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Encyclopedia > Rhamnus californica
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Rhamnus californica
R. c. ssp. californica
R. c. ssp. californica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rhamnaceae
Genus: Rhamnus
Species: R. californica
Binomial name
Rhamnus californica
Eschsch.

The California Buckthorn (Rhamnus californica, syn. Frangula californica (Eschsch.) A.Gray) is also called Coffeeberry because its berries contain seeds which look like coffee beans. It is a fairly common plant native to California and southwestern Oregon. For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae Moraceae (mulberry family) Rosaceae (rose family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) For the Philippine municipality, see Rosales, Pangasinan. ... Genera See text Rhamnaceae, the Buckthorn family, is a large family of flowering plants, mostly trees, shrubs and some vines. ... Species See text The Buckthorns Rhamnus are a genus (or two genera, if Frangula is treated as distinct) of about 100 species of shrubs or small trees from 1-10 m tall (rarely to 15 m), in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Johann Friedrich Eschscholtz (1 November 1793 - 19 May 1831) was an Estonian physician, botanist, zoologist and entomologist. ... In scientific classification, synonymy is the existence of multiple systematic names to label the same organism. ... Species Coffea arabica - Arabica Coffee Coffea benghalensis - Bengal coffee Coffea canephora - Robusta coffee Coffea congensis - Congo coffee Coffea excelsa - Liberian coffee Coffea gallienii Coffea bonnieri Coffea mogeneti Coffea liberica - Liberian coffee Coffea stenophylla - Sierra Leonian coffee Coffea (coffee) is a genus of ten species of flowering plants in the family... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ...


It is an evergreen shrub growing to 2-5 m tall, with dark red branches. The leaves are 2-8 cm long, dark, dull green, and curl under at the edges. The flowers are small and greenish-white with five petals; they are produced in clusters of 5-60 together. The fruit is a berry 10-15 mm diameter, which turns red, then purple and finally black over the summer. A Silver Fir shoot showing three successive years of retained leaves In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant which retains its leaves year-round, with each leaf persisting for more than 12 months. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... The leaves of a Beech tree A leaf with laminar structure and pinnate venation In botany, a leaf is an above-ground plant organ specialized for photosynthesis. ... A Phalaenopsis flower A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... Several types of berries from the market. ...


Coffeeberry plants that grow in windy or exposed areas usually do not exceed a meter or two in height or width, but individuals growing in inland areas or sheltered canyons can spread to 8 m wide. The plant is found in shrubby coastal chaparral areas, foothill slopes, and oak woodlands in most regions in California west of the Sierra Nevada, and grows at altitudes of up to 2300 m. Chaparral is a shrubland plant community found primarily in California, USA, that is shaped by a Mediterranean climate (mild, wet winters and hot dry summers) and wildfire. ...


There are two subspecies: In zoology, as in other branches of biology, subspecies is the rank immediately subordinate to a species. ...

  • Rhamnus californica subsp. californica - widespread in western California. Fruit with two seeds; twigs red; leaves with conspicuous veins.
  • Rhamnus californica subsp. occidentalis - northern California and southwest Oregon, on serpentine soils. Fruit with three seeds; twigs brown; leaves with inconspicuous veins.

Coffeeberry is susceptible to the mold which causes sudden oak death. Serpentine Serpentine is a group of common rock-forming hydrous magnesium iron phyllosilicate ((Mg, Fe)3Si2O5(OH)4) minerals; it is also often rich in other metal ores, including chromium, manganese, cobalt and nickel. ... Binomial name Phytophthora ramorum Werres et al. ...


Uses

Some local native tribes used coffeeberry as an herbal laxative, but only in small quantities since the laxative effects of the plant, as with several other Rhamnus species are quite powerful and even dangerous. A laxative is a preparation used for encouraging defecation, or the expulsion of feces. ...


External links

  • Jepson Flora Project Rhamnus californica, Rhamnus californica subsp. californica, Rhamnus californica subsp. occidentalis

 
 

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