FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Rhapsody in Blue
Cover of the original sheet music of the two piano version of Rhapsody in Blue.
Cover of the original sheet music of the two piano version of Rhapsody in Blue.

Rhapsody in Blue is a musical composition by George Gershwin for solo piano and jazz band written in 1924, which combines elements of classical music with jazz-influenced effects. The composition was orchestrated by Ferde Grofé three times, in 1924, in 1926, and finally in 1942. The piece received its premiere in a concert entitled An Experiment in Modern Music, which was held on 12 February 1924, in Aeolian Hall, New York, by Paul Whiteman and his band with Gershwin playing the piano. In the version for piano and symphony orchestra made by Ferde Grofé in 1942, it has become one of the most popular American concert works. Image File history File links Rhapsody_in_Blue_cover. ... Image File history File links Rhapsody_in_Blue_cover. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States around the start of the 20th century. ... For the use of the term orchestration in computer science, see orchestration (computers) Orchestration or arrangement is the study and practice of arranging music for an orchestra or musical ensemble. ... Ferde Grofé in 1921 as pianist with Paul Whitemans orchestra. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Aeolian Hall was a concert hall near Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, New York City located on the third floor of 29-33 West 42nd Street (also 34 West 43rd Street, from the other side) across the street from Bryant Park. ... NY redirects here. ... 1928 Columbia Records label with caricature of Paul Whiteman Paul Whiteman (March 28, 1890 – December 29, 1967) was a popular american orchestral leader. ... Ferde Grofé in 1921 as pianist with Paul Whitemans orchestra. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ...


As the most famous classical composition by Gershwin, it established his reputation as a serious composer.[1] This is a list of compositions by George Gershwin. ...

Contents

History

Commission

After the success of an experimental classical-jazz concert held with French-Canadian singer Eva Gauthier at Aeolian Hall on 1 November 1923, band leader Paul Whiteman decided to attempt something more ambitious.[2] He asked Gershwin to contribute a concerto-like piece for an all-jazz concert he would give in Aeolian Hall in February 1924. Whiteman became interested in featuring such an extended composition by Gershwin in the concert after he had collaborated with Gershwin in the Scandals of 1922, impressed by the original performance of the one-act opera Blue Monday, which was a commercial failure. Gershwin was not enthusiastic as his musical Sweet Little Devil was due to open in New York on 21 January and there was to be a tryout in Boston on 7 January. There would certainly be call for revisions to the score and he felt that he would not have enough time to compose the new piece.[3] Aeolian Hall was a concert hall near Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, New York City located at 29-33 West 42nd Street across the street from Bryant Park. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1928 Columbia Records label with caricature of Paul Whiteman Paul Whiteman (March 28, 1890 – December 29, 1967) was a popular american orchestral leader. ... The term concerto (plural is concerti or concertos) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... George Whites Scandals were a long-running string of Broadway revues that ran from 1911-1939, modelled after the Ziegfeld Follies. ... Blue Monday (Opera A la Afro-American) was the original name of a one-act Jazz opera by George Gershwin, renamed 135th Street during a later production. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ...


Late on the evening of 3 January, at the Ambassador Billiard Parlor at Broadway and 52nd Street in Manhattan, while George Gershwin and Buddy De Sylva were playing billiards, his brother Ira Gershwin was reading the 4 January edition of the New York Tribune.[3][4] An article entitled "What Is American Music?" about the Whiteman concert caught his attention, in which the final paragraph claimed that "George Gershwin is at work on a jazz concerto, Irving Berlin is writing a syncopated tone poem and Victor Herbert is working on an American suite." January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A view of Broadway in 1909 Broadway, as the name implies, is a wide avenue in New York City. ... 52nd Street, properly West 52nd Street, is a cross street in Manhattan in the Broadway district known as the street of jazz, the street that never sleeps or, simply, the street. The blocks of 52nd Street between 5th and 6th avenues were renowned in the mid 20th century for the... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, USA, coterminous with New York County. ... Buddy Gard DeSylva, often credited as Buddy De Sylva, Buddy DeSylva, Bud De Sylva and B.G. DeSylva (January 27, 1895 - July 11, 1950), He was born George Gard DeSylva in New York, New York, USA, but grew up in California and attended the University of Southern California. ... This article is about the various cue sports. ... Ira Gershwin (6 December 1896 – 17 August 1983) was an American lyricist who collaborated with his younger brother, composer George Gershwin, to create some of the most memorable songs of the 20th century. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Tribune building - today the site of Pace Universitys building complex of One Pace Plaza in New York City The New York Tribune was established by Horace Greeley in 1841 and was long considered one of the leading newspapers in the United States. ... Irving Berlin (May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was an American composer and lyricist, one of the most prodigious and famous American songwriters in history. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... Victor August Herbert (February 1, 1859–May 26, 1924) was a popular composer of light opera. ...


In a phone call to Whiteman next morning, Gershwin was told that Whiteman's rival Vincent Lopez was planning to steal the idea of his experimental concert and there was no time to lose.[5] Gershwin was finally persuaded to compose the piece. Vincent Lopez (30 December 1895 - 20 September 1975) was a United States bandleader and pianist. ...


Composition

Since there were only five weeks left, Gershwin hastily set about composing a piece, and on the train journey to Boston, the ideas of Rhapsody in Blue came to his mind. He told his first biographer Isaac Goldberg in 1931: Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Isaac Goldberg (1887-July 14, 1938) was an American journalist, author, critic, translator, editor, publisher, and lecturer. ...

It was on the train, with its steely rhythms, its rattle-ty bang, that is so often so stimulating to a composer – I frequently hear music in the very heart of the noise... And there I suddenly heard, and even saw on paper – the complete construction of the Rhapsody, from beginning to end. No new themes came to me, but I worked on the thematic material already in my mind and tried to conceive the composition as a whole. I heard it as a sort of musical kaleidoscope of America, of our vast melting pot, of our unduplicated national pep, of our blues, our metropolitan madness. By the time I reached Boston I had a definite plot of the piece, as distinguished from its actual substance.[6][7]

Gershwin began his work on 7 January as dated on the original manuscript for two piano.[2] After a few weeks, Gershwin finished his composition and passed the score to Whiteman's arranger Ferde Grofé, who orchestrated the piece, finishing it on 4 February, only eight days before the premiere.[8] January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ferde Grofé in 1921 as pianist with Paul Whitemans orchestra. ... Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed for another medium. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Premiere

Rhapsody in Blue premiered in an afternoon concert on 12 February 1924 held by Paul Whiteman and his band Palais Royal Orchestra entitled An Experiment in Modern Music, which took place in Aeolian Hall in New York City.[9] The event has since become historic specifically because of its premiere of the Rhapsody. February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Aeolian Hall was a concert hall near Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, New York City located on the third floor of 29-33 West 42nd Street (also 34 West 43rd Street, from the other side) across the street from Bryant Park. ... New York, NY redirects here. ...


The purpose of the experiment, as told by Whiteman in a pre-concert lecture in front of many classical music critics and highbrows, was "to be purely educational." It would "at least provide a stepping stone which will make it very simple for the masses to understand and therefore enjoy symphony and opera." The program was long, including 26 separate musical movements divided into 2 parts and 11 sections, bearing titles such as "True form of jazz" and "Contrast: legitimate scoring vs. jazzing". Gershwin's latest composition was the second last piece (before Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1).[10] As many of the numbers sounded similar and the ventilation system was broken, the audience was losing their patience, until the clarinet glissando which opened Rhapsody in Blue was heard.[11] The piece was a huge popular success, and remains popular to this day. Sir Edward Elgar Sir Edward Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 â€“ 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ... The Pomp and Circumstance Marches, op. ...


The Rhapsody was performed by Whiteman's band with an added section of string players, and George Gershwin on piano. Gershwin decided to keep his options open as to when Whiteman would bring in the orchestra and he did not write out one of the pages for solo piano, with only the words "Wait for nod" scrawled by Grofé on the band score. Gershwin improvised some of what he was playing. As he did not write out the piano part until after the performance, we do not know exactly how the original Rhapsody sounded.


Responses

The piece received mixed reviews from mainstream critics. Olin Downes, reviewing the concert in The New York Times: Olin Downes (Edwin) (January 27, 1886–August 22, 1955) was a significant U.S. music critic. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ...

This composition shows extraordinary talent, as it shows a young composer with aims that go far beyond those of his ilk, struggling with a form of which he is far from being master... In spite of all this he has expressed himself in a significant and, on the whole, highly original form.... His first theme... is no mere dance-tune... it is an idea, or several ideas, correlated and combined in varying and contrasting rhythms that immediately intrigue the listener. The second theme is more after the manner of some of Mr. Gershwin's colleague. Tuttis are too long, cadenzas are too long, the peroration at the end loses a large measure of wildness and magnificence it could easily have had if it were more broadly prepared, and, for all that, the audience was stirred and many a hardened concertgoer excited with the sensation of a new talent finding its voice... There was tumultuous applause for Gershwin's composition.[12]

But other critics, and some concertgoers, gave it a tepid response, believing it nothing more than "Negro music"[citation needed]. Another reviewer, Lawrence Gilman, a Richard Wagner specialist who later wrote a famously devastating review of Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, commenting on the Rhapsody in the New York Tribune on 13 February 1924, said: Lawrence Gilman (born July 5, 1878 in Flushing, New York; died September 8, 1939 in Sugar Hill, New Hampshire) was a U.S. author music critic. ... Wagner may refer to more than one place in the United States: Wagner, South Dakota Wagner, Wisconsin Wagner may refer to more than one person: Richard Wagner, German composer Cosima Wagner, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of Richard Wagner Heinrich Leopold Wagner, dramatist and author John Peter Honus Wagner... The cast of Porgy and Bess during the Boston try-out prior to the Broadway opening. ... The New York Tribune building - today the site of Pace Universitys building complex of One Pace Plaza in New York City The New York Tribune was established by Horace Greeley in 1841 and was long considered one of the leading newspapers in the United States. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

How trite and feeble and conventional the tunes are; how sentimental and vapid the harmonic treatment, under its disguise of fussy and futile counterpoint! ... Weep over the lifelessness of the melody and harmony, so derivative, so stale, so inexpressive![13]

Some critics described the piece as formless, and claimed that Gershwin only glued his melodic segments together into one piece. Pitts Sanborn wrote that the music "runs off into empty passage-work and meaningless repetition".[14] In an article in Atlantic Monthly in 1955, Leonard Bernstein, who nevertheless admitted that he loved the piece, wrote: Pitts Sanborn (1879-1941) was music critic for The New York Globe and then the New York World Telegram. ... The Atlantic Monthly (also known as The Atlantic) is an American literary/cultural magazine that was founded in November 1857. ... Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ...

The Rhapsody is not a composition at all. It's a string of separate paragraphs stuck together. The themes are terrific – inspired, God-given. I don't think there has been such an inspired melodist on this earth since Tchaikovsky. But if you want to speak of a composer, that's another matter. Your Rhapsody in Blue is not a real composition in the sense that whatever happens in it must seem inevitable. You can cut parts of it without affecting the whole. You can remove any of these stuck-together sections and the piece still goes on as bravely as before. It can be a five-minute piece or a twelve-minute piece. And in fact all these things are being done to it every day. And it's still the Rhapsody in Blue.[14] Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October...

Whether or not Rhapsody in Blue is “jazz” remains a much-debated topic. It should be noted that Whiteman styled himself "The King of Jazz". This appellation, applied to Whiteman's band of all-white musicians playing from written arrangements, would be questioned today, but in the 1920s the word jazz was used loosely to cover a broad range of contemporary popular music. Gilbert Seldes, in his book The Seven Lively Arts, was one of the first books to treat popular culture in a serious way, and "jazz" was starting to be seen as a significant American contribution to musical culture. Whiteman undertook to present what for the most part was an ordinary set of dance-band numbers in a concert hall under the trappings of high culture. Gilbert Vivian Seldes (January 3, 1893 – September 29, 1970) was an American writer and cultural critic. ... Popular culture, sometimes called pop culture, (literally: the culture of the people) consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Due to Whiteman’s advertisement of the concert at Aeolian Hall and the orchestration for primarily wind instruments, the audience was predisposed to listen to the piece as a jazz work. Critics have voiced widely varying opinions on where Rhapsody fits into the jazz canon. Thirty years after its premiere, William Grossman and Jack Farrell denounced the entire Aeolian concert, including Rhapsody in Blue, saying the "clumsily syncopated ‘jazz’ was gradually replaced with ponderous pseudosymphonic harmonies played over dance rhythms, culminating in the concert rendition of Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue, one of the most ludicrous of the popular attempts during the 1920s to merge jazz and ‘serious’ music.” But critic Deems Taylor voiced the opinion that the Rhapsody was “genuine jazz music, not only in its scoring but in its idiom,” and Osgood claimed that Gershwin was able to “take the elements of jazz and employ them with a distinct degree of success in forms of composition higher and larger than popular songs and musical comedy.”[15] Deems Taylor (born Joseph Taylor) (1885 - 1966) was a U.S. composer and music critic. ...


Music

Analysis

? This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the talk page for details.

Paul Whiteman asked Gershwin to write a “jazz concerto” which became the Rhapsody in Blue. Like a concerto, the piece is written for solo piano with orchestra. A rhapsody differs from a concerto in that it features one extended movement instead of separate movements. Rhapsodies often incorporate passages of a quasi-improvisatory nature (although written out in a score) and are irregular in form, with heightened contrasts and emotional exuberance. Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue certainly has large contrasts in musical texture, style, and color. The music ranges from intensely rhythmic piano solos to slow, broad, and richly orchestrated sections. Image File history File links Circle-question. ... 1928 Columbia Records label with caricature of Paul Whiteman Paul Whiteman (March 28, 1890 – December 29, 1967) was a popular american orchestral leader. ... The term concerto (plural is concerti or concertos) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... A rhapsody in music is a one-movement work that is episodic yet integrated, free-flowing in structure, featuring a range of highly contrasted moods, color and tonality. ...


Rhapsody in Blue displays Gershwin’s gifts of rhythmic invention and melodic inspiration, as well as his ability to write a piece with large-scale harmonic and melodic structure. The piece is characterized by strong motivic interrelatedness. Much of the motivic material is introduced in the first 14 measures. David Schiff identifies five major themes plus a sixth “tag.”[16] Of these, two appear in the first 14 measures, and the tag shows up in measure 19. Two of the remaining three themes are rhythmically related to the very first theme in measure 2, which is sometimes called the Glissando theme (after the opening glissando in the clarinet solo) or the Ritornello theme. The remaining is the Train theme which is the first to appear (at rehearsal 9) after the opening material. All of the themes rely on the blues scale, which includes lowered sevenths and a mixture of major and minor thirds. Each theme appears both in orchestrated form and as a piano solo. There are considerable differences in the style of presentation of each theme. A pentatonic scale is a musical scale with five pitches per octave. ...


The harmonic structure of Rhapsody is more difficult to analyze. The piece begins and ends in B flat, but it modulates away in the sub-dominant direction very early on and returns to B flat at the end rather abruptly. The opening modulates "downward," as it were, through the keys B flat, E flat, A flat, D flat, G flat, B, E, and finally to A major. Modulation through the circle of fifths in the reverse direction inverts classical tonal relationships but does not abandon them. The entire middle section resides primarily in C major, with forays into G major (the dominant relation). Modulations occur freely and easily, though not always with harmonic direction. Gershwin frequently uses a recursive harmonic progression of minor thirds to give the illusion of motion when in fact a passage does not change key from beginning to end. Modulation by thirds was a common element of Tin Pan Alley music. Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Tin Pan Alley was the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. ...


The influences of jazz and other contemporary styles are certainly present in "Rhapsody in Blue." Ragtime rhythms are abundant, as is the Cuban "clave" rhythm, which doubles as a dance rhythm in the Charleston jazz dance.[15]


Gershwin’s own intentions were to correct the belief that jazz had to be played strictly in time so it could be danced to.[16] The "Rhapsody’s" tempos vary widely, and there is an almost extreme use of rubato in many places throughout. The clearest influence of jazz is the use of blue notes, and the exploration of their half-step relationship plays a key role in the Rhapsody.[15] The use of so-called "vernacular" instruments such as accordion, banjo, and saxophones in the orchestra contribute to its jazz or popular style, and the latter two of these instruments have remained part of Grofe's "standard" orchestra scoring. Gershwin incorporated several different piano styles into the work. He utilized the techniques of stride piano, novelty piano, comic piano, and the song-plugger piano style. Stride piano’s rhythmic and improvisational style is evident in the "agitato e misterioso" section which begins four bars after rehearsal 33 as well as in other sections, many of which include the orchestra. Novelty piano can be heard at rehearsal 9 with the revelation of the Train theme. The hesitations and light-hearted style of comic piano, a vaudeville approach to piano made well-known by Chico Marx and Jimmy Durante, are evident at rehearsal 22.[16] This article will be merged with Italian musical terms at some point in the near future. ... In jazz and blues notes added to the major scale for expressive quality, loosely defined by musicians to be an alteration to a scale or chord that makes it sound like the blues. ... This article is about the instrument as a whole. ... For other uses, see Banjo (disambiguation) The banjo is a stringed instrument of African American origin adapted from several African instruments. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored instrument of the woodwind family, usually made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece like the clarinet. ... Stride is a type of piano playing, used primarily in jazz. ... The sheet music for Dizzy Fingers by Zez Confrey, one of the most popular of the novelty piano composers. ...


Orchestration

Gershwin had agreed that Ferde Grofé, Whiteman's pianist and chief arranger, was the key figure in enabling the piece to be successful, and critics have praised the orchestral colour. Grofé confirmed in 1938 that Gershwin did not have sufficient knowledge of orchestration in 1924.[17] After the premiere, Grofé took the score and made new orchestrations in 1926 and 1942, each time for larger orchestras.[18] Up until 1976, when Michael Tilson Thomas recorded the original jazz band version for the very first time, the 1942 version was the arrangement usually performed and recorded. Ferde Grofé in 1921 as pianist with Paul Whitemans orchestra. ... Michael Tilson Thomas (born December 21, 1944), nicknamed MTT, is an American conductor, pianist and composer. ...


The 1924 orchestration for Whiteman's band of 23 musicians (plus violins) calls for the following:

Many musicians, especially the reeds, played two or more instruments; the reed "doublings" were especially calculated to take advantage of the full panoply of instruments available in that section of Whiteman's band. Indeed, Grofé's familiarity with the Whiteman band's strengths are a key factor in the scoring. This original version, with its unique instrumental requirements, had lain dormant until its revival in reconstructions beginning in the mid-1980s, owing to the popularity and serviceability of the later scorings, described below. The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... A bass clarinet, which sounds an octave lower than the more common Bb soprano clarinet. ... Eâ™­ clarinet with Oehler system keywork. ... The alto clarinet is a wind instrument of the clarinet family. ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... Heckelphone The heckelphone is a musical instrument invented by Wilhelm Heckel and his sons, introduced in 1904. ... Saxophones of different sizes play in different registers. ... An E-flat sopranino saxophone (right). ... The soprano saxophone is a variety of the saxophone, a woodwind instrument. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Yanagisawa tenor sax. ... The baritone saxophone is one of the larger and lower pitched members of the saxophone family. ... The horn (popularly known also as the French horn) is a brass instrument decended from the natural horn that consists of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... Trumpets in the Bible According to Eastons Bible Dictionary, trumpets in the Bible were of a great variety of forms and were made of various materials. ... A standard 3-valved Bb flugelhorn. ... The euphonium is a conical-bore, tenor-voiced brass instrument. ... Never look at the trombones. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The tuba is one of the largest of low-brass instruments and is one of the most recent additions to the modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century, when it largely replaced the ophicleide. ... The piano Piano is a common abbreviation for pianoforte, a large musical instrument with a keyboard (see keyboard instrument). ... French type, four-octave Celesta The Celesta (IPA ) is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard. ... For other uses, see Banjo (disambiguation) The banjo is a stringed instrument of African American origin adapted from several African instruments. ... For other kinds of drums, see drum (disambiguation). ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... A drum kit (or drum set or trap set) is mostly a collection of drums, cymbals and sometimes other percussion instruments arranged for convenient playing by a single drummer. ... The violin is a stringed musical instrument that has four strings tuned a fifth apart. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... This article is about the instrument as a whole. ...


The 1942 orchestration is an adaptation of the original for the standard symphony orchestra (as listed in the score): 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 B-flat clarinets (both doubling A clarinets) and bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 3 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, percussion (including crash cymbal, snare drum, bass drum, gong, triangle, bells and cymbals, and timpani), solo piano, 2 alto saxophones, tenor saxophone, banjo, and strings (first and second violins, viola, violoncello and bass).[20] Bassoon Playing range of a bassoon The bassoon is the tenor member of the woodwind family. ... A crash cymbal is a type of cymbal that produces a loud, sharp, but comparatively short-duration crash used mainly as an occasional accent effect. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) strethced across the bottom head. ... A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ... A gong is any one of a wide variety of metal percussion instruments. ... A triangle is one of the basic shapes of geometry: a polygon with three vertices and three sides which are straight line segments. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... It is also possible that you want to know about the Cymbalum instrument. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... The violin is a stringed musical instrument that has four strings tuned a fifth apart. ... The viola (in French, alto; in German Bratsche) is a string instrument played with a bow. ... Alternate meaning: Cello web browser A cropped image to show the relative size of a cello to a human (Uncropped Version) The cello (also violoncello or cello) is a stringed instrument and part of the violin family. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...


The 1942 version is based on the 1926 arrangement for a "pit" orchestra, differing from its successor in the number of woodwinds and brass only: a single flute, oboe and bassoon, only two horns, two trumpets and one trombone.[19] The prominence of the saxophones in the later orchestrations is somewhat reduced, and the banjo part can be dispensed with as its mainly rhythmic contribution is provided by the inner strings.


Recordings

Two audio recordings exist of Gershwin performing an abridged version of the work with Whiteman's orchestra: an acoustic recording made in June 1924, and an electrical recording made in April 1927, the latter of which was actually conducted by Nathaniel Shilkret after an argument between Gershwin and Whiteman[21] A 1925 piano roll captured Gershwin's performance in a two piano version.[22] Whiteman's orchestra also performed the piece in the 1930 film The King of Jazz featuring Roy Bargy on piano. Nathaniel Shilkret (1889-1992) was an American composer and conductor. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... The King of Jazz premiered on April 20, 1930, starring Paul Whiteman and his orchestra. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Since the mid-20th century, the 1942 version has usually been performed by classical orchestras playing the expanded arrangement. In this form, it has become a staple of the concert repertoire. It has direct popular appeal while also being regarded respectfully by classical musicians. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


In the late 1970s, interest in the original arrangement was revived. Reconstructions of it have been recorded by Michael Tilson Thomas and the Columbia Jazz Band in 1976, and by Maurice Peress with Ivan Davis on piano as part of a 60th-anniversary reconstruction of the entire 1924 concert.[23] Michael Tilson Thomas (born December 21, 1944), nicknamed MTT, is an American conductor, pianist and composer. ... Ivan Davis (born February 4, 1932 in Electra, Texas) is a jazz and classical pianist. ...


Notable recordings

James Levine (born June 23, 1943 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American orchestral pianist and conductor and most well known as the music director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ... The Chicago Symphony Orchestra, based in Chicago, Illinois, is one of the leading orchestras in the world. ... Oscar Levant (December 27, 1906 - August 14, 1972) was an American pianist, composer, author, comedian, and an actor, better known for his mordant character and witticisms, on the radio and in movies and television, than his music. ... Eugene Ormandy in the 1950s Eugene Ormandy (November 18, 1899 – March 12, 1985) was a conductor and violinist. ... The Philadelphia Orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the Big Five symphony orchestras in the United States and usually considered among the finest in the world. ... Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... The New York Philharmonic is an American orchestra based in New York City. ... CBS is one of the largest radio and television networks in the United States. ... Earl Wild (born November 26, 1915) is an American pianist known especially for his transciptions of classical music and jazz. ... Arthur Fiedler (December 17, 1894 – July 10, 1979) was the long-time conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra, a symphony orchestra that specialized in popular music. ... The Boston Pops Orchestra was founded in 1885 as a subsection of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. ... Michael Tilson Thomas (born December 21, 1944), nicknamed MTT, is an American conductor, pianist and composer. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Gary Graffman (born 14 October 1928) is an American pianist specializing in classical and symphonic works. ... Zubin Mehta (born April 29, 1936) is an Indian conductor of Western classical music. ... The New York Philharmonic is the oldest active symphony orchestra in the United States. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Konigsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Columbia Masterworks Records is a subsidiary of Columbia Records. ... The Los Angeles Philharmonic is an orchestra based in Los Angeles, California, USA. From 1964-2003, the orchestra played its concerts in the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion of the Los Angeles Music Center. ... A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... Garrick Ohlsson (born April 3, 1948 in New York) is an American classical pianist. ... Logo. ... The Philharmonia is an orchestra based in London. ...

Trivia

  • The piece was titled "American Rhapsody" during composition. The title Rhapsody in Blue was suggested by Ira Gershwin after his visit to a gallery exhibition of James McNeill Whistler paintings, which bear titles such as Nocturne in Black and Gold and Arrangement in Gray and Black (better known as Whistler's Mother).[25]
The famous clarinet opening of Rhapsody in Blue.
The famous clarinet opening of Rhapsody in Blue.
  • The opening of Rhapsody in Blue is written as a clarinet trill followed by a legato 17-note rising diatonic scale. During a rehearsal, Whiteman's virtuoso clarinetist, Ross Gorman, rendered the upper portion of the scale as a captivating (and fully trombone-like) glissando: Gershwin heard it and insisted that it be repeated in the performance.[26] An American Heritage columnist called it the "famous opening clarinet glissando... that has become as familiar as the start of Beethoven’s Fifth."[27] The effect is produced by gradually opening the left-hand tone-holes on the clarinet during the passage from the last concert F (or earlier if possible, thus employing the right hand as well) to the top concert B-flat, adjusting the embouchure to smoothly control the continuously rising pitch. This effect has now become standard performance practice for the work.
  • By the end of 1924, Whiteman’s band had played the Rhapsody eighty-four times, and its recording sold a million copies.[27] Whiteman later adopted the piece as his band's theme song, and opened his radio programs with the slogan "Everything new but the Rhapsody in Blue".
  • Rhapsody in Blue is known to many as the background music of the commercials of United Airlines, and has been in use by the company since 1987. The company agreed to pay an annual fee of US$300,000 for the rights to use the piece in its advertisement.[30]
  • Brian Wilson was reportedly heavily influenced by this music, and the SMiLE project can almost be thought as a direct offshoot of the concept, with its use of recurring themes and unmistakably American song structures.[citation needed] During the film "Beautiful Dreamer: Brian Wilson and the Story of SMiLE" Brian Wilson is shown playing the introduction of Rhapsody in Blue on the piano, then directly segueing into the SMiLE song "Heroes and Villains".
  • Desha Delteil and Jean Myrio had a dance interpretation of the piece at the Kit-Cat Club, recorded in a Pathé motion picture review.[citation needed]
  • In 1999, National Public Radio included Rhapsody in Blue in the "NPR 100", in which NPR's music editors sought to compile the one hundred most important American musical works of the 20th century. [32]

Self portrait James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 14, 1834 – July 17, 1903) was an American-born, British-based painter and etcher. ... Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artists Mother, famous under its colloquial name Whistlers Mother, is an 1871 oil-on-canvas painting by James McNeill Whistler. ... Image File history File links Rhapsody_in_Blue_bb1-2. ... Image File history File links Rhapsody_in_Blue_bb1-2. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The trill is a musical ornament consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes of a scale (compare tremolo). ... In musical notation legato indicates that musical notes are played smoothly. ... In music, a scale is a collection of musical notes that provides material for part or all of a musical work. ... A clarinetist (sometimes also spelled clarinettist) is a musician who plays the clarinet. ... Glissando (plural: glissandi) is a musical term that refers to either a continuous sliding from one pitch to another (a true glissando), or an incidental scale played while moving from one melodic note to another (an effective glissando). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1820 portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler Ludwig van Beethoven (IPA: ), (baptized December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a German composer. ... The coversheet to Beethovens 5th Symphony. ... The embouchure is the use of facial muscles and the shaping of the lips to the mouthpiece of a wind instrument. ... New York, NY redirects here. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Konigsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... Manhattan is a 1979 romantic comedy film. ... Alternate meanings: Disney (disambiguation) The Walt Disney Company (also known as Disney Enterprises, Inc. ... Fantasia 2000 is an animated feature produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures. ... A cappella music is vocal music or singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. ... Barbershop harmony is a style of unaccompanied vocal music characterized by consonant four-part chords for every melody note in a predominantly homophonic texture. ... United Airlines, also known as United Air Lines, Inc. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... Brian Douglas Wilson (born June 20, 1942 in Hawthorne, California), is an American pop musician, best known as the lead songwriter, bassist, and lead singer of the American rock band The Beach Boys. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In music, segue is a direction to the performer. ... Desha Delteil (1892-1965) was an American dancer and artists model. ... The Kit-Cat Club (sometimes Kit-Kat Club) was an early 18th century English club in London with strong political and literary associations, committed to the furtherance of Whig objectives. ... Pathé or Pathé Frères is the name of various businesses founded and originally run by the Pathé Brothers of France. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Actor Aldas record release of Italian songs Robert Alda (born Alphonso Giuseppe Giovanni Roberto DAbruzzo on February 26, 1914, died May 3, 1986) was an Italian-American actor. ... Rhapsody in Blue is a 1945 biopic of George Gershwin. ... Music sample: Olympic Fanfare and Theme ( file info) — composed by John Williams for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles Problems listening to the file? See media help. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... “NPR” redirects here. ... The PlayStation 2 , abbreviated PS2) is Sonys second video game console, the successor to the PlayStation and the predecessor to the PlayStation 3. ... Kingdom Hearts video game. ... Nodame Cantabile ) is a manga by Tomoko Ninomiya. ... Fuji Television Network, Inc. ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... Articles with similar titles include copywrite. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... 2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2027 (MMXXVII) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Schiff back cover
  2. ^ a b Schiff p. 53
  3. ^ a b Wood p. 81
  4. ^ Jablonski, Edward (1999) "Glorious George," Cigar Aficionada Jan/Feb 1999 [1]
  5. ^ Greenberg pp. 64-65
  6. ^ Cowen, Ron (1998), "George Gershwin: He Got Rhythm" The Washington Post Online: [2] (Quotation re inspiration on the train)
  7. ^ Howard, Orrin, "Rhapsody in Blue" (program notes for Los Angeles Philarmonic) [3]
  8. ^ Greenberg p. 69
  9. ^ Downes
  10. ^ Schiff pp. 55-61
  11. ^ Greenberg pp. 72-73
  12. ^ Downes
  13. ^ Slonimsky, Nicolas (2000). Lexicon of Musical Invective. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32009-X. Gilman's unfavorable review, "weep over the lifelessness".
  14. ^ a b Greenberg pp. 74-75
  15. ^ a b c Schneider, Wayne, ed. (1999). The Gershwin Style. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509020-9
  16. ^ a b c Schiff, David (1997). Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue. Cambridge University Press.
  17. ^ Greenberg p. 66
  18. ^ Greenberg p. 76
  19. ^ a b Schiff p. 5-6
  20. ^ Gershwin, George; & Grofé, Ferde (1924, 1942). George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue miniature orchestra score. Warner Brothers.
  21. ^ Greenberg pp. 75-76
  22. ^ Schiff p. 64
  23. ^ Schiff pp. 67-68
  24. ^ Greenberg p. 74
  25. ^ Schiff p. 13
  26. ^ Greenberg p. 70
  27. ^ a b Schwarz, Frederick D. (1999). Time Machine: 1924 Seventy-five Years Ago: Gershwin’s Rhapsody. American Heritage 50(1), February/March 1999. Retrieved Feb 17 2007.
  28. ^ Solomon, Charles (1999): Rhapsody in Blue: Fantasia 2000's Jewel in the Crown
  29. ^ Ambiance Quartet website, describes the arrangement as "a virtual vocal orchestration of relentless intensity and chutzpah". Retrieved Feb 16 2007.
  30. ^ Schiff p. 1
  31. ^ Litsky, Frank (1984), "Olympic Games to Open With Hollywood Hoopla", The New York Times, July 28, 1984, p. 1: "The cast for the ceremonies includes 84 pianists playing George Gershwin's 'Rhapsody in Blue.'" "Pianos From Olympics Enter Collectible Game," The New York Times, August 25, 1984, p. 42: "After the Games ended, medallions reading 'Kimball, Supplier to the 1984 Games' were affixed to each of the pianos. The instruments were built by Kimball Pianos in French Lick, Ind. Then the 5-foot-2-inch and 5-foot-8-inch ebony grands were cleaned and shipped to stores... Six technicians tuned all 84 pianos to concert pitch on July 27, the day before the opening ceremony of the Olympics. The next day, 84 pianists rose on platforms in the peristyle end of the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum playing 'Rhapsody in Blue.'"
  32. ^ National Public Radio. (1999). The NPR 100: The 100 most important American musical works of the 20th century. Retrieved Feb 16 2007.
  33. ^ (Japanese) Fuji Television. (2006). Classical music used in Nodame Cantabile drama. Retrieved Apr 18 2007.
  34. ^ (Japanese) Fuji Television. (2007). Nodame Cantabile anime official site. Retrieved Apr 18 2007.

References

  • Downes, Olin (1924). "A Concert of Jazz". The New York Times, February 13, 1924: p. 16.
  • Greenberg, Rodney (1998). George Gershwin. Phaidon Press. ISBN 0-7148-3504-8.
  • Schiff, David (1997). Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55077-7.
  • Wood, Ean (1996). George Gershwin: His Life and Music. Sanctuary Publishing. ISBN 1-86074-174-6.

External links

  • Rhapsody in Blue with orchestra performed by Richard Alston on YouTube
  • Solo piano version of Rhapsody in Blue performed by Richard Glazier on YouTube
  • 5 part piano quintet version of "Rhapsody in Blue" performed by The Five Browns on YouTube
  • Part 1 of the original acoustic recording of "Rhapsody in Blue" performed by George Gershwin and Paul Whiteman, in 1924 on Internet Archive
  • Part 2 of the original acoustic recording of "Rhapsody in Blue" performed by George Gershwin and Paul Whiteman, in 1924 on Internet Archive

YouTube is a popular free video sharing website which lets users upload, view, and share video clips. ... YouTube is a popular free video sharing website which lets users upload, view, and share video clips. ... YouTube is a popular free video sharing website which lets users upload, view, and share video clips. ... The logo of Internet Archive Internet Archive headquarters The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line library and archive of Web and multimedia resources. ... The logo of Internet Archive Internet Archive headquarters The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line library and archive of Web and multimedia resources. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rhapsody in Blue: Information from Answers.com (2251 words)
Rhapsody in Blue is a musical composition by George Gershwin for solo piano and orchestra or band written in 1924 which combines elements of classical music with jazz-influenced effects.
Rhapsody in Blue premièred in an afternoon concert on 12 February 1924 held by Paul Whiteman and his band Palais Royal Orchestra entitled An Experiment in Modern Music, which took place in Aeolian Hall in New York City.
The title Rhapsody in Blue was suggested by Ira Gershwin after his visit to a gallery exhibition of James McNeill Whistler paintings, which bear titles such as Nocturne in Black and Gold and Arrangement in Gray and Black (better known as Whistler's Mother).
Rhapsody in Blue - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3007 words)
Rhapsody in Blue is a musical composition by George Gershwin for solo piano and jazz band written in 1924 which combines elements of classical music with jazz-influenced effects.
The Rhapsody is not a composition at all.
The copyright on Rhapsody in Blue expires in 2007 in the European Union and between 2019 and 2027 in the United States of America.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

Jim
14th June 2010
The information provided is highly concise and has provided me with a greater understanding of Gershwin's famous Rhapsody in Blue. OOH-OOH
There are 1 more (non-authoritative) comments on this page

Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m