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Encyclopedia > Rhetoric
Part of a series of articles on
Rhetoric
The five canons:

Rhetoric (from Greek ῥήτωρ, rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. In this sense, there is a divide between classical rhetoric (with the aforementioned definition) and contemporary practices of rhetoric which include the analysis of written and visual texts. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Inventio is the system or method used for the discovery of arguments in Western rhetoric and comes from the Latin, meaning invention or discovery. It is the first of five canons of classical rhetoric (the others being dispositio, elocutio, memoria, and pronuntiatio) that concern the crafting and delivery of speeches... Dispositio was the system used for the organization of arguments in Western classical rhetoric. ... Elocutio is the term for the mastery of stylistic elements in Western classical rhetoric and comes from the Latin loqui, to speak. Although today, we associate the word, elocution, more with eloquent speaking, for the classical rhetorician, it connoted style. It is the one of five canons of classical rhetoric... Memoria was the term for aspects involving memory in Western classical rhetoric. ... Pronuntiatio was the discipline of delivering speeches in Western classical rhetoric. ... For other uses, see Persuasion (disambiguation). ...


Historically, classical rhetoric has its inception in a school of Pre-Socratic philosophers known as Sophists. It is later taught as one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar) in Western culture. In ancient and medieval times, grammar concerned itself with correct, accurate, pleasing, and effective language use through the study and criticism of literary models, dialectic concerned itself with the testing and invention of new knowledge through a process of question and answer, and rhetoric concerned itself with persuasion in public and political settings such as assemblies and courts of law. As such, rhetoric is said to flourish in open and democratic societies with rights of free speech, free assembly, and political enfranchisement for some portion of the population. Pre-Socratic philosophers are often very hard to pin down, and it is sometimes very difficult to determine the actual line of argument they used in supporting their particular views. ... Sophism was originally a term for the techniques taught by a highly respected group of philosophy and rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece. ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... For any other uses see, see Trivium (disambiguation). ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a synthesis of the opposing assertions, or at least a qualitative transformation in the direction of the dialogue. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a synthesis of the opposing assertions, or at least a qualitative transformation in the direction of the dialogue. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ...


Contemporary studies of rhetoric have a more diverse range of practices and meanings than was the case in ancient times. The concept of rhetoric has thus shifted widely during its 2500-year history. Rhetoricians have recently argued that the classical understanding of rhetoric is limited because persuasion depends on communication, which in turn depends on meaning. Thus the scope of rhetoric is understood to include much more than simply public--legal and political--discourse. This emphasis on meaning and how it is constructed and conveyed draws on a large body of critical and social theory (see literary theory and Critical Theory), philosophy (see Post-structuralism and Hermeneutics), and problems in social science methodology (see Reflexivity). So while rhetoric has traditionally been thought of being involved in such arenas as politics, law, public relations, lobbying, marketing and advertising, the study of rhetoric has recently entered into diverse fields such as humanities, religion, social sciences, law,[1] science, journalism, history, literature and even cartography and architecture. Every aspect of human life and thought that depends on the articulation and communication of meaning can be said to involve elements of the rhetorical. "In the last ten years, many scholars have investigated exactly how rhetoric works within a particular field";[2][3][4][5] Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... // The concept of reflexivity In general, reflexivity is an act of self-reference where examination or action bends back on, refers to, and affects the entity instigating the action or examination. ...

Contents

History of Classical Rhetoric

Ancient Greece

The earliest mention of oratorical skill occurs in Homer's Iliad, where heroes like Achilles, Hestor, and Odysseus were honored for their ability to advise and exhort their peers and followers (the Laos or army) in wise and appropriate action. With the rise of the democratic polis, speaking skill was adapted to the needs of the public and political life of cities in Ancient Greece, much of which revolved around the use of oratory as the medium through which political and judicial decisions were made, and through which philosophical ideas were developed and disseminated. For modern students today, it can be difficult to remember that the wide use and availability of written texts is a phenomenon that was just coming into vogue in Classical Greece. In Classical times, many of the great thinkers and political leaders performed their works before an audience, usually in the context of a competition or contest for fame, political influence, and cultural capital; in fact, many of them are known only through the texts that their students, followers, or detractors wrote down. As has already been noted, rhetor was the Greek term for orator: A rhetor was a citizen who regularly addressed juries and political assemblies and who was thus understood to have gained some knowledge about public speaking in the process, though in general facility with language was often referred to as logôn techne, "skill with arguments" or "verbal artistry." See, Mogens Herman Hansen The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes (Blackwell, 1991); Josiah Ober Mass and Elite in Democratic Athens (Princeton UP, 1989); Jeffrey Walker, Rhetoric and Poetics in Antiquity (Oxford UP, 2000). For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... In ancient Greece and Rome, oratory was studied as a component of rhetoric (that is, composition and delivery of speeches), and was an important skill in public and private life. ... Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ...


Rhetoric thus evolved as an important art, one that provided the orator with the forms, means, and strategies for persuading an audience of the correctness of the orator's arguments. Today the term rhetoric can be used at times to refer only to the form of argumentation, often with the pejorative connotation that rhetoric is a means of obscuring the truth. Classical philosophers believed quite the contrary: the skilled use of rhetoric was essential to the discovery of truths, because it provided the means of ordering and clarifying arguments. A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. ...


The Sophists

Organized thought about public speaking began in ancient Greece. Possibly, the first study about the power of language may be attributed to the philosopher Empedocles (d. ca. 444 BC), whose theories on human knowledge would provide a basis for many future rhetoricians. The first written manual is attributed to Corax and his pupil Tisias. Their work, as well as that of many of the early rhetoricians, grew out of the courts of law; Tisias, for example, is believed to have written judicial speeches that others delivered in the courts. Teaching in oratory was popularized in the 5th century BC by itinerant teachers known as sophists, the best known of whom were Protagoras (c.481-420 BC), Gorgias (c.483-376 BC), and Isocrates (436-338 BC). The Sophists were a disparate group who travelled from city to city making public displays to attract students who were then charged a fee for their education. Their central focus was on logos or what we might broadly refer to as discourse, its functions and powers. They defined parts of speech, analyzed poetry, parsed close synonyms, invented argumentation strategies, and debated the nature of reality. They claimed to make their students "better," or, in other words, to teach virtue. They thus claimed that human "excellence" was not an accident of fate or a prerogative of noble birth, but an art or "techne" that could be taught and learned. They were thus among the first humanists. Several sophists also questioned received wisdom about the gods and about the i think not Greek culture, taken for granted by Greeks of their time, making them among the first agnostics as well. They argued, for example, that cultural practices were a function of convention or nomos rather than blood or birth or phusis, and further that the morality or immorality of any action could not be judged outside of the cultural context within which it occurred. The well-known phrase, "Man is the measure of all things" arises from this belief. One of their most famous, and infamous, doctrines has to do with probability and counter arguments. They taught that every argument could be countered with an opposing argument, that an argument's effectiveness derived from how "likely" it appeared to the audience (its probability of seeming true), and that any probability argument could be countered with an inverted probability argument. Thus, if it seemed likely that a strong, poor man were guilty of robbing a rich, weak man, the strong poor man could argue, on the contrary, that this very likelihood (that he would be a suspect) makes it unlikely that he committed the crime, since he would most likely be apprehended for the crime. They also taught and were known for their ability to make the weaker (or worse) argument the stronger (or better). Aristophanes famously parodies the clever inversions that sophists were known for in his play The Clouds. Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Empedocles (Greek: , ca. ... Corax (Korax), along with Tisias, was one of the founders of Greek rhetoric. ... Tisias (5th Century BC, fl. ... Sophism was originally a term for the techniques taught by a highly respected group of philosophy and rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece. ... Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... Gorgias (in Greek Γοργἰας, circa 483-376 BC) // Introduction Due to his ushering in of rhetorical innovations involving structure and ornamentation and his introduction of paradoxologia – the idea of paradoxical thought and paradoxical expression – Gorgias of Leontini has been labeled the ‘father of sophistry’ (Wardy 6). ... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... Nomos (plural: Nomoi) can refer to: the prefectures of Greece, the administrative division immediately below the peripheries of Greece (Greek: νομός, νομοί) the subdivisions of Ancient Egypt, see Nome (subnational division) law (Greek: νόμος, νόμοι). It is the origin of the suffix -onomy. ... Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ...


The word "sophistry" developed strong negative connotations in ancient Greece that continue today, but in ancient Greece sophists were nevertheless popular and well-paid professionals, widely respected for their abilities but also widely criticized for their excesses.


See Jacqueline de Romilly, The Great Sophists in Periclean Athens (French orig. 1988; English trans. Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press, 1992). Jacqueline de Worms Romilly (born March 26, 1913) is a French philologist Biography Born in Chartres in 1913, she studied at lycée Molière where she was lauréate of the Concours général de latin and second prize in Greek in 1930, the first year when girls...


Isocrates

Isocrates (436-338 BC), like the sophists, taught public speaking as a means of human improvement, but he worked to distinguish himself from the Sophists, whom he saw as claiming far more than they could deliver. He suggested that while an art of virtue or excellence did exist, it was only one piece, and the least, in a process of self-improvement that relied much more heavily on native talent and desire, constant practice, and the imitation of good models. Isocrates believed that practice in speaking publicly about noble themes and important questions would function to improve the character of both speaker and audience while also offering the best service to a state. He thus wrote his speeches as "models" for his students to imitate in the same way that poets might imitate Homer or Hesiod. His was the first permanent school in Athens and it is likely that Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum were founded in part as a response to Isocrates. Though he left no handbooks, his speeches ("Antidosis" and "Against the Sophists" are most relevant to students of rhetoric) became models of oratory (he was one of the canonical "Ten Attic Orators") and he had a marked influence on Cicero and Quintilian, and through them, on the entire educational system of the west. Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... Sophism was originally a term for the techniques taught by a highly respected group of philosophy and rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... An academy is an institution for the study of higher learning. ... A lyceum can be an educational institution (often a school of secondary education in Europe), or a public hall used for cultural events like concerts. ... The ten Attic orators were considered the greatest orators and logographers of the classical era (5th century BC–4th century BC). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ...

Plato outlined the difference between true and false rhetoric.
Plato outlined the difference between true and false rhetoric.

Image File history File links Plato-raphael. ... Image File history File links Plato-raphael. ...

Plato

Plato (427-347 BC) has famously outlined the differences between true and false rhetoric in a number of dialogues, but especially the Gorgias and the Phaedrus. Both dialogues are complex and difficult, but in both Plato disputes the Sophistic notion that an art of persuasion, the art of the Sophists which he calls "rhetoric" (after the public speaker or rhêtôr) can exist independent of the art of dialectic. Plato claims that since Sophists appeal only to what seems likely or probable, rather than to what is true, they are not at all making their students and audiences "better," but simply flattering them with what they want to hear. While Plato's condemnation of rhetoric is clear in the Gorgias, in the Phaedrus he seems to suggest the possibility of a true art of rhetoric based upon the knowledge produced by dialectic, and he relies on such a dialectically informed rhetoric to appeal to the main character, Phaedrus, to take up philosophy. It is possible that in developing his own theory of knowledge, Plato coined the term "rhetoric" both to denounce what he saw as the false wisdom of the sophists, and to advance his own views on knowledge and method. Plato's animosity against the Sophists derives not only from their inflated claims to teach virtue and their reliance on appearances, but from the fact that his teacher, Socrates, was accused of being a sophist and ultimately sentenced to death for his teaching. In his dialogues, Plato attempts to distinguish the rhetoric common to Socratic questioning from Sophistry. PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Gorgias is an important dialogue in which Plato sets the rhetorician, whose specialty is persuasion, in opposition to the philosopher, whose specialty is dissuasion, or refutation. ... The Phaedrus, written by Plato, is a dialogue between Platos main protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues. ... This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ...


Aristotle

Plato's student Aristotle (384-322 BC) famously set forth an extended treatise on rhetoric that still repays careful study today.… Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ...


In the first sentence of The Art of Rhetoric, Aristotle says that "rhetoric is the counterpart [literally, the antistrophe] of dialectic." As the "antistrophe" of a Greek ode responds to and is patterned after the structure of the "strophe" (they form two sections of the whole and are sung by two parts of the chorus), so the art of rhetoric follows and is structurally patterned after the art of dialectic because both are arts of discourse production. Thus, while dialectical methods are necessary to find truth in theoretical matters, rhetorical methods are required in practical matters such as adjudicating somebody's guilt or innocence when charged in a court of law, or adjudicating a prudent course of action to be taken in a deliberative assembly. For Plato and Aristotle, dialectic involves persuasion, so when Aristotle says that rhetoric is the antistrophe of dialectic, he means that rhetoric as he uses the term has a domain or scope of application that is parallel to but different from the domain or scope of application of dialectic. In Nietzsche Humanist (1998: 129), Claude Pavur explains that "[t]he Greek prefix 'anti' does not merely designate opposition, but it can also mean 'in place of.'" When Aristotle characterizes rhetoric as the antistrophe of dialectic, he no doubt means that rhetoric is used in place of dialectic when we are discussing civic issues in a court of law or in a legislative assembly. The domain of rhetoric is civic affairs and practical decision making in civic affairs, not theoretical considerations of operational definitions of terms and clarification of thought -- these, for him, are in the domain of dialectic. Aristotles Rhetoric (or Ars Rhetorica, or The Art of Rhetoric or Treatise on Rhetoric) places the discipline of public speaking in the context of all other intellectual pursuits at the time. ... Antistrophe, the portion of an ode which is sung by the chorus in its returning movement from west to east, in response the strophe, which was sung from east to west. ... For other uses, see Ode (disambiguation). ... Strophe (Greek, to turn) is a term in versification which properly means a turn, as from one foot to another, or from one side of a chorus to the other. ... Antistrophe, the portion of an ode which is sung by the chorus in its returning movement from west to east, in response the strophe, which was sung from east to west. ...


Aristotle's treatise on rhetoric is an attempt to systematically describe civic rhetoric as a human art or skill (techne). His definition of rhetoric as a mode of discovery seems to limit the art to the inventional process, and Aristotle heavily emphasizes the logical aspect of this process. But the treatise in fact also discusses not only elements of style and (briefly) delivery, but also emotional appeals (pathos) and characterological appeals (ethos). He thus identifies three steps or "offices" of rhetoric--invention, arrangement, and style--and three different types of rhetorical proof:

  • ethos: how the character and credibility of a speaker influence an audience to consider him to be believable.
    • This could be any position in which the speaker--from being a college professor of the subject, to being an acquaintance of person who experienced the matter in question--knows about the topic.
  • pathos: the use of emotional appeals to alter the audience's judgment.
    • This can be done through metaphor, amplification, storytelling, or presenting the topic in a way that evokes strong emotions in the audience.
  • logos: the use of reasoning, either inductive or deductive, to construct an argument.
    • Logos appeals include appeals to statistics, math, logic, and objectivity. For instance, when advertisements claim that their product is 37% more effective than the competition, they are making a logical appeal.
    • Inductive reasoning uses examples (historical, mythical, or hypothetical) to draw conclusions.
    • Deductive or "enthymematic" reasoning uses generally accepted propositions to derive specific conclusions. The term logic evolved from logos. Aristotle emphasized enthymematic reasoning as central to the process of rhetorical invention, though later rhetorical theorists placed much less emphasis on it.

Aristotle also identifies three different types or genres of civic rhetoric: forensic (also known as judicial, was concerned with determining truth or falsity of events that took place in the past, issues of guilt), deliberative (also known as political, was concerned with determining whether or not particular actions should or should not be taken in the future), and epideictic (also known as ceremonial, was concerned with praise and blame, values, right and wrong, demonstrating beauty and skill in the present). Ethos (ἦθος) (plurals: ethe, ethea) is a Greek word originally meaning the place of living that can be translated into English in different ways. ... Look up Pathos in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... The past is the portion of the timeline that has already occurred; it is the opposite of the future. ... For other uses, see Future (disambiguation). ... Epideictic rhetoric, or ceremonial rhetoric, is one of the three branches of rhetoric as outlined in Classical rhetoric. ...


One of the most fruitful of Aristotelian doctrines was the idea of topics (also referred to as common topics or commonplaces). Though the term had a wide range of application (as a memory technique or compositional exercise, for example) it most often referred to the "seats of argument"--the list of categories of thought or modes of reasoning--that a speaker could use in order to generate arguments or proofs. The topics were thus a heuristic or inventional tool designed to help speakers categorize and thus better retain and apply frequently used types of argument. For example, since we often see effects as "like" their causes, one way to invent an argument (about a future effect) is by discussing the cause (which it will be "like"). This and other rhetorical topics derive from Aristotle's belief that there are certain predictable ways in which humans (particularly non-specialists) draw conclusions from premises. Based upon and adapted from his dialectical Topics, the rhetorical topics became a central feature of later rhetorical theorizing, most famously in Cicero's work of that name.


See Eugene Garver, Aristotle's Rhetoric: An Art of Character (University of Chicago Press,1994).


Roman rhetoricians

The Romans, for whom oration also became an important part of public life, saw much value in Greek rhetoric, hiring Greek rhetoricians to teach in their schools and as private tutors, and imitating and adapting Greek rhetorical works in Latin and with Roman examples. Roman rhetoric thus largely extends upon and develops its Greek roots, though it tends to prefer practical advice to the theoretical speculations of Greek rhetoricians. Cicero (106-43 BC) and Quintilian (35-100 AD) were chief among Roman rhetoricians, and their work is an extension of sophistic, Isocratean, Platonic and Aristotelian rhetorical theory. For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ...


Latin rhetoric was developed out of the Rhodian schools of rhetoric. In the second century BC, Rhodes became an important educational center, particularly of rhetoric, and the sons of noble Roman families studied there. Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος Rhódhos; Italian Rodi; [[Ladino language| ) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands in terms of both land area and population, situated in eastern Aegean Sea. ...


Although not widely read in Roman times, the Rhetorica ad Herennium (sometimes attributed to Cicero, but probably not his work) is a notable early work on Latin rhetoric. Its author was probably a Latin rhetorician in Rhodes, and for the first time we see a systematic treatment of Latin elocutio. The Ad Herennium provides a glimpse into the early development of Latin rhetoric, and in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, it achieved wide publication as one of the basic school texts on rhetoric. The Rhetorica ad Herennium is the oldest surviving Latin book on rhetoric. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...


Whether or not he wrote the Rhetorica ad Herennium, Cicero, along with Quintilian (the most influential Roman teacher of rhetoric), is considered one of the most important Roman rhetoricians. His works include the early and very influential De Inventione (On Invention, often read alongside the Ad Herennium as the two basic texts of rhetorical theory throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance), De Oratore (a fuller statement of rhetorical principles in dialague form), Topics (a rhetorical treatment of common topics, highly influential through the Renaissance), Brutus (a discussion of famous orators) and Orator (a defense of Cicero's style). Cicero also left a large body of speeches and letters which would establish the outlines of Latin eloquence and style for generations to come. It was the rediscovery of Cicero's speeches (such as the defence of Archias) and letters (to Atticus) by Italians like Petrarch that, in part, ignited the cultural innovations that we know as the Renaissance. From the c. ...


Quintilian's career began as a pleader in the courts of law; his reputation grew so great that Vespasian created a chair of rhetoric for him in Rome. The culmination of his life's work was the Institutio oratoria (or Institutes of Oratory), a lengthy treatise on the training of the orator in which he discusses the training of the "perfect" orator from birth to old age and, in the process, reviews the doctrines and opinions of many influential rhetoricians who preceded him. Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ...


In the Institutes, Quintilian organizes rhetorical study through the stages of education that an aspiring orator would undergo, beginning with the selection of a nurse. Aspects of elementary education (training in reading and writing, grammar, and literary criticism) are followed by preliminary rhetorical exercises in composition (the progymnasmata) that include maxims and fables, narratives and comparisons, and finally full legal or political speeches. The delivery of speeches within the context of education or for entertainment purposes became widespread and popular under the term "declamation." Rhetorical training proper was categorized under five canons that would persist for centuries in academic circles:

  • Inventio (invention) is the process that leads to the development and refinement of an argument.
  • Once arguments are developed, dispositio (disposition, or arrangement) is used to determine how it should be organized for greatest effect, usually beginning with the exordium.
  • Once the speech content is known and the structure is determined, the next steps involve elocutio (style) and pronuntiatio (presentation).
  • Memoria (memory) comes to play as the speaker recalls each of these elements during the speech.
  • Actio (delivery) is the final step as the speech is presented in a gracious and pleasing way to the audience - the Grand Style.

This work was available only in fragments in medieval times, but the discovery of a complete copy at Abbey of St. Gall in 1416 led to its emergence as one of the most influential works on rhetoric during the Renaissance. Inventio is the system or method used for the discovery of arguments in Western rhetoric and comes from the Latin, meaning invention or discovery. It is the first of five canons of classical rhetoric (the others being dispositio, elocutio, memoria, and pronuntiatio) that concern the crafting and delivery of speeches... Dispositio was the system used for the organization of arguments in Western classical rhetoric. ... In Western classical rhetoric, the exordium was the introductory portion of an oration. ... Elocutio is the term for the mastery of stylistic elements in Western classical rhetoric and comes from the Latin loqui, to speak. Although today, we associate the word, elocution, more with eloquent speaking, for the classical rhetorician, it connoted style. It is the one of five canons of classical rhetoric... Pronuntiatio was the discipline of delivering speeches in Western classical rhetoric. ... Memoria was the term for aspects involving memory in Western classical rhetoric. ... Actio is a term in rhetoric that means the delivery that is given to a speech. ... The Abbey of St. ...


Quintilian's work attempts to describe not just the art of rhetoric, but the formation of the perfect orator as a politically active, virtuous, publicly minded citizen. His emphasis on the real life application of rhetorical training was in part nostalgia for the days when rhetoric was an important political tool, and in part a reaction against the growing tendency in Roman schools toward standardization of themes and techniques and increasing separation between school exercises and actual legal practice, a tendency equally powerful today in public schools and law schools alike. At the same time that rhetoric was becoming divorced from political decision making, rhetoric rose as a culturally vibrant and important mode of entertainment and cultural criticism in a movement known as the "second sophistic," a development which gave rise to the charge (made by Quintilian and others) that teachers were emphasizing ornamentation over substance in rhetoric. Quintilian's masterful work was not enough to curb this movement, but his dismayed response cemented the scholarly opinion that 2nd century C.E. rhetoric fell into decadence and political irrelevance, despite its wide popularity and cultural importance.


Although he is not commonly regarded as a rhetorician, St. Augustine (354-430) was trained in rhetoric and was at one time a teacher of Latin rhetoric. After his conversion to Christianity, he became interested in using these "pagan" arts for spreading his religion. This new use of rhetoric is explored in the Fourth Book of his De Doctrina Christiana, which laid the foundation of what would become homiletics, the rhetoric of the sermon. “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


A valuable collection of studies can be found in Stanley E. Porter, ed., Handbook of Classical Rhetoric in the Hellenistic Period 330 B.C. - A.D. 400 (Brill, 1997).


Rhetoric from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment

After the Roman Empire, the study of rhetoric continued to be central to the study of the verbal arts; but the study of the verbal arts went into decline for several centuries, followed eventually by a gradual rise in formal education, culminating in the rise of medieval universities. But rhetoric transmuted during this period in the arts of letter writing (ars dictaminis) and writing sermons (ars praedicandi). As part of the trivium, rhetoric was secondary to the study of logic, and its study was highly scholastic: students were given repetitive exercises in the creation of discourses on historical subjects (suasoriae) or on classic legal questions (controversiae). The ars dictaminis was the medieval description of the art of prose composition, and more specifically of the writing of letters (dictamen). ... For any other uses see, see Trivium (disambiguation). ...


In his 1943 Cambridge University doctoral dissertation in English, Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) surveys the verbal arts from approximately the time of Cicero down to the time of Thomas Nashe (1567-1600?).[6] His dissertation is still noteworthy for undertaking to study the history of the verbal arts together as the trivium, even though the developments that he surveys have been studied in greater detail since he undertook his study. As noted below, McLuhan became one of the most widely publicized thinkers in the 20th century, so it is important to note his scholarly roots in the study of the history of rhetoric and dialectic. The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... “McLuhan” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Thomas Nashe (November 1567–1600?) was an English Elizabethan pamphleteer, poet and satirist. ...


Sixteenth century

Walter J. Ong's encyclopedia article "Humanism" in the 1967 New Catholic Encyclopedia provides a well-informed survey of Renaissance humanism, which defined itself broadly as disfavoring medieval scholastic logic and dialectic and as favoring instead the study of classical Latin style and grammar and philology and rhetoric. (Reprinted in Ong's Faith and Contexts (Scholars Press, 1999; 4: 69-91.))

Desiderius Erasmus was an exponent of classical rhetoric
Desiderius Erasmus was an exponent of classical rhetoric

One influential figure in the rebirth of interest in classical rhetoric was Erasmus (c.1466-1536). His 1512 work, De Duplici Copia Verborum et Rerum (also known as Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style), was widely published (it went through more than 150 editions throughout Europe) and became one of the basic school texts on the subject. Its treatment of rhetoric is less comprehensive than the classic works of antiquity, but provides a traditional treatment of res-verba (matter and form): its first book treats the subject of elocutio, showing the student how to use schemes and tropes; the second book covers inventio. Much of the emphasis is on abundance of variation (copia means "plenty" or "abundance", as in copious or cornucopia), so both books focus on ways to introduce the maximum amount of variety into discourse. For instance, in one section of the De Copia, Erasmus presents two hundred variations of the sentence "Semper, dum vivam, tui meminero". Another of his works, the extremely popular The Praise of Folly also had considerable influence on the teaching of rhetoric in the later sixteenth century. Its orations in favour of qualities such as madness spawned a type of exercise popular in Elizabethan grammar schools, later called adoxography, which required pupils to compose passages in praise of useless things. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (809x1145, 122 KB) The Dutch philosopher Desiderius Erasmus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (809x1145, 122 KB) The Dutch philosopher Desiderius Erasmus. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Elocutio is the term for the mastery of stylistic elements in Western classical rhetoric and comes from the Latin loqui, to speak. Although today, we associate the word, elocution, more with eloquent speaking, for the classical rhetorician, it connoted style. It is the one of five canons of classical rhetoric... A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetoric, or elocution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. ... Inventio is the system or method used for the discovery of arguments in Western rhetoric and comes from the Latin, meaning invention or discovery. It is the first of five canons of classical rhetoric (the others being dispositio, elocutio, memoria, and pronuntiatio) that concern the crafting and delivery of speeches... Hans Holbeins witty marginal drawing of Folly (1515), in the first edition, a copy owned by Erasmus himself (Kupferstichkabinett, Basle) The Praise of Folly (Greek title: Morias Enkomion (Μωρίας Εγκώμιον), Latin: Stultitiae Laus, sometimes translated as In Praise of Folly, Dutch title: Lof der Zotheid) is an essay written in 1509... Adoxography is a term coined in the late 19th century, and means fine writing on a trivial or base subject. ...


Juan Luis Vives (1492 - 1540) also helped shape the study of rhetoric in England. A Spaniard, he was appointed in 1523 to the Lectureship of Rhetoric at Oxford by Cardinal Wolsey, and was entrusted by Henry VIII to be one of the tutors of Mary. Vives fell into disfavor when Henry VIII divorced Catherine of Aragon and left England in 1528. His best-known work was a book on education, De Disciplinis, published in 1531, and his writings on rhetoric included Rhetoricae, sive De Ratione Dicendi, Libri Tres (1533), De Consultatione (1533), and a rhetoric on letter writing, De Conscribendis Epistolas (1536). Juan Luís Vives (March 6, 1492 - May 6, 1540), Spanish scholar, was born at Valencia. ... Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (c. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ...


It is likely that many well-known English writers would have been exposed to the works of Erasmus and Vives (as well as those of the Classical rhetoricians) in their schooling, which was conducted in Latin (not English) and often included some study of Greek and placed considerable emphasis on rhetoric. See, for example, T.W. Baldwin's William Shakspere's Small Latine and Lesse Greeke, 2 vols. (University of Illinois Press, 1944). Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Juan Luís Vives (March 6, 1492 - May 6, 1540), Spanish scholar, was born at Valencia. ...


The mid-1500s saw the rise of vernacular rhetorics — those written in English rather than in the Classical languages; adoption of works in English was slow, however, due to the strong orientation toward Latin and Greek. A successful early text was Thomas Wilson's The Arte of Rhetorique (1553), which presents a traditional treatment of rhetoric. For instance, Wilson presents the five canons of rhetoric (Invention, Disposition, Elocutio, Memoria, and Utterance or Actio). Other notable works included Angel Day's The English Secretorie (1586, 1592), George Puttenham's The Arte of English Poesie (1589), and Richard Rainholde's Foundacion of Rhetorike (1563). Elocutio is the term for the mastery of stylistic elements in Western classical rhetoric and comes from the Latin loqui, to speak. Although today, we associate the word, elocution, more with eloquent speaking, for the classical rhetorician, it connoted style. It is the one of five canons of classical rhetoric... Memoria was the term for aspects involving memory in Western classical rhetoric. ... Actio is a term in rhetoric that means the delivery that is given to a speech. ... George Puttenham (d. ...


During this same period, a movement began that would change the organization of the school curriculum in Protestant and especially Puritan circles and lead to rhetoric losing its central place. A French scholar, Petrus Ramus (1515-1572), dissatisfied with what he saw as the overly broad and redundant organization of the trivium, proposed a new curriculum. In his scheme of things, the five components of rhetoric no longer lived under the common heading of rhetoric. Instead, invention and disposition were determined to fall exclusively under the heading of dialectic, while style, delivery, and memory were all that remained for rhetoric. See Walter J. Ong, Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: From the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason (Harvard University Press, 1958; reissued by the University of Chicago Press, 2004, with a new foreword by Adrian Johns). Petrus Ramus. ... For any other uses see, see Trivium (disambiguation). ... Walter Ong Father Walter Jackson Ong, Ph. ...

John Milton, English poet and rhetorician
John Milton, English poet and rhetorician

One of Ramus' followers, Audomarus Talaeus (Omer Talon) published his rhetoric, Institutiones Oratoriae, in 1544. This work provided a simple presentation of rhetoric that emphasized the treatment of style, and became so popular that it was mentioned in John Brinsley's (1612) Ludus literarius; or The Grammar Schoole as being the "most used in the best schooles." Many other Ramist rhetorics followed in the next half-century, and by the 1600s, their approach became the primary method of teaching rhetoric in Protestant and especially Puritan circles. See Walter J. Ong, Ramus and Talon Inventory (Harvard University Press, 1958); Joseph S. Freedman, Philosophy and the Arts in Central Europe, 1500-1700: Teaching and Texts at Schools and Universities (Ashgate, 1999). John Milton (1608-1674) wrote a textbook in logic or dialectic in Latin based on Ramus' work, which has now been translated into English by Walter J. Ong and Charles J. Ermatinger in The Complete Prose Works of John Milton (Yale University Press, 1982; 8: 206-407), with a lengthy introduction by Ong (144-205). The introduction is reprinted in Ong's Faith and Contexts (Scholars Press, 1999; 4: 111-41). John Milton - Project Gutenberg eText 13619 - http://www. ... John Milton - Project Gutenberg eText 13619 - http://www. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ...


But Ramism did not strongly influence the established Catholic schools and universities or the new Catholic schools and universities founded by members of the religious order known as the Society of Jesus, as can be seen in the Jesuit document known as the Ratio Studiorum that Claude Pavur, S.J., has recently translated into English, with the Latin text in the parallel column on each page (St. Louis: Institute of Jesuit Sources, 2005). The influence of Cicero and Quintilian permeates the Ratio Studiorum. Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... The Ratio Studiorum, 1598 The Ratio Studiorum (Latin: Plan of Studies) often designates the document that formally established the globally influential system of Jesuit education in 1599. ... The Ratio Studiorum, 1598 The Ratio Studiorum (Latin: Plan of Studies) often designates the document that formally established the globally influential system of Jesuit education in 1599. ...


Seventeenth century

In New England and at Harvard College (founded 1636), Ramus and his followers dominated, as Perry Miller shows in The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century (Harvard University Press, 1939). However, in England, several writers influenced the course of rhetoric during the seventeenth century, many of them carrying forward the dichotomy that had been set forth by Ramus and his followers during the preceding decades. Of greater importance is that this century saw the development of a modern, vernacular style that looked to English, rather than to Greek, Latin, or French models. Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, founded in 1636. ... Cover of Millers Errand into the Wilderness Perry Miller (1905-1963) was an American intellectual historian and Harvard University professor. ...


Francis Bacon (1561-1626), although not a rhetorician, contributed to the field in his writings. One of the concerns of the age was to find a suitable style for the discussion of scientific topics, which needed above all a clear exposition of facts and arguments, rather than the ornate style favored at the time. Bacon in his The Advancement of Learning criticized those who are preoccupied with style rather than "the weight of matter, worth of subject, soundness of argument, life of invention, or depth of judgment." On matters of style, he proposed that the style conform to the subject matter and to the audience, that simple words be employed whenever possible, and that the style should be agreeable. See Lisa Jardine, Francis Bacon: Discovery and the Art of Discourse (Cambridge University Press, 1975). For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... Lisa Jardine is a British historian of the early modern period. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...


Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) also wrote on rhetoric. Along with a shortened translation of Aristotle's Rhetoric, Hobbes also produced a number of other works on the subject. Sharply contrarian on many subjects, Hobbes, like Bacon, also promoted a simpler and more natural style that used figures of speech sparingly. “Hobbes” redirects here. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ...


Perhaps the most influential development in English style came out of the work of the Royal Society (founded in 1660), which in 1664 set up a committee to improve the English language. Among the committee's members were John Evelyn (1620-1706), Thomas Sprat (1635-1713), and John Dryden (1631-1700). Sprat regarded "fine speaking" as a disease, and thought that a proper style should "reject all amplifications, digressions, and swellings of style" and instead "return back to a primitive purity and shortness" (History of the Royal Society, 1667). For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... John Evelyn. ... Thomas Sprat (1635 – May 20, 1713), English divine, was born at Beaminster, Dorset, and educated at Wadham College, Oxford, where he held a fellowship from 1657 to 1670. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles...


While the work of this committee never went beyond planning, John Dryden is often credited with creating and exemplifying a new and modern English style. His central tenet was that the style should be proper "to the occasion, the subject, and the persons." As such, he advocated the use of English words whenever possible instead of foreign ones, as well as vernacular, rather than Latinate, syntax. His own prose (and his poetry) became exemplars of this new style.


Modern Rhetoric

History of Modern Rhetoric

Walter Jost has examined Rhetorical Thought in John Henry Newman (1989). (John Henry Newman lived from 1801-1890.) J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first sermon. ...


The Canadian Jesuit philosopher and theologian Bernard Lonergan (1904-1984), who was deeply influenced by Newman's An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent (1870), worked out what he styles the generalized empirical method in Insight: A Study of Human Understanding (1957) and elsewhere. In a review article originally published in the Quarterly Journal of Speech (1985: 476-88), Bernard Lonergan, S.J. (17 December 1904 – 26 November 1984) was a Canadian Jesuit Priest. ...


At the turn of the twentieth century, there was a revival of rhetorical study manifested in the establishment of departments of rhetoric and speech at academic institutions, as well as the formation of national and international professional organizations. Theorists generally agree that a significant reason for the revival of the study of rhetoric was the renewed importance of language and persuasion in the increasingly mediated environment of the twentieth century (see Linguistic turn). The rise of advertising and of mass media such as photography, telegraphy, radio, and film brought rhetoric more prominently into people's lives. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Note: this article originated from a translation from the German Wikipedias [entry] on the same topic. ... “Advert” redirects here. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ... This article is about motion pictures. ...


For example, when McLuhan was working on his 1943 Cambridge University doctoral dissertation on the verbal arts and Nashe, mentioned above, he was also preparing the materials that were eventually published as the book The Mechanical Bride: The Folklore of Industrial Man (Vanguard Press, 1951). This book is a compilation of exhibits of ads and other materials from popular culture with short essays about them by McLuhan. The essays involve rhetorical analyses of the ways in which the material in an item aims to persuade, and commentary on the persuasive strategies in each item.


After studying the persuasive strategies involved in such an array of items in popular culture, McLuhan shifted the focus of his rhetorical analysis and began to consider how communication media themselves have an impact on us as persuasive, in a manner of speaking. In other words, the communication media as such embody and carry a persuasive dimension. McLuhan uses hyperbole to express this insight when he says "The medium is the message". This shift in focus from his 1951 book led to his two most widely known books, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (University of Toronto Press, 1962) and Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (McGraw-Hill, 1964). These two books led McLuhan to become one of the most publicized thinkers in the 20th century. No other scholar of the history and theory of rhetoric was as widely publicized in the 20th century as McLuhan. Not to be confused with Hyperbola. ... The media is the message is a phrase meaning that available media shape human activity, more so than what media are used for. ...


McLuhan read Lonergan's Insight, mentioned above, in 1957 (see Letters of Marshall McLuhan, 1987: 251). Lonergan's book is an elaborate guidebook to cultivate one's inwardness and on attending to and reflecting on one's inward consciousness. McLuhan's 1962 and 1964 books represent an inward turn to attending to one's consciousness that is far more pronounced than anything found in his 1951 book or in his 1943 dissertation. By contrast, many other thinkers in the study of rhetoric are more outward oriented toward sociological considerations and symbolic interaction.


McLuhan's famous dictum "the medium is the message" can be paraphrased with terminology from Lonergan. At the empirical level of consciousness, the medium is the message, whereas at the intelligent and rational levels of consciousness, the content is the message. McLuhan is thus ordering us to pay attention to the empirical level of consciousness.


Because the history of modern and contemporary rhetoric is closely tied to modern language theory and philosophy, many scholars would also include post-structuralist thinkers like Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, and Francois Lyotard in the discussion.


Contemporary Study of Rhetoric

Rhetorical theory today is as much influenced by the research results and research methods of the behavioral sciences and by theories of literary criticism as by ancient rhetorical theory. Early rhetorical theorists attempted to turn the study of rhetoric into a social science that allowed predictive analyses of human behavior. Interdisciplinary scholars of symbol systems, such as Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945), Hugh Duncan, and most notably Kenneth Burke (1897-1993), influenced a new generation of rhetorical scholars who drew from various disciplines to more fully comprehend the phenomenon of human communication in all its aspects. While ancient rhetorical scholarship had focused primarily on rhetoric as speech, contemporary rhetorical theorists are interested in the panoply of human symbolic behavior—both the spoken and written word as well as music, film, radio, television, etc. Thus Kenneth Burke, who defined the human being as the "symbol-using animal," defined rhetoric as "the use of symbols to induce cooperation in those who by nature respond to symbols." Current rhetorical theory also draws heavily from cultural studies, performance studies, and design studies. Topics of interest to contemporary scholars include the relationships between rhetoric and gender, studies of non-traditional or alternative rhetorics, and rhetorics of science, technology, and new media. Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Ernst Cassirer (July 28, 1874 – April 13, 1945) was a German-Jewish philosopher. ... Kenneth Burke (May 5, 1897–November 19, 1993) was a major American literary theorist and philosopher. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


Rhetoricians

Other notable 20th century authors in the study of the history and theory of rhetoric include Herbert Wichelns, Edwin Black, Ernest Wrage, Wayne C. Booth, Cleanth Brooks, James Andrews, Karlyn Kohrs Campbell, Barbara Biesecker, Dana L. Cloud, Celeste M. Condit, Edward P.J. Corbett, Sharon Crowley, James Darsey, Thomas Farrell, Lloyd Bitzer, James Aune, Charles Bazerman, Stephen H. Browne, Robert Ivie, Charles Arthur Willard, Paul de Man, Raymie McKerrow, Dilip Parameshwar Gaonkar, G. Thomas Goodnight, Robert Hariman, Ernesto Grassi, Susan Jarrett, James Kinneavy, Ernesto Laclau, Richard A. Lanham, Michael Leff, John Lucaites, Andrea Lunsford, John Lyne, Steve Mailloux, Michael Calvin McGee, Martin Medhurst, Marie Hochmuth Nichols, Lucy Olbrechts-Tyteca, Chaim Perelman, I.A. Richards, Edward Schiappa, Stephen Toulmin, Mark Turner, Victor J. Vitanza, Thomas W. Benson, Robert Penn Warren, Walter Ong, Eric Havelock, Gunther Kress, and J. Michael Hogan, Richard M. Weaver, David Zarefsky, Gerard Hauser, Stephen Lucas, and Bert Ballard. Wayne Clayson Booth (February 22, 1921 – October 10, 2005) was an American literary critic. ... Cleanth Brooks (October 16, 1906 - 1994) was an influential American literary critic and professor. ... Author of Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student, The Writing Teachers Sourcebook, The Elements of Reasoning, Style and Statement, The Little English Handbook: Choices and Conventions. ... Robert Ivie (b. ... Paul de Man (December 6, 1919 – December 21, 1983) was a Belgian-born deconstructionist literary critic and theorist. ... Ernesto Laclau is a political theorist often described as post-marxist. ... Richard A. Lanham is probably most widely known for his textbooks on revising prose to improve the style and clarify the thought. ... John Louis Lucaites obtained a Ph. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chaïm Perelman (May 20, 1912 – January 22, 1984), a Polish-born philosopher of law, who studied, taught, and lived most of his life in Brussels. ... Ivor Armstrong Richards (February 26, 1893-1979) was an influential literary critic and rhetorician. ... Stephen Edelston Toulmin (born March 25, 1922) is a British philosopher, author, and educator. ... Mark Turner is a cognitive scientist, linguist, and author. ... Victor J. Vitanza is a professor at Clemson University (South Carolina), Department of English since 2005. ... Robert Penn Warren Robert Penn Warren (April 24, 1905 – September 15, 1989) was an American poet, novelist, and literary critic, and was one of the founders of The New Criticism. ... Walter Ong Walter J. Ong (November 30, 1912 – August 12, 2003) is an educator, academic, and linguist known for his work in Renaissance literary and intellectual history and in contemporary culture as well as for his more wide-ranging studies on the evolution of consciousness. ... Attic cup inscribed with the Greek alphabet. ... Richard Malcolm Weaver, Jr (March 3, 1910, Asheville, North Carolina – April 9, 1963, Chicago) was an American scholar who taught English at the University of Chicago. ...


Rhetoric in the Academy

Contemporary scholars in rhetoric come from diverse academic backgrounds, and are often housed in departments of English, Communication Studies, Rhetoric, Education, or Speech Communication. Rhetorical scholars meet at conferences such as the Conference on College Composition and Communication, the National Communication Association conference, and the Rhetoric Society of America conference. They publish research in journals including the Quarterly Journal of Speech, College Composition and Communication, the Rhetoric Society Quarterly, Rhetoric Review, Rhetoric and Public Affairs, Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, and Philosophy and Rhetoric. Dr. Patrick The Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC, affectionately referred to as Four Cs) is a national professional association of college and university writing instructors in the USA. Formed in 1949 as an organization within the National Council of Teachers of English, CCCC currently has about 7000 members. ... The National Communication Association (NCA) is the American national professional organization for the Communication Studies discipline. ...


Discourse analysis

Rhetoric is not only a method for training effective communicators (rhetors); as a discipline for advanced study, it is a method for understanding on a theoretical as well as a practical level how humans use language ("discourse") to alter or shape our understanding of reality. Every text -- be it advertisement, lecture, speech, letter, blog, or chat -- inhabits a given discourse environment, hence the term discourse analysis. Rather than providing a particular method, discourse analysis is a way of approaching and thinking about a problem; neither a qualitative nor a quantitative research method, but rather a questioning of the basic assumptions of quantitative and qualitative research methods. Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyzing written, spoken or signed language use. ...


Discourse analysis does not provide a tangible answer to problems based on scientific research, but it reveals the ontological and epistemological assumptions behind a project, a statement, a method of research, or - to provide an example from the field of Library and Information Science - a system of classification. Discourse analysis thus reveals the hidden motivations behind a text or behind the choice of a particular method of research to interpret that text, enabling a more critical assessment of that text in light of the implicit assumptions that shaped it. By making these assumptions explicit, discourse analysis allows us to view the "problem" from a higher perspective and to gain a comprehensive view of the "problem" and ourselves in relation to that "problem." In short, discourse provides a higher awareness of the hidden motivations in others and ourselves and, therefore, helps us solve concrete problems not by providing unequivocal answers, but by making us ask ontological and epistemological questions. This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ... Library and information science (LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. ... Classification may refer to: Taxonomic classification See also class (philosophy) Statistical classification Security classification Hint: Language use may refer to a taxonomic classification that is used for statistical purposes also as a statistical classification (like International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems). ...


(Also see Critical discourse analysis) Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of texts, which views language as a form of social practice (Fairclough 1989: 20) and attempts to unpack the ideological underpinnings of discourse that have become so naturalized over time that we begin to treat them as common, acceptable...


Eastern Rhetoric

Indian and Chinese Rhetoric


See also

Academic freedom is the freedom of teachers, students, and academic institutions to pursue knowledge wherever it may lead, without undue or unreasonable interference. ... Septem Artes Liberales (The Seven Liberal Arts) in Herrad of Landsbergs Hortus Deliciarum (The Garden of Delights). ... Casuistry is a broad term that refers to a variety of forms of case-based reasoning. ... Civic humanism was an intellectual movement of the Italian Renaissance that saw Cicero as the ideal, and held that humanists should be involved in government and use their rhetorical training in the service of the state. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... Demagogy (from Greek demos, people, and agogos, leading) refers to a political strategy for obtaining and gaining political power by appealing to the popular prejudices, fears, and expectations of the public — typically via impassioned rhetoric and propaganda, and often using nationalistic or populist themes. ... For other uses, see Dialogue (disambiguation). ... Elocution is proper speaking in pronunciation, grammar, style, and tone. ... A logical fallacy is an error in logical argument which is independent of the truth of the premises. ... Historical revisionism is often a legitimate effort in which historians seek to broaden the awareness of certain historical events by re-examining conventional wisdom. ... Intellectual dishonesty is the creation of misleading impressions through the use of rhetoric, logical fallacy, fraud, or misrepresented evidence. ... Monroes motivated sequence is a technique for organizing persuasive speeches that inspire people to take action. ... Newspeak is a fictional language in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... Look up orator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Oratory is the art of eloquent speech. ... Parallelism means to give two or more parts of the sentences a similar form so as to give the whole a definite pattern. ... For other uses, see Persuasion (disambiguation). ... Persuasion technology is technology that can be used for presenting or promoting a point of view. ... Individual rights Free speech, free press Soap box, Speakers corner (Hyde Park), blog (weblog) prior restraint, censorship, self-censorship, censor Right to assembly Gay rights, Stonewall Feminism, ERA, equal pay, Title IX Famous political dissenters Gandhi Steve Biko Nelson Mandela Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Political rhetoric, often just rhetoric, refers to political claims and statements that are hyperbole, with little substance. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... A modern day speaker addressing an audience through microphones Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. ... Rhetorical criticism is an approach to criticism which is at least as old as Aristotle. ... Aristotles definition of rhetoric, “The faculty of observing, in any given case, the available means of persuasion,” presupposes a distinction between an art (techne) of speech–making and a cognitively prior faculty of discovery. ... Rogerian argument is a conflict solving technique based on finding common ground in stead of polarising debate. ... Sophism can mean two very different things: In the modern definition, a sophism is a confusing or illogical argument used for deceiving someone. ... Technological nationalism is the belief that Canada’s existence as a sovereign, independent nation hinges on its use of communication technology. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Visual rhetoric is the fairly recent development of a theoretical framework describing how visual images communicate, as opposed to aural or verbal messages. ...

Related theory

This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... What is communication theory? Some have suggested that the very common practice of beginning a communication theory class with an attempt to define communication and theory is flawed pedagogy. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... A variety of different authors, theories and fields purport influences between language and thought. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Technical communication is the process of conveying usable information about a specific domain to an intended audience. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ...

Rhetorical remedies

In rhetoric an argument ad captandum, for capturing the gullibility of the naïve among the listeners or readers, is an unsound, specious argument, a kind of seductive casuistry. ... Allusion is a figure of speech, in which one refers covertly or indirectly to an object or circumstance that has occurred or existed in an external content. ... An anaptyxis is a type of phonetic or phonological change involving insertion of a vowel to ease pronunciation. ... Look up ambiguity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aphesis, Apheresis, Aphaeresis (from Greek apo- away, and hairein to take) is the removal of an initial, usually unstressed vowel or a syllable of a word. ... An aphorism (literally distinction or definition, from Greek αφοριζειν to define) expresses a general truth in a pithy sentence. ... An apologue (from the Greek: απολογος, a statement or account) is a brief fable or allegorical story with pointed or exaggerated details, meant to serve as a pleasant vehicle for some moral doctrine or to convey some useful lesson without explicitly stating it. ... Aposiopesis (from Classical Greek, ἀποσιώπησις, becoming silent) is the term for the rhetorical device by which the speaker or writer deliberately stops short and leaves something unexpressed, but yet obvious, to be supplied by the imagination, giving the impression that she is unwilling or unable to continue. ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... Atticism literally means favouring the Athenians. ... A brachyology is a figure of speech that is an abbreviated expression. ... The band Cacophony Cacophony - Sounding badly, antonym to harmony. ... Periphrasis is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is expressed by many or several words. ... Look up Climax in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up conceit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Eloquence (from Latin eloquentia) is fluent, forcible, elegant or persuasive speaking in public. ... An enthymeme is a syllogism (a three-part deductive argument) with an unstated assumption which must be true for the premises to lead to the conclusion. ... Ethos (ἦθος) (plurals: ethe, ethea) is a Greek word originally meaning the place of living that can be translated into English in different ways. ... Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetoric, or elocution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. ... Formal equivalence is a translation approach which attempts to retain the language forms of the original as much as possible in the translation, regardless of whether or not they are the most natural way to express the original meaning. ... Hendiadys (Greek for one through two) is a figure of speech used for emphasis. ... The hysteron proteron (latter before) is a rhetorical device in which the first key word of the idea refers to something that happens temporally later than the second key word. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ipsedixitism is the pejorative term for an unsupported rhetorical assertion; the term in Logic for a missing argument. ... In literature, a kenning is a compound poetic phrase, a figure of speech, substituted for the usual name of a person or thing. ... In the context of classical Greek rhetoric a topos (literally a place; plural: topoi) referred to a standardised method of constructing or treating an argument. ... A logical fallacy is an error in logical argument which is independent of the truth of the premises. ... In rhetoric, a merism is a figure of speech by which a single thing is referred to by a conventional phrase that enumerates several of its parts, or which lists several synonyms for the same thing. ... For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ... Negation (i. ... Overdetermination, the idea that a single observed effect is determined by multiple causes at once (any one of which alone might be enough to account for the effect), was originally a key concept of Sigmund Freuds psychoanalysis. ... // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... Look up Paraphrase in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A paraprosdokian is a figure of speech in which the latter part of a sentence or phrase is surprising or unexpected in a way that causes the reader or listener to reframe the first part. ... A pericope (pur-IC-op-ee) (Greek περικοπη, a cutting-out) in rhetoric is a set of verses which form one coherent unit or thought. ... Look up period in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Periphrasis is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is expressed by many or several words. ... A paralipsis or paraleipsis (from the Greek: leave aside) is a rhetorical figure or figure of speech in which one emphasises something by pretending not to mention it (also known as preterition). ... Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In rhetoric, a rhetorical device or resource of language is a technique that an author or speaker uses to evoke an emotional response in his audience (his reader(s) or listener(s)). These emotional responses are central to the meaning of the work or speech, and should also get the... A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetorical figure or device, or elocution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. ... Rhetoric, since Aristotle, is best known as a discipline that studies the means and ends of persuasion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Interlocked word order, in the form A-B-A-B; a favourite with Latin poets. ... Synesis is a grammatical term, also known as constructio ad sensum In Latin, a construction in which a word takes the gender or number, not of the word with which it should regularly agree, but of some other word implied in that word. ... In rhetoric, Synonymia (Greek: syn, alike + onoma, name) is the use of several synonyms together to amplify or explain a given subject or term. ... Look up tautology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tertium comparationis (Latin = the third [part] of the comparison) is the quality that two things which are being compared have in common. ... In linguistics, trope is a rhetorical figure of speech that consists of a play on words, i. ... A truism is a claim that is so obvious or self-evident as to be hardly worth mentioning, except as a reminder or as a rhetorical or literary device. ... This article is about Word play. ...

Related devices

A literary technique or literary device may be used in works of literature in order to produce a specific effect on the reader. ...

Examples of rhetoric

This is a list of speeches, that have gained notability. ... The following is a partial list of 19th and 20th-century political slogans in the English language. ...

References

Primary texts

The locus classicus for Greek and Latin primary texts on rhetoric is the Loeb Classical Library of the Harvard University Press, published with an English translation on the facing page. For other translations, see the references in each author's Wikipedia entry. The Loeb Classical Library is a series of books, today published by the Harvard University Press, which present important works of ancient Greek and Latin Literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...


Available online texts include:

Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, DÄ“mosthénÄ“s) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... Henry Peacham is the name shared by two English Renaissance writers who were father and son. ... George Puttenham (d. ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ... Thomas Wilson is the name of a number of different people: Thomas Wilson (Virginia) (1765–1826), U.S. Representative from Virginia Thomas Wilson (Minnesota) (1827–1910), U.S. Representative from Minnesota Thomas Webber Wilson (1893–1948), U.S. Representative from Mississippi Thomas Wilson (composer) (1927–2001), Scottish composer Thomas Wilson...

Notes

  1. ^ John S. Nelson, Allan Megill, and Donald N. McCloskey The Rhetoric of Human Sciences: Language and Argument in Scholarship and Public Affairs, London: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987
  2. ^ Theodora Polito, Educational Theory as Theory of Culture: A Vichian perspective on the educational theories of John Dewey and Kieran Egan Educational Philosophy and Theory, Vol. 37, No. 4, 2005
  3. ^ Deirdre N. McCloskey (1985) The Rhetoric of Economics [1] (Madison, University of Wisconsin Press).
  4. ^ Nelson, J. S. (1998) Tropes of Politics (Madison, University of Wisconsin Press).
  5. ^ Brown, R. H. (1987) Society as Text (Chicago, University of Chicago Press).
  6. ^ McLuhan's dissertation is scheduled to be published in a critical edition by Gingko Press in April of 2006 with the title The Classical Trivium: The Place of Thomas Nashe in the Learning of His Time.

Deirdre N. McCloskey (Born Donald N. McCloskey) (1942 - ) is an American economist and professor. ...

Rhetoric in the visual arts

  • Ralf van Bühren: Die Werke der Barmherzigkeit in der Kunst des 12.–18. Jahrhunderts. Zum Wandel eines Bildmotivs vor dem Hintergrund neuzeitlicher Rhetorikrezeption (Studien zur Kunstgeschichte, vol. 115), Hildesheim / Zürich / New York: Verlag Georg Olms 1998. ISBN 3-487-10319-2

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Aristotle's Rhetoric (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (7393 words)
Rhetoric and dialectic are concerned with things that do not belong to a definite genus or are not the object of a specific science.
The general idea seems to be this: Previous theorists of rhetoric gave most of their attention to methods outside the subject; they taught how to slander, how to arouse emotions in the audience, or how to distract the attention of the hearers from the subject.
However, in the rhetorical context there are two factors that the dialectician has to keep in mind if she wants to become a rhetorician too, and if the dialectical argument is to become a successful enthymeme.
Rhetoric - MSN Encarta (931 words)
The Greek philosopher Aristotle, in his work Rhetoric, defined the function of rhetoric as being, not that of persuasion, but rather that of “discovering all the available means of persuasion,” thereby emphasizing the winning of an argument by persuasive marshaling of truth, rather than the swaying of an audience by an appeal to their emotions.
The instructors in formal rhetoric in Rome were at first Greek, and the great masters of theoretical and practical rhetoric, Cicero and Quintilian, were both influenced by Greek models.
Rhetoric constituted one of the subjects of the trivium, or three preliminary subjects of the seven liberal arts taught at the universities, the other two being grammar and logic.
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