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Encyclopedia > Rheged
Entrance to the Rheged Discovery Centre
Entrance to the Rheged Discovery Centre

Rheged was a Brythonic nation of Sub-Roman Britain, where the natives spoke Cumbric. It was situated in what is now north-western England, possibly extending into south-western Scotland. Almost nothing is known about the place, except that it was the homeland of the warrior monarch, Urien (in Latin, Urbgenius), as recorded in early Welsh poetry. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 400 KB) Entrance to the Rheged Discovery Centre at grid reference NY498283 about 3 km south west of Penrith, Cumbria. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 400 KB) Entrance to the Rheged Discovery Centre at grid reference NY498283 about 3 km south west of Penrith, Cumbria. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of the most of the island of Great Britain, and their culture and language, the Brythonic languages. ... Sub-Roman Britain is a term derived from an archaeologists label for the culture of Britain in Late Antiquity. ... Evolution and Extinction Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language spoken in much of Cumbria, Northern Northumbria, and parts of lowland Scotland until about the 11th century. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages None official English de facto Capital None official London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... Urien, father of Owain mab Urien, was a historical king of Rheged in northern England and southern Scotland during the 6th century. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...

Contents


Location

The name Rheged appears regularly as an epithet of a certain Urien in a number of early Welsh poems and Royal genealogies. His victories over the Anglian chieftains of Bernicia in the second half of the sixth century, are recorded by Nennius and celebrated by the bard Taliesin who calls him 'Ruler of Rheged'. He is thus placed squarely in the North of Britain and more specifically in Westmorland when referred to as 'Ruler of Llwyfenydd' (the Lyvennet Valley). Later legend is very strong in associating Urien with the city of Carlisle, only twenty-five miles away and Higham suggests that Rheged was "broadly conterminous with the earlier Civitas Carvetiorum", the Roman administrative unit based around that city. Although Rheged could just be a mere stronghold, it was not uncommon for sub-Roman monarchs to use their kingdom's name as an epithet and generally, it is accepted as a kingdom covering a large part of modern Cumbria. An epithet (Greek - επιθετον and Latin - epitheton; literally meaning imposed) is a descriptive word or phrase. ... Urien, father of Owain mab Urien, was a historical king of Rheged in northern England and southern Scotland during the 6th century. ... The Angles (German: Angeln, Old English: Englas, Latin: singular Anglus, plural Angli) were a Germanic people who take their name from Angeln in Schleswig, and who settled eastern Britain in the early middle ages. ... Bernicia (Brythonic, Brynaich or Bryneich) was a kingdom of the Angles in northern England during the 6th and 7th centuries AD. It later merged with the kingdom of Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Nennius, or Nemnivus, is the name of two shadowy personages traditionally associated with the history of Wales. ... For the studio established by Frank Lloyd Wright, see Taliesin (studio) Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... Westmorland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... Carlisle is a city in the extreme northwest of England, some 16 km from the border with Scotland. ... Cumbria is a county in the North West region of England. ...


Place-name evidence from Dunragit (possibly 'Fort of Rheged') suggests that, at least during one period of its history, Rheged extended into Dumfries and Galloway. Less reliable interpretations suggest that it could have also reached as far south as Rochdale (supposedly 'Rheged Valley'). Urien's kingdom certainly stretched a long way eastward at one time, he was also 'Ruler of Catraeth' - Catterick in North Yorkshire. Toponymy is the taxonomic study of toponyms (place-names), their origins and their meanings. ... Dunragit is a village on the A75, between Stranraer and Glenluce in Dumfries and Galloway (previously Wigtownshire) in south-west Scotland. ... Dumfries and Galloway (Dùn Phris agus Gall-Ghaidhealaibh in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland. ... The Rochdale war memorial Rochdale is a town in Greater Manchester in north-west England, within the traditional borders of Lancashire. ... Map sources for Catterick, North Yorkshire at grid reference SE2497 The village dates back to Roman times, when Cataractonium was a Roman fort protecting the crossing of the Great North Road over the River Swale. ... Bolton Abbey North Yorkshire is a Shire county within the region of Yorkshire and the Humber in England. ...


Kings of Rheged

The traditional Royal genealogy of Urien and his successors traces their ancestry back to Coel Hen (alias Old King Cole), who may have ruled much of the North in the early 5th century. It is generally assumed that all of those listed ruled in Rheged, but only three of their number can be verified from external sources: For other uses, see King Cole (disambiguation). ... // Overview Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths 452: Pope Leo I allegedly meets personally with Attila the Hun and convinces him not to sack Rome 439: Vandals conquer Carthage At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. ...

  • Cynfarch Oer - who gave his name to the family tribe, father of
  • Urien Rheged - as above, father of
  • Owain - also celebrated for having fought the Bernicians

Urien, father of Owain mab Urien, was a historical king of Rheged in northern England and southern Scotland during the 6th century. ... Owain mab Urien (or Owein) (d. ...

Southern Rheged

A second Royal genealogy exists for a line, perhaps of Kings, descended from Cynfarch Oer's brother, a certain Elidir Lydanwyn. According to early Welsh poetry, Elidir's son, Llywarch Hen, was certainly of landed status and was driven from his territory by princely in-fighting after Urien's death. He is later associated with Powys. Llywarch Hen or Llywarch the Old was a 6th century prince of the Cumbric House of Rheged, a ruling family in Y Gogledd Hen or The Old North (modern Northern England). ... Medeival kingdoms of Wales. ...


Searching for Llywarch's kingdom has led some historians to suggest that, as was common in later Brythonic kingdoms, Rheged may well have been divided between sons into North and South. A southern kingdom based on Ribchester would neatly fill a gap where no sub-Roman kingdom is otherwise known. However appealing, this is pure speculation. Map sources for Ribchester at grid reference SD649353 Ribchester is a village in Lancashire, England near the towns of Blackburn and Preston. ...


The Irish in Rheged

There is considerable evidence for an Irish presence in Rheged. It is known that Irish Christian missionaries were active in sub-Roman Cumbria (although the region was at least nominally Christian even in Roman times), as indicated by several early church dedications to St. Columba. There were likely Irish traders, pirates and settlers unconnected with the church as well. A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the New Testament. ...


The End of Rheged

Following Bernicia's union with Deira to become the kingdom of Northumbria, Rheged itself was annexed by Northumbria, at some time before AD 730. There was a Royal marriage between Prince (later King) Oswiu of Northumbria and a Rhegedian princess, probably in 638, so it is possible that it was a peaceful take over. Italic textBold text --203. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the much smaller earldom which succeeded the... Events Emperor Leo III of the Byzantine Empire orders the destruction of all icons. ... Oswiu (612–February 15, 670), also written as Oswio, Oswy, and Osuiu was an Anglo-Saxon Bretwalda. ... Events Islamic calendar introduced The Muslims capture Antioch, Caesarea Palaestina and Akko Births Deaths October 12 - Pope Honorius I Categories: 638 ...


After the incorporation of Rheged into Northumbria the old Cumbric language was gradually replaced by Old English with the former tongue surviving only amongst remote upland communities. The name of the Cymry has, however, survived in the name of Cumberland and now Cumbria. Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the much smaller earldom which succeeded the... Evolution and Extinction Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language spoken in much of Cumbria, Northern Northumbria, and parts of lowland Scotland until about the 11th century. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The Welsh are an ethnic group associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... Cumbria is a county in the North West region of England. ...


Rheged Remembered

The name Rheged has today been adopted by the Rheged Discovery Centre close to Penrith in Cumbria (previously Cumberland). The centre, apart from having a number of retail outlets, boasts the largest turf roof in Europe and a giant cinema screen that shows films including one about the history of Rheged. Penrith is a market town in the county of Cumbria (historically Cumberland), England. ... Cumbria is a county in the North West region of England. ... Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ...


References

  • Bartrum, PC (1966) Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts
  • Ellis, Peter Beresford (1993) Celt and Saxon
  • Higham, Nick (1986) The Northern Counties to AD 1000
  • Marsden, John (1992) Northanhymbre Saga
  • Morris, John (1973) The Age of Arthur
  • Morris-Jones, John (1918) Y Commrodor 28
  • Williams, Ifor (1935) Canu Llywarch Hen
  • Williams, Ifor (1960) Canu Taliesin

Sir Ifor Williams (April 16, 1881 - November 4, 1965) was a Welsh scholar who laid the foundations for the academic study of Old Welsh, particularly early Welsh poetry. ... Sir Ifor Williams (April 16, 1881 - November 4, 1965) was a Welsh scholar who laid the foundations for the academic study of Old Welsh, particularly early Welsh poetry. ...

External Links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rheged - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (704 words)
Rheged was a Brythonic nation of Sub-Roman Britain, where the natives spoke Cumbric.
The name Rheged appears regularly as an epithet of a certain Urien in a number of early Welsh poems and Royal genealogies.
Although Rheged could just be a mere stronghold, it was not uncommon for sub-Roman monarchs to use their kingdom's name as an epithet and generally, it is accepted as a kingdom covering a large part of modern Cumbria.
Rheged - definition of Rheged in Encyclopedia (378 words)
Rheged royal genealogies trace later kings back to Coel Hen (Old King Cole), who appears to have ruled in the early 5th century.
The victories of its kings Urien Rheged, and his son Owen mab Urien, over the chieftains of Bernicia in the second half of the sixth century, were celebrated by the bard Taliesin.
The language of the Rheged ruling classes, and quite likely of the majority of the population, was a Brythonic language somewhat similar to Welsh.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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