brigadier General Gavin Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 (airborne only) 20,000 Casualties and losses Poland: 1st Polish Brigade: 378 Casualties[1] United... Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area (2006)  - Municipality 57. ... The Ludendorff Bridge was a railroad bridge across the Rhine in Germany, connecting the cities of Remagen and Erpel. ... Remagen is a city in Germany in Rhineland-Palatinate, in the district of Ahrweiler. ... The Bridge at Remagen is a war film released in 1969. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... Mainz Cathedral sits to the right in this sketch (c. ... Between 780/82 AD and 1802 AD the Archbishop of Mainz, was an influential ecclesiastic and secular prince of the middle ages. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... Sigurd sculpture in Bremen Sigurd (Old Norse: Sigurðr, German: Siegfried) was a legendary hero of Norse mythology, as well as the central character in the Völsunga saga. ... Drachenfels in 1921. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... For the famous train, see Rheingold Express. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... The Ring of the Nibelung or, in the original German, Der Ring des Nibelungen, is a series of four epic operas. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... The Rock of Lorelei by the Rhine Lorelei Lorelei Loreley sign on the bank of the Rhine View of the Rhine as seen by Lorelei The Loreley (also written as Lorelei) is a rock on the eastern bank of the Rhine near St. ...

References

  • Berendsen, H.J.A. & E. Stouthamer (2001) [2]: Palaeogeographic development of the Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands; Koninklijke van Gorcum, Assen; ISBN 90-232-3695-5
  • Cohen, K.M., Berendsen, H.J.A. & E. Stouthamer (2002) Fluvial deposits as a record for Late Quaternary neotectonic activity in the Rhine-Meuse delta, The Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences — Geologie en Mijnbouw, 81 (3-4), 389-405
  • Gouw, M.J.P., Erkens, G. (2007) Architecture of the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta (the Netherlands) – A result of changing external controls. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences — Geologie en Mijnbouw, 86 (1), 23-54
  • Hoffmann, T., Erkens, G., Cohen, K.M., Houben, P., Seidel, J., Dikau, R.(2007) Holocene floodplain sediment storage and hillslope erosion within the Rhine catchment. The Holocene, 17 (1), 105-118 DOI: 10.1177/0959683607073287
  • Ménot, G., Bard, E., Rostek, F., Weijers, J.W.H., Hopmans, E.C., Schouten, S., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2006) Early Reactivation of European Rivers During the Last Deglaciation Science 313 (5793), 1623-1625 DOI: 10.1126/science.1130511

The word fluvial is used in geography and earth science to refer to all topics related to flowing water. ... Look up deposit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Quaternary Period is the geologic time period from the end of the Pliocene Epoch roughly 1. ...

Footnotes

Further reading

  • Blackbourn, David., (2006) The Conquest of Nature: Water, Landscape and the Making of Germany. The transformation of the Rhine since the eighteenth century.

External links

Etymology

Geology

History

Navigation

Castles

Travel guide

  • Travel Guide to the Middle Rhein (UNESCO World Heritage)
  • Lorelei Info - Information all around the Lorelei in the Upper Middle Rhine Valley World Heritage
  • Aerial Photos of the Upper Middle Rhine Valley World Heritage
“PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (German Rhein, French Rhin, Dutch Rijn, Romansch: Rein, Italian: Reno) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... Thur is a 131 km long river in north-eastern Switzerland. ... Glatt is the name of a lesser affluent to the River Rhine in the Swiss canton of Zurich. ... Look up Aar, AAR in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The BIRS Index is a share index of the 12 largest companies listed on the Banja Luka Stock Exchange (BLSE), established on 1 May 2004. ... The Birsig river is a small river, which sources in eastern France near the Swiss border. ... The Ill is a river of Alsace, in north-eastern France. ... The Sauer is a river in France (Alsace) and Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate). ... The Lauter (in its upper course also: Wieslauter) is a river in Germany and France, left tributary of the Rhine. ... The Selz is a creek in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, a tributary to the Rhine. ... The Nahe is a river in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, a tributary to the Rhine. ... This article is about the river in France, Luxembourg & Germany. ... The Nette is a small river in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, a left tributary of the Rhine. ... Brohl is a municipality in the district Cochem-Zell, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... The Ahr is a river in Germany, a left tributary of the Rhine. ... The Erft is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Download high resolution version (794x1114, 84 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Ill is a 72 km long tributary of the Rhine river in the western Austrian province of Vorarlberg. ... Dornbirner Ach is a river in Vorarlberg, Austria, with its source up in the valley near the alpine village Ebnit. ... The Bregenzer Ach is the main river of the Bregenzerwald, in the Vorarlberg Province of Austria. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Elz is a river in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, a right tributary of the Rhine. ... The Kinzig is a German river that runs for 95 km from the Black Forest through the Upper Rhine River Plains. ... The Rench is a river in Ortenau County, Baden-Württemberg, Germany and a right-side tributary of the Rhine River. ... The Acher is a river in Ortenau County, Baden-Württemberg, Germany and a tributary of the Rhine River. ... The Murg is a right tributary of the Rhine, located in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... The Pfinz is a right-side tributary of the Rhine in Baden-Württemberg. ... Saalbach-Hinterglemm is a municipality in the district of Zell Am See/Pinzgau in the Austrian state of Salzburg. ... The Neckar is a 367 km long river in Germany, a major right tributary of the River Rhine, which it joins at Mannheim. ... For other uses, see Main (disambiguation). ... The Wisper is a 30 km long river in western Germany, right tributary of the Rhine. ... The river Lahn in Limburg The Lahn is a river in Germany. ... The Wied is a river in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... The Sieg is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany named after the folk of the Sigambrer. ... The Wupper is a tributary to the Rhine river in Northrhine-Westfalia of Germany. ... The Düssel is a small right tributary of the River Rhine in North Rhine Westphalia. ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... The Emscher is a relatively small river flowing through the Ruhr area in North Rhine-Westphalia in western Germany. ... The Lippe is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Oude IJssel (the Dutch name) or Issel (the German name) is an approx. ... The Berkel is a tributary of the River IJssel in the Netherlands. ... The Schipbeek is a tributary of the IJssel in the Netherlands and a continuation of the Buurser Beek. ...

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Grand Circle Travel Announces Price Reductions on January-June Rhine, Mosel, and Danube Cruises (1044 words)
The price drops are a result of recent renegotiations between GCT and its air, fuel, and hotel suppliers.
Our most popular River cruise itinerary showcases the most beautiful stretches of the Rhine, Main, and Danube rivers; and also highlights the region's distinctive cultures through generous included sightseeing, Discovery Series educational and cultural activities, a Home Hosted visit, and more.
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Rhine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3620 words)
The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland
Since the Rhine flows from the Alps, a precondition of its existence is the uplifting of the Alps, which began in the Alpine Orogeny.
These highlands helped to divert the Rhine to the west; however, the Rhine's course is set by the Rhine graben, a rift that opened in the Eocene and Oligocene periods between the western Alps and the central Alps, caused by their moving in slightly different directions.
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