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Encyclopedia > Rhenium
75 tungstenrheniumosmium
Tc

Re

Bh
General
Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75
Chemical series transition metals
Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d
Appearance grayish white
Standard atomic weight 186.207(1) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 13, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 21.02 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 18.9 g·cm−3
Melting point 3459 K
(3186 °C, 5767 °F)
Boiling point 5869 K
(5596 °C, 10105 °F)
Heat of fusion 60.43 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 704 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 25.48 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 3303 3614 4009 4500 5127 5954
Atomic properties
Crystal structure hexagonal
Oxidation states 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.9 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 760 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1260 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2510 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 135 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 188 pm
Covalent radius 159 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering  ?
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 193 n Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 48.0 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 6.2 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 4700 m/s
Young's modulus 463 GPa
Shear modulus 178 GPa
Bulk modulus 370 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.30
Mohs hardness 7.0
Vickers hardness 2450 MPa
Brinell hardness 1320 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-15-5
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of rhenium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
185Re 37.4% Re is stable with 110 neutrons
187Re 62.6% 4.35×1010 y α 1.653 183Ta
β- 0.003 187Os
References

Rhenium (IPA: /ˈɹiːniəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Re and atomic number 75. A silvery-white, rare, heavy, polyvalent transition metal, rhenium resembles manganese chemically and is used in some alloys. Rhenium is obtained as a by-product of molybdenum refinement and rhenium-molybdenum alloys are superconducting. This was the last naturally-occurring element to be discovered and belongs to the ten most expensive metals on Earth (over US$ 4000.-/kg). General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Standard atomic weight 183. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x270, 30 KB) Image by Daniel Mayer or GreatPatton and released under terms of the GNU FDL File links The following pages link to this file: Rhenium User:Femto/elements e9 ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... A Group 7 element is an element in periodic table group 7 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table, which consists of: manganese (25) technetium (43) rhenium (75) bohrium (107) All of these elements are classed in Group 7 because their valence shell holds four electrons. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Rhenium sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (eg, a crystal). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... e- redirects here. ... [[Image:Valence shell 011 Sodiumup of one or more electron subshells, or sublevels, which have two or more orbitals with the same angular momentum quantum number l. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... Room temperature describes a certain temperature within enclosed space that is uses for various purposes by human beings. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It is used in the inorganic nomenclature of... Acidity redirects here. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with magnet. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... The speed of sound is a term used to describe the velocity of sound waves passing through an elastic medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A Vickers hardness tester The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s as an alternative method to measure the hardness of materials. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Rhenium (Re) Standard atomic mass: 186. ... Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV, or, rarely and incorrectly, ev) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Alpha decay Alpha decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atom emits an alpha particle (two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus) and transforms (or decays) into an atom with a mass number 4 less and atomic number 2... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element for short, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised by English analytical chemist John Newlands in 1863. ... It has been suggested that List of elements by atomic number be merged into this article or section. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... General Name, Symbol, Number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Rhenium is a silvery white metal, lustrous, and has one of the highest melting points of all elements, exceeded by only tungsten and carbon. It is also one of the most dense, exceeded only by platinum, iridium, and osmium. Rhenium has the widest range of oxidation states of any known element: -3,-1,+1,+2,+3,+4,+5,+6 and +7. The oxidation states +7,+6,+4,+2 and -1 are the most common. The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Standard atomic weight 183. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ...


Its usual commercial form is a powder, but this element can be consolidated by pressing and resistance-sintering in a vacuum or hydrogen atmosphere. This procedure yields a compact shape that is in excess of 90 percent of the density of the metal. When annealed this metal is very ductile and can be bent, coiled, or rolled. Rhenium-molybdenum alloys are superconductive at 10 K; tungsten-rhenium alloys are also superconductive, around 4-8 K depending on the alloy [1]. General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment wherein the microstructure of a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ...


Applications

This element is used in platinum-rhenium catalysts which in turn are primarily used in making lead-free, high-octane gasoline and in high-temperature superalloys that are used to make jet engine parts. Other uses: General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ...

... An ionization gauge, or ion gauge, is a manometer that is used to measure the negative pressure of vacuum, high vacuum, and ultra-high vacuum (UHV). ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Electrical switches. ... In materials science, wear is the erosion of material from a solid surface by the action of another solid. ... In electronics, thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor and can also be used as a means to convert thermal potential difference into electric potential difference. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or sensor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Standard atomic weight 10. ... Rhenium diboride (ReB2) is a synthetic superhard material of hardness comparable to diamond. ...

History

Rhenium (Latin Rhenus meaning "Rhine") was the last naturally occurring element to be discovered. The existence of a yet undiscovered element at this position in the periodic table had been predicted by Henry Moseley in 1914. It is generally considered to have been discovered by Walter Noddack, Ida Tacke, and Otto Berg in Germany. In 1925 they reported that they detected the element in platinum ore and in the mineral columbite. They also found rhenium in gadolinite and molybdenite. In 1928 they were able to extract 1 g of element by processing 660 kg of molybdenite. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Rhine (German: ; Dutch: ; French: ; Italian: ; Romansh: ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe at 1,320 kilometres (820 miles), with an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised by English analytical chemist John Newlands in 1863. ... Henry Moseley at work. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Walter Noddack (* 17 August 1893 in Berlin, 7 December 1960 in Berlin) was a German chemist. ... Ida Noddack Tacke (25 February 1896 in Wesel - 1978) was a German chemist and physicist. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... Ferrocolumbite, also called niobite, columbate and columbite [(Fe, Mn)(Nb, Ta)2O6] is a black mineral that is an ore of niobium and tantalum. ... Gadolinite is a mineral of a nearly black color and vitreous luster, and consisting principally of the silicates of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, yttrium, beryllium, and iron with formula: (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10. ... Molybdenite is a mineral of molybdenum disulfide, MoS2. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et...


The process was so complicated and the cost so high that production was discontinued until early 1950 when tungsten-rhenium and molybdenum-rhenium alloys were prepared. These alloys found important applications in industry that resulted in a great demand for the rhenium produced from the molybdenite fraction of porphyry copper ores. Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ...


In 1908, Japanese chemist Masataka Ogawa announced that he discovered the 43rd element, and named it nipponium (Np) after Japan (which is Nippon in Japanese). However, later analysis indicated the presence of rhenium (element 75), not element 43. The symbol Np was later used for the element neptunium. 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass (237) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ...


Occurrence

Rhenium is not found free in nature, and it was only recently that the first rhenium mineral was found. In 1994, Nature published a letter describing a rhenium sulfide mineral found condensing from a fumarole on Russia's Kudriavy volcano.[2] This is not an economically viable source of the element. Rhenium is widely spread through the Earth's crust at approximately 1 ppb. Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Strictly, a mineral that is a sulfide. ... Sulfur deposits near a fumarole A fumarole (Latin fumus, smoke) is an opening in Earths (or any other astronomical bodys) crust, often in the neighborhood of volcanoes, which emit steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, and hydrogen sulfide. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The parts-per notations are used to denote low concentrations of chemical elements. ...


Commercial rhenium is extracted from molybdenum roaster-flue gas obtained from copper-sulfide ores. Some molybdenum ores contain 0.002% to 0.2% rhenium. Total world production is between 40 and 50 tons/year; the main producers are in Chile, USA and Kazakhstan. Recycling of used Pt-Re catalyst and special alloys allow the recovery of another 10 tons/year. General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ...


The metal form is prepared by reducing ammonium perrhenate with hydrogen at high temperatures. Ammonium Perrhenate (APR) is a salt of Rhenium, NH4ReO4. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ...


Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of rhenium

Naturally occurring rhenium is 37.4% 185Re, which is stable, and 62.6% 187Re, which is unstable but has a very long half-life. There are twenty-six other unstable isotopes recognized. Rhenium (Re) Standard atomic mass: 186. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized of excess energy which is available to be imparted either to a newly-created radiation particle within the nucleus, or else to an atomic electron (see internal conversion) . The radionuclide, in this process, undergoes radioactive decay... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ...


Precautions

Little is known about rhenium toxicity so it should be handled with care.


See also

  • Rhenium compounds

References

  1. ^ Inman, M. (20 April 2007) 'Super-tough material mimics metal and crystal', NewScientist.com news service
  2. ^ Korzhinsky, M.A.; S. I. Tkachenko, K. I. Shmulovich, Y. A. Taran & G. S. Steinberg (2004-05-05). "Discovery of a pure rhenium mineral at Kudriavy volcano". Nature 369: 51–­­­52. DOI:10.1038/369051a0. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. 

April 20 is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
C&EN: IT'S ELEMENTAL: THE PERIODIC TABLE - RHENIUM (633 words)
Rhenium, element 75 on the periodic table, belongs to the cluster of elements known as the transition group of elements.
Because of rhenium's high resistance to poisoning from nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus, rhenium catalysts are used for the hydrogenation of fine chemicals and the disproportionation of alkenes.
Rhenium catalysts are exceptionally resistant to poisoning from nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and are used for the hydrogenation of fine chemicals, hydrocracking, reforming, and the disproportionation of alkenes.
Re - Rhenium (155 words)
Rhenium does not occur free in nature or as a compound in a distinct mineral species.It is, however, widely spread throughout the earth's crust to the extent of about 0.001ppm.
Commercial rhenium in the U.S. today is obtained from molybdenum roaster-flue dustsobtained from copper-sulfide ores mined in the vicinity of Miami, Arizona, and elsewherein Arizona and Utah.
Rhenium metal is prepared by reducing ammoniumperrhentate with hydrogen at elevated temperatures.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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