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Encyclopedia > Rheumatology

Rheumatology, a subspecialty of internal medicine, is devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases. The term originates from the Greek rheuma, meaning "that which flows as a river or stream" and the suffix -ology, meaning "the study of". Rheumatologists mainly deal with problems involving the joints and the allied conditions of connective tissue. Doctors of internal medicine (internists) are medical specialists who focus on adult medicine and have had special study and training focusing on the prevention and treatment of adult diseases. ... In general, a diagnosis (plural diagnoses) covers a broad spectrum, or spectra, of testing in some form of analysis; such tests based on some collective reasoning is called the method of diagnostics, leading then to the results of those tests by ideal (ethics) would then be considered a diagnosis, but...



Diseases diagnosed or managed by the rheumatologist include:

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ... Sjögrens syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which immune cells attack and destroy the glands that produce tears and saliva. ... Scleroderma is a rare, chronic disease characterized by excessive deposits of collagen. ... X-Ray of the knee in a patient with dermatomyositis. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... {{ }} Polymyositis is a type of inflammatory myopathy, related to dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis. ... Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) - is a disorder associated with pain in the shoulder and hip. ... Osteoarthritis (OA, also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease, and sometimes referred to as arthrosis or osteoarthrosis or in more colloquial terms wear and tear), is a condition in which low-grade inflammation results in pain in the joints, caused by wearing of the cartilage that covers and... Septic arthritis is the proliferation of bacteria in joints and resultant inflammation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. ... Spondyloarthropathies are a group of related inflammatory joint disease associated with the MHC class I molecule HLA-B27. ... Reactive arthritis is a condition with symptoms similar to arthritis or rheumatism. ... Photograph of an arm covered with plaque psoriasis Psoriasis is a disease whose main symptom is gray or silvery flaky patches on the skin which are red and inflamed underneath when scratched. ... In medicine, vasculitis (plural: vasculitides) is a group of diseases featuring inflammation of the wall of blood vessels. ... Polyarteritis nodosa (or periarteritis nodosa) is a serious blood vessel disease. ... In medicine (rheumatology and pediatrics) Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP, also known as allergic purpura) is a systemic vasculitis characterized by prominent tissue deposition of IgA-containing immune complexes, especially in the skin and kidney. ... Serum sickness is a reaction to an antiserum derived from an animal source. ... In medicine (rheumatology), Wegeners granulomatosis is a form of vasculitis that affects the lungs, kidneys and other organs. ... Temporal arteritis, also called giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an inflammatory disease of blood vessels (most commonly large and medium arteries of the head). ... Temporal arteritis, also called giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an inflammatory disease of blood vessels (most commonly large and medium arteries of the head). ... Takayasus arteritis is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that affects the aorta and its branches. ... Behçets disease (also known as Adamantiades-Behçets disease), is a chronic condition due to disturbances in the body’s immune system. ... Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, mucocutaneous lymph node disease, infantile polyarteritis and Kawasaki syndrome, is a poorly-understood illness that affects the mucous membranes, lymph nodes, blood vessel walls, and the heart. ... Buergers disease (also known as thromboangiitis obliterans) is an acute inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of arteries and veins of the hands and feet. ... Buergers disease (also known as thromboangiitis obliterans) was first reported by physician Leo Buerger in 1908, who described a disease which had the characteristic pathologic findings of acute inflammation and thrombosis (clotting) of arteries and veins of the hands and feet (the lower limbs being more common). ...


Apart from an extensive medical history and physical examination, a rheumatologist may apply the following diagnostic methods: In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ...

A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on biological specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient. ... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), also called a sedimentation rate, sed rate or Biernacki Reaction, is a non-specific measure of inflammation that is commonly used as a medical screening test. ... Rheumatoid factor (RF) is a blood test performed in patients with suspected rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Cytology (also known as Cell biology) is the scientific study of cells. ... Chemical pathology (also known as clinical biochemistry or clinical chemistry) is the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids. ... Septic arthritis is the proliferation of bacteria in joints and resultant inflammation. ...


Most rheumatic diseases are treated with analgesics, NSAIDs (Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs), steroids (in serious cases), DMARDs (Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs), monoclonal antibodies, such as infliximab and adalimumab, and the soluble TNF receptor etanercept. An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... Steroid skeleton of lanosterol. ... Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is a category of drugs used in many autoimmune diseases to slow down disease progression. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... It has been suggested that Infliximab (Remicade) be merged into this article or section. ... Adalimumab (Humira®) is the third TNF antagonist (after infliximab and etanercept) to be approved in the US. Like infliximab and etanercept, adalimumab binds to TNFα, preventing it from activating TNF receptors; adalimumab was constructed from a fully human monoclonal antibody, while infliximab is a mouse-human chimeric antibody and etanercept... Etanercept (Enbrel®, co-marketed by Amgen and Wyeth) is a human recombinant, soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) receptor. ...

Physiotherapy is vital in the treatment of many rheumatological disorders. Occupational therapy can help patients finding alternative ways for common movements which would otherwise be restricted by their disease. Physical therapy can help restore lost functionality in many people. ... It has been suggested that Occupational therapist be merged into this article or section. ...

Scientific research

A large body of recent scientific research treats the background of autoimmune disease, the cause of many rheumatic disorders. Epidemiological studies and medication trials are also conducted. Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
Oxford Journals | Medicine | Rheumatology (64 words)
Rheumatology is an international peer review journal publishing the highest quality scientific and clinical papers.
The scope of Rheumatology includes the full spectrum of rheumatological conditions, musculoskeletal medicine and surgery.
Rheumatology aims to provide very rapid publication of all papers both online and in hard copy.
University of Chicago Hospitals: Rheumatology (715 words)
Rheumatology is a subspecialty of internal medicine devoted to patient care, research, and education in the areas of arthritis and autoimmune disease.
The Rheumatology Section is committed to providing the most advanced and rationally based care to its patients, and to the development of new knowledge concerning diagnosis and treatment.
In addition to a rheumatology fellowship program designed to train the next generation of rheumatologists, extensive educational attention is directed to the teaching of residents and medical students at the University of Chicago and practicing physicians throughout the Chicago region.
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